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Organic Chemistry. 1 2 3 4 bonds. Topic 10.1.1 – 10.1.8. H O N C. What is organic chemistry?. study of carbon, the compounds it makes, and the reactions it undergoes over 16 million carbon-containing compounds are known

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Organic chemistry

Organic Chemistry

1234 bonds

Topic 10.1.1 – 10.1.8

HONC


What is organic chemistry
What is organic chemistry?

  • study of carbon, the compounds it makes, and the reactions it undergoes

  • over 16 million carbon-containing compounds are known

  • because the C-C single bond (348 kJ mol-1) and the C-H bond (412 kJ mol-1) are strong, carbon compounds are stable

  • carbon can form chains and rings


Homologous series compounds 10 1 1
Homologous series/compounds (10.1.1)

  • related compounds that have the same functional group (groups of atoms found within molecules that are involved in the chemical reactions characteristic of those molecules)



  • have similar chemical properties

  • have physical properties that vary in a regular manner as the number of carbon atoms present increases

    • Example: the alkanes


Trends in boiling points of members of a homologous series 10 1 2
Trends in boiling points of members of a homologous series (10.1.2)

  • melting point and boiling point increase with more carbon atoms

  • Why?

    • intermolecular forces increase

    • adding a CH2 adds more electrons

      • this increases the Van der Waal’s forces



  • empirical formula

    • simplest ratio of atoms in a molecule

  • molecular formula

    • actual numbers of atoms in a molecule


structural formula

  • unambiguously shows how the atoms are bonded together

  • can use condensedstructural formulas

    • bonds are omitted, repeated groups put together, side chains put in brackets

      • CH3CH2CH2CH2CH2CH3

        • or even CH3(CH2)4CH3

      • CH3CH(CH3)CH3(this is not the molecule above)



skeletal formula

  • not accepted in the IB for answers but often used

  • every “corner” represents a carbon

  • hydrogens are implied


Isomers 10 1 4
Isomers (10.1.4)

  • (structural) isomers: compounds with the same molecular formula but different structure (arrangement of atoms)


  • different isomers are completely different compounds

  • have different physical properties such as melting point and boiling point



Structural formulas for the isomers of non cyclic alkanes up to c 6 10 1 5
Structural formulas for the isomers of non-cyclic alkanesup to C6(10.1.5)

Alkanes

  • hydrocarbon chains where all the bonds between carbons are SINGLE bonds

  • CnH2n+2

  • draw out and write the structural formulas for all isomers that can be formed by:

    • CH4

    • C2H6

    • C3H8

    • C4H10

    • C5H12

    • C6H14

Richard Thornley 10.1.5

2:54


Naming the isomers iupac of non cyclic alkanes up to c 6 10 1 6

  • Monkeys

  • Eat

  • Peeled

  • Bananas

Naming the isomers (IUPAC) of non-cyclic alkanes up to C6(10.1.6)

  • Richard Thornley 3:35

  • Determine the longest carbon chain

    • Use the prefix to denote the number carbons


  • use the suffix “-ane” to indicate that the substance is an alkane

  • number the carbons in the chain consecutively, starting at the end closest to a substituent (groups attached to the main chain/most busy end)


  • name and number the location of each substituent

    • the name of the substituent will be written before the main chain and will end with “–yl” (or just memorize the below)

      • CH3 is methyl

      • C2H5 is ethyl

      • C3H7 is propyl

        And with 2 or more side chains:

  • use prefixes di-, tri-, tetra-, to indicate when there are multiple side chains of the same type

  • use commas to separate numbers and hyphens to separate numbers or letters.

  • name the side chains in alphabetical order


  • How about C5H12? The isomers are:

    Pentane 2-methyl-butane dimethyl-propane


Structural formulas for the isomers of the straight chain alk enes up to c 6 10 1 7

Alkenes

Structural formulas for the isomers of the straight chain alkenesup to C6(10.1.7)

  • alkenes have a double bond between two or more of the carbons

  • CnH2n

  • draw out and write the structural formulas for all isomers that can be formed by each

    • C2H4

    • C3H6

    • C4H8

    • C5H10

    • C6H12

Richard Thornley 10.1.7 (1:37)


Nomenclature practice
Nomenclature Practice

Name this compound

Step #1: For a branched hydrocarbon, the longest continuous chain of carbon atoms gives the root name for the hydrocarbon

1

9 carbons = nonane

2

4

3

5

6

7

8

9


Nomenclature practice1
Nomenclature Practice

Name this compound

9 carbons = nonane

1

2

4

3

5

6

CH3 = methyl

7

chlorine = chloro

8

9

Step #2: When alkane groups appear as substituents, they are named by dropping the -ane and adding -yl.


Nomenclature practice2
Nomenclature Practice

Name this compound

Step #3: The positions of substituent groups are specified by numbering the longest chain of carbon atoms sequentially, starting at the end closest to the branching.

9 carbons = nonane

1

2

4

3

5

6

CH3 = methyl

7

chlorine = chloro

8

9

1

9

NOT

9

1


Nomenclature practice3
Nomenclature Practice

Name this compound

Step #4: The location and name of each substituent are followed by the root alkane name. The substituents are listed in alphabetical order (irrespective of any prefix), and the prefixes di-, tri-, etc. are used to indicate multiple identical substituents.

9 carbons = nonane

1

2

4

3

5

6

CH3 = methyl

7

chlorine = chloro

8

9

2-chloro-3,6-dimethylnonane


Naming the isomers (IUPAC) of straight chain alkenes up to C6(10.1.8)

  • suffix changes to “-ene”

  • when there are 4 or more carbon atoms in a chain, the location of the double bond is indicated by a number

  • begin counting the carbons closest to the end with the C=C bond

    • numbering the location of the double bond(s) takes precedence over the location of any substituents

1-butene 2-butene

but-1-ene but-2-ene


Naming practice
Naming Practice!!!

choose the correct ending

ene






ethyl

methyl

methyl

determine name for side chains

1-hexene

1-hexene


ethyl

methyl

methyl

attach name of branches alphabetically

2-ethyl-4-methyl-4-methyl-1-hexene

1-hexene


ethyl

methyl

methyl

group similar branches

2-ethyl-4-methyl-4-methyl-1-hexene

1-hexene


ethyl

methyl

methyl

group similar branches

2-ethyl-4,4-dimethyl-1-hexene

or 2-ethyl-4,4-dimethy hex-1-ene


propene

2,4-dimethyl-2-pentene

2,4-dimethyl pent-2-tene

2-butene


a) 3,3-dimethyl-1-pentene

b) same

C

H

3

C

H

C

C

C

H

C

H

C

H

3

3

C

H

3

c) 4,5 dimethyl-2-hexene


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