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Periodic Trends. Periodic Trends Overview. For each of the four trends (atomic radius, ionization energy, reactivity, electronegativity) You need to know: Definitions of each trend Pattern of the trend (where on the periodic table is this trend the highest? The lowest?)

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Periodic Trends

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Periodic trends overview
Periodic TrendsOverview

For each of the four trends (atomic radius, ionization energy, reactivity, electronegativity)

You need to know:

  • Definitions of each trend

  • Pattern of the trend (where on the periodic table is this trend the highest? The lowest?)

  • Compare elements using trends (of these two elements, which has the larger… etc.)


Atomic radius
Atomic Radius

Atomic Radius: The size of the atom


Atomic radius1
Atomic Radius

  • As we move across (left to right) the periodic table, atomic radius decreases

  • Atom starts out the same size but increase the number of protons and electrons

  • With more protons and electrons they attract and pull together more, making the atom smaller


Atomic radius2
Atomic Radius

  • As we move down the periodic table, atomic radius increases

  • Each time we move down a row the atom grows one energy level


Atomic radius3
Atomic Radius

Atom with smallest Atomic Radius:

Helium

Atom with largest Atomic Radius: Francium


Atomic radius practice
Atomic Radius Practice

Which element has a bigger atomic radius:

Magnesium or Sulfur?

Fluorine or Iodine?


Ionization energy
Ionization Energy

Ionization Energy: The amount of energy required to lose one electron


Ionization energy1
Ionization Energy

  • As we move across (left to right) the periodic table, ionization energy increases

  • As you move across the periodic table the number of valence electrons increases

  • As the number of valence electrons gets closer to 8, the harder it is to remove an electron


Ionization energy2
Ionization Energy

  • As we move down the periodic table, ionization energy decreases

  • Each time we move down a row the atom gets bigger, creating more space between the protons and electrons

  • With more space between the protons and electrons it is easier to remove an electron


Ionization energy3
Ionization Energy

Atom with smallest Ionization Energy: Francium

Atom with largest Ionization Energy: Helium


Ionization energy practice
Ionization Energy Practice

Which element has a bigger ionization energy:

Magnesium or Sulfur?

Fluorine or Iodine?


Periodic trends overview1
Periodic TrendsOverview

For each of the four trends (atomic radius, ionization energy, reactivity, electronegativity)

You need to know:

  • Definitions of each trend

  • Pattern of the trend (where on the periodic table is this trend the highest? The lowest?)

  • Compare elements using trends (of these two elements, which has the larger… etc.)


Reactivity
Reactivity

Reactivity: How likely it is that the element will undergo a chemical reaction


Reactivity1
Reactivity

  • As we move across (left to right) the periodic table, reactivity decreases, then increases

  • As you move across the periodic table the number of valence electrons increases, making it less reactive, then more reactive

  • The last column is not reactive at all


Reactivity2
Reactivity

  • As we move down the periodic table, reactivity generally increases

  • Each time we move down a row the atom gets bigger, creating more space between the protons and electrons

  • With more space between the protons and electrons it is easier to gain or lose electrons, undergoing reactions


Reactivity practice
Reactivity Practice

Which element has more reactivity:

Sodium or Titanium?

Fluorine or Iodine?


Electronegativity
Electronegativity

Electronegativity: The ability for an atom to gain an electron


Electronegativity1
Electronegativity

  • As we move across (left to right) the periodic table, electronegativity increases

  • As you move across the periodic table the number of valence electrons increases

  • As the number of valence electrons gets closer to 8, the easier it is to gain an electron


Electronegativity2
Electronegativity

  • As we move down the periodic table, electronegativitydecreases

  • Each time we move down a row the atom gets bigger, creating more space between the protons and electrons

  • With more space between the protons and electrons it harder for an electron to become attracted to the protons


Electronegativity3
Electronegativity

Atom with smallest Electronegativity: Francium

Atom with largest Electronegativity: Fluorine


Electronegativity practice
Electronegativity Practice

Which element has more electronegativity:

Magnesium or Sulfur?

Fluorine or Iodine?


Notice
Notice…

Ionization Energy and Electronegativity have the same trends…

Atoms that need more energy to remove an electron are also more likely to gain an electron

Big Ionization Energy = Big Electronegativity


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