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World War I. Causes of World War I. Nationalism A devotion to the interests and culture one’s nation. Imperialism Strong countries extending economic and political control over smaller countries Militarism Development of armed forces and their use as a tool of diplomacy.

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causes of world war i
Causes of World War I
  • Nationalism
    • A devotion to the interests and culture one’s nation.
  • Imperialism
    • Strong countries extending economic and political control over smaller countries
  • Militarism
    • Development of armed forces and their use as a tool of diplomacy.
  • You-tube Clips: Imperialism and Nationalism
the collapse
The Collapse
  • The Triple Entente
    • Great Britain, France, and Russia
  • The Triple Alliance
    • Germany, Austro-Hungarian Empire, and Italy.
  • Rivalry:
    • Between Germany and Great Britain.
      • Germany striving to become world power.
      • Britain- already was one.
  • Not the immediate cause of war.
  • Conflict involving nationalists movements within the Austro-Hungarian Empire.
june 28 1914
June 28, 1914
  • Archduke Franz Ferdinand
  • Assassinated while visiting Bosnia
  • Bosnia was a province of Slavic Nationalists
    • They wished to annex to neighboring Serbia.
  • The assassin of Archduke was a Serbian Nationalists.
  • Germany, Austria-Hungary launched an assault on Serbia.
  • Serbia calls Russia to help.
  • August 3- Germany declared war on both Russia and France.
    • Did invade Belgium
  • August 4- Great Britain declared war on Germany.
  • They remain neutral
    • Later will emerge on the side of British and French.
  • Ottoman Empire
    • Other smaller nations all joined the fighting later in 1914 or1915
  • Virtually every European continent and part of Asia were embroiled in a major war.
wilson s neutrality
Wilson’s Neutrality
  • Called on his citizens to remain impartial.
  • Many Americans wanted to side with Great Britain.
  • Economic Realities
    • U.S to deal with others on equal terms.
    • Britain imposed naval blockade on Germany.
      • To prevent munitions and supplies from reaching the enemy.
wilson s neutrality1
Wilson’s Neutrality
  • U.S
    • Received huge war orders
      • One from Britain and France to produce economic boom.
      • 1915
        • Went from neutral power into the arsenal of the Allies.
    • Early 1915
      • Germany used submarine to disrupt flow of supplies to England.
    • May 7, 1915
      • Lusitania- British submarine.
      • Germany sunk it without warning.
        • Killed 1,198- 128 American
        • Ship was carrying passengers and munitions.
    • An act of piracy against Americans
    • Told Germany to stop sinking nonmilitary ships.
    • 1916- U.S began arming merchant ships.
    • Germany vowed to sink them.
moving towards war
Moving Towards War
  • Wilson
    • Wanting to remain Neutral!
    • Tensions with U.S and Germany rose
      • Wilson began to change his mind.
  • 1915
    • Wilson approved a proposal by military leaders.
      • Rapidly increase the nations armed forces.
    • Got the President gig for his slogan:
      • “He kept us out of war”
      • Hughes would lead them to war.
    • Wilson won the election by only 23 electoral votes.
u s enters the war
U.S Enters the War
  • Being Re-elected Wilson gave a speech.
    • Congress
      • Outline a plan for constructing a new world order after the war in which the U.S would help maintain peace throughout a permanent league of nations.
      • Feb 25, 1917
      • Britain gave Wilson a telegram
  • Intercepted from the German foreign minister
  • Arthur Zimmerman
    • To the government of Mexico
proposed event
Proposed Event
  • With a war between U.S and Germany
    • Mexico would join with Germany against Americans.
  • Return:
    • Mexico would regain their lost provinces
american goes to war
American Goes to War!!!
  • Shortly after this:
    • Zimmerman notes flamed public opinion.
    • Brought popular sentiment for war.
  • Germany sank three ships:
    • Wilson asked congress to declare war
    • April 2, 1917
  • War was declared on April 6, 1917.
bolshevik revolution
Bolshevik Revolution
  • Britain and France had a few remaining reserves.
  • By 1918
    • Russia had withdrawn from the war altogether
  • Bolshevik Revolution
    • Watch YOU-TUBE CLIPS of the murder of the Romanov Family.
  • After the Bolshevik Revolution
    • New Government led by Vladimir Lenin.
    • He led a hasty and costly peace with the Central Powers.
    • This freed German Troops to fight only on the Western Front.
the american expeditionary force
The American Expeditionary Force
  • 1917
    • There were only about 12,000 soldiers in the army
    • 80,000 in the National Guard.
    • Neither had combat experience
    • Few Commanders had small experience as well.
  • Selective Service Act
    • Brought 3 million men into the army.
    • Another 2 million joined various branches of the armed services.
  • Together they formed the American expeditionary force.
the military struggle
The Military Struggle
  • 1918
    • Troops were under the command of John J. Pershing.
  • Joined the forces of the Allies
    • Began turning back a series of new German assaults.
  • July 18
    • Allies halted German advance.
    • German military leaders began to seek an armistice.
    • Pershing
      • Wanted to drive on into Germany.
      • Allied leaders accepted the German proposal
  • November 11, 1918
wilson s 14 points
Wilson’s 14 Points
  • Early 1918
    • Wilson developed a plan to help to govern international conduct in the future.
  • 14 Points to outline his plan:
    • 1. Freedom on the seas
    • 2. Open covenants instead of secret treaties.
    • 3. Reductions in armaments
    • 4. Free Trade
    • 5. Impartial mediation of colonial claims
    • 6. League of Nations
  • Wilson hoped Europe would adopt this plan.
  • Wilson’s tone: Superiority
    • Resented him
wilson s 14 points1
Wilson’s 14 Points
  • They were also offended by his insistence on keeping American military forces separate from the Allied armies they were joining.
  • Biggest Reason:
  • France and Britain did not want to be generous to Germany.
  • They wanted them to be punished and for their countries to receive compensation for their losses.
the paris peace conference
The Paris Peace Conference
  • Principal figures in the negotiations were the Allied nations:
    • Great Britain: Lloyd George
    • France: Clemenceau
    • Italy: Orlando
    • U.S.A: Wilson
  • These were known as the BIG FOUR!
  • Wilson unable to win approval of many of the 14 points.
    • All demanded reparations from Germany
    • Sum of 56 Billion
    • Far more than what they could afford.
  • Wilson- One important victory
    • Jan 25, 1919- allies voted to accept the League of Nations.
the ratification battle
The Ratification Battle
  • American’s
    • Used to the nation’s isolationism from Europe.
    • Questioned new commitment to internationalism.
treaty of versailles
Treaty of Versailles
  • Wilson presented this plan to the Senate
    • July 10, 1919
    • Wilson insisted that Congress accept the treaty without making changes to it.
    • Senate raised objections
    • One slowly read the 300 page document.
    • Held six weeks of public hearings to hear complaints.
  • Congress would not budge
    • Wilson went to the public
    • Embarked on the Cross-Country Speaking tour.
    • 3 weeks- he traveled 8,000 miles by train.
    • Spoke 4 times a day.
  • September 25- Pueblo, Colorado
    • Collapsed
    • Rushed back to D.C.
    • Suffered a major stroke
wilson recovery
Wilson Recovery
  • Wife of President Wilson
    • Doctor and Wife formed a barrier around him
    • Shielded him from any official pressures.
    • Prevented the public from receiving any information of his condition.
  • Wilson recovered enough to resume a limited schedule.
  • He was invalid for the remaining months of his presidency.