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World War I. Causes of World War I. Nationalism A devotion to the interests and culture one’s nation. Imperialism Strong countries extending economic and political control over smaller countries Militarism Development of armed forces and their use as a tool of diplomacy.

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Causes of world war i
Causes of World War I

  • Nationalism

    • A devotion to the interests and culture one’s nation.

  • Imperialism

    • Strong countries extending economic and political control over smaller countries

  • Militarism

    • Development of armed forces and their use as a tool of diplomacy.

  • You-tube Clips: Imperialism and Nationalism



The collapse
The Collapse

  • The Triple Entente

    • Great Britain, France, and Russia

  • The Triple Alliance

    • Germany, Austro-Hungarian Empire, and Italy.

  • Rivalry:

    • Between Germany and Great Britain.

      • Germany striving to become world power.

      • Britain- already was one.

  • Not the immediate cause of war.

  • Conflict involving nationalists movements within the Austro-Hungarian Empire.


June 28 1914
June 28, 1914

  • Archduke Franz Ferdinand

  • Assassinated while visiting Bosnia

  • Bosnia was a province of Slavic Nationalists

    • They wished to annex to neighboring Serbia.

  • The assassin of Archduke was a Serbian Nationalists.

  • Germany, Austria-Hungary launched an assault on Serbia.

  • Serbia calls Russia to help.

  • August 3- Germany declared war on both Russia and France.

    • Did invade Belgium

  • August 4- Great Britain declared war on Germany.

  • SHOW YOU-TUBE CLIP OF ASSASSINATION


Italy
Italy

  • They remain neutral

    • Later will emerge on the side of British and French.

  • Ottoman Empire

    • Other smaller nations all joined the fighting later in 1914 or1915

  • Virtually every European continent and part of Asia were embroiled in a major war.


Wilson s neutrality
Wilson’s Neutrality

  • Called on his citizens to remain impartial.

  • Many Americans wanted to side with Great Britain.

  • Economic Realities

    • U.S to deal with others on equal terms.

    • Britain imposed naval blockade on Germany.

      • To prevent munitions and supplies from reaching the enemy.


Wilson s neutrality1
Wilson’s Neutrality

  • U.S

    • Received huge war orders

      • One from Britain and France to produce economic boom.

      • 1915

        • Went from neutral power into the arsenal of the Allies.

    • Early 1915

      • Germany used submarine to disrupt flow of supplies to England.

    • May 7, 1915

      • Lusitania- British submarine.

      • Germany sunk it without warning.

        • Killed 1,198- 128 American

        • Ship was carrying passengers and munitions.

    • An act of piracy against Americans

    • Told Germany to stop sinking nonmilitary ships.

    • 1916- U.S began arming merchant ships.

    • Germany vowed to sink them.


Moving towards war
Moving Towards War

  • Wilson

    • Wanting to remain Neutral!

    • Tensions with U.S and Germany rose

      • Wilson began to change his mind.

  • 1915

    • Wilson approved a proposal by military leaders.

      • Rapidly increase the nations armed forces.

    • Got the President gig for his slogan:

      • “He kept us out of war”

      • Hughes would lead them to war.

    • Wilson won the election by only 23 electoral votes.


U s enters the war
U.S Enters the War

  • Being Re-elected Wilson gave a speech.

    • Congress

      • Outline a plan for constructing a new world order after the war in which the U.S would help maintain peace throughout a permanent league of nations.

      • Feb 25, 1917

      • Britain gave Wilson a telegram

  • Intercepted from the German foreign minister

  • Arthur Zimmerman

    • To the government of Mexico


Proposed event
Proposed Event

  • With a war between U.S and Germany

    • Mexico would join with Germany against Americans.

  • Return:

    • Mexico would regain their lost provinces


American goes to war
American Goes to War!!!

  • Shortly after this:

    • Zimmerman notes flamed public opinion.

    • Brought popular sentiment for war.

  • Germany sank three ships:

    • Wilson asked congress to declare war

    • April 2, 1917

  • War was declared on April 6, 1917.


Bolshevik revolution
Bolshevik Revolution

  • Britain and France had a few remaining reserves.

  • By 1918

    • Russia had withdrawn from the war altogether

  • Bolshevik Revolution

    • Watch YOU-TUBE CLIPS of the murder of the Romanov Family.

  • After the Bolshevik Revolution

    • New Government led by Vladimir Lenin.

    • He led a hasty and costly peace with the Central Powers.

    • This freed German Troops to fight only on the Western Front.


The american expeditionary force
The American Expeditionary Force

  • 1917

    • There were only about 12,000 soldiers in the army

    • 80,000 in the National Guard.

    • Neither had combat experience

    • Few Commanders had small experience as well.

  • Selective Service Act

    • Brought 3 million men into the army.

    • Another 2 million joined various branches of the armed services.

  • Together they formed the American expeditionary force.


The military struggle
The Military Struggle

  • 1918

    • Troops were under the command of John J. Pershing.

  • Joined the forces of the Allies

    • Began turning back a series of new German assaults.

  • July 18

    • Allies halted German advance.

    • German military leaders began to seek an armistice.

    • Pershing

      • Wanted to drive on into Germany.

      • Allied leaders accepted the German proposal

  • November 11, 1918

    • THE WAR WAS OVER!!!


Wilson s 14 points
Wilson’s 14 Points

  • Early 1918

    • Wilson developed a plan to help to govern international conduct in the future.

  • 14 Points to outline his plan:

    • 1. Freedom on the seas

    • 2. Open covenants instead of secret treaties.

    • 3. Reductions in armaments

    • 4. Free Trade

    • 5. Impartial mediation of colonial claims

    • 6. League of Nations

  • Wilson hoped Europe would adopt this plan.

  • Wilson’s tone: Superiority

    • Resented him


Wilson s 14 points1
Wilson’s 14 Points

  • They were also offended by his insistence on keeping American military forces separate from the Allied armies they were joining.

  • Biggest Reason:

  • France and Britain did not want to be generous to Germany.

  • They wanted them to be punished and for their countries to receive compensation for their losses.


The paris peace conference
The Paris Peace Conference

  • Principal figures in the negotiations were the Allied nations:

    • Great Britain: Lloyd George

    • France: Clemenceau

    • Italy: Orlando

    • U.S.A: Wilson

  • These were known as the BIG FOUR!

  • Wilson unable to win approval of many of the 14 points.

  • BRITAIN, FRANCE, AND ITALY

    • All demanded reparations from Germany

    • Sum of 56 Billion

    • Far more than what they could afford.

  • Wilson- One important victory

    • Jan 25, 1919- allies voted to accept the League of Nations.


The ratification battle
The Ratification Battle

  • American’s

    • Used to the nation’s isolationism from Europe.

    • Questioned new commitment to internationalism.


Treaty of versailles
Treaty of Versailles

  • Wilson presented this plan to the Senate

    • July 10, 1919

    • Wilson insisted that Congress accept the treaty without making changes to it.

    • Senate raised objections

    • One slowly read the 300 page document.

    • Held six weeks of public hearings to hear complaints.

  • Congress would not budge

    • Wilson went to the public

    • Embarked on the Cross-Country Speaking tour.

    • 3 weeks- he traveled 8,000 miles by train.

    • Spoke 4 times a day.

  • September 25- Pueblo, Colorado

    • Collapsed

    • Rushed back to D.C.

    • Suffered a major stroke


Wilson recovery
Wilson Recovery

  • Wife of President Wilson

    • Doctor and Wife formed a barrier around him

    • Shielded him from any official pressures.

    • Prevented the public from receiving any information of his condition.

  • Wilson recovered enough to resume a limited schedule.

  • He was invalid for the remaining months of his presidency.


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