Pharmacology Kendi Lyles, Verna Meadows, Janet Olbert, Brooke Robinson and Olethea Tennyson July 18, 2009. Opioid and Nonopioid Analgesics. Actions and uses of medication. Natural Morphine Codeine Thebaine Video http://youtube.com/watch?v=9nQQzH4rH7o. oPIOID CATEGORIES.
Kendi Lyles, Verna Meadows, Janet Olbert, Brooke Robinson and Olethea Tennyson
July 18, 2009
Opioid and Nonopioid Analgesics
There are several different types of nonopioids they include acetaminophen, NSAIDS which are aspirin, Motrin and Advil and also naproxen. They are less potent than opioids.
They are used to treat mild to moderate pain.
Nonopioids are usually purchased over-the-counter, but (Cox-2 inhibitors require a prescription.
Nonopioids are effective for the dull, throbbing pain of headaches,dysmenorrhea which is menstrual pain, inflammation, minor abrasion, muscular aches and pain, and mild to moderate arthritis. Most analgesics also have an antipyretic effect and will lower an elevated body temperature. Some, such as aspirin, have anti-inflammatory and antiplaelet effects as well.
All nonsterioial anti-inflammatory drugs have an analgesic effect as well as an antipyretic and anti-inflammatory action. Some examples of NSAIDS are aspirin, ibuprofen which include (Motrin IB, nuprin, Advil, medipren) and naproxen(aleve) all of them can be purchased as OTC drugs.
Naproxen Oral Suspension is indicated:
For the relief of the signs and symptoms of rheumatoid arthritis
For the relief of the signs and symptoms of osteoarthritis
For the relief of the signs and symptoms of ankylosing spondylitis
For the relief of the signs and symptoms of juvenile arthritis
Naproxen Oral Suspension is recommended for juvenile rheumatoid arthritis in order to obtain the maximum dosage flexibility based on the patient’s weight.
Naproxen Oral Suspension is also indicated:
For relief of the signs and symptoms of tendonitis
For relief of the signs and symptoms of bursitis
For relief of the signs and symptoms of acute gout
For the management of pain
For the management of primary dysmenorrhea http://www.drugs.com/pro/naproxen.html
Indicated for relief of the signs and symptoms of rheumatoid arthritis and osteoarthritis.
Indicated for relief of mild to moderate pain.
Indicated for the treatment of primary dysmenorrhea.
In patients with primary dysmenorrhea, Ibuprofen tablets have been shown to reduce elevated levels of prostaglandin activity in the menstrual fluid and to reduce resting and active intrauterine pressure, as well as the frequency of uterine contractions. The probable mechanism of action is to inhibit prostaglandin synthesis rather than simply to provide analgesia.
The analgesic acetaminophen is a popular nonprescription drug for the relief of pain, discomfort, and fever in infants, children, adults, and older adults.
Acetaminophen, unlike aspirin, does not have an anti-inflammatory process.
Acetaminophen is well absorbed fro the gastrointestinal tract.
Rectal absorption may be erratic because of the presence of fecal material or a decrease in blood flow to the colon.
Because of its short half-life it cam be administered every four hours as needed with a maximum dose of 4g a day.
Acetaminophen weakly inhibits prostaglandin synthesis, which decrease pain sensation.
It is effective in eliminating mild to moderate pain and headaches and is useful for its antipyretic effect.
It does not possess anti-inflammatory action. Its onset of action is rapid, and the duration of action is 5 hours or less.
Some examples of products that have acetaminophen in it are Acephen, Actamin, Feverall, Q-Pap, Tactinal, Tempra, Tylenol, Uniserts, Vitapap.
Over use or abuse of nonopioid analgesics can also cause kidney and/or liver damage which can ultimately result in organ failure.
Nurses must increase their knowledge about pain, take every client’s pain seriously, and implement measures for treating pain effectively. Whenever a client’s pain is not controlled to his or her satisfaction, the nurse pursues better goal achievement by collaborating with pain experts.
While liver enzymes should be monitored, nurses should be prepared to do more client teaching with nonopioid analgesics
Clients should be taught to not take acetaminophen for more than 10 days in adults or 5 days with children to prevent liver damage.
Kee, Hayes and McCuistion (2009), Pharmacology, A Nursing Process, 6th Edition, Saunders Elsvier