Unit 4 Review . By:Samantha,Hannah,Derek,and Kaushik. Interconnection and Proto-Globalization. Exploration. -1492-Columbus reaches the Americas ( Spanish ) -1498-Vasco de Gama reaches India ( Portuguese ) -By 1514, Portuguese reached islands of Indonesia
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-1492-Columbus reaches the Americas (Spanish)
-1498-Vasco de Gama reaches India (Portuguese)
-By 1514, Portuguesereached islands of Indonesia
-In 1519, Ferdinand Magellan initiated first circumnavigation of the globe (Spanish), Spain gained control of Philippines on this trip
-In 1542, Portuguese reached Japan
-Portuguese gained coastal holdings in parts of Africa and in the Indian port of Goa, and Brazil
-Spanish gained Philippines, various Pacific islands, and most of Americas
-1534, French crossed Atlantic, claiming Canada, went down into Great Lakes region and the Mississippi Valley
-1497, British reached North America, colonized east coast of N. America
-Early 1600s, Dutch ousted Portuguese from Indonesian islands, established settlement on southern tip of South Africa
Changes and Continuities to Trade Networks
-Entire world more connected by trade, Americas now included in trade networks, affected all major regions
-Muslim traders still active, commerce still moved toward Middle East
-Western Europe began dominating oceanic shipping, increasing its profits, had naval strength, able to set up Western enclaves in existing cities
-Turks could not challenge Europeans on larger international routes, still had activity in Eastern Mediterranean
-Most competition between European countries
-Chinese government avoided large-scale international trade, still were able to have strong export position
-Generally, population increased a great deal because…
-New World crops (corn and sweet potatoes) were spread by Western European merchants to China, the Mediterranean, and parts of Africa.
-Major population upheavals
-Millions of Native Americans died
-no natural immunities to Afro-Eurasian diseases like smallpox and measles
-whole island populations decimated, from 50%-80%
-During 1400s, Europeans developed deep-draft, round-hulled sailing ships for the Atlantic, could carry heavy armaments
-Improving compass, mapmaking, and other navigational devices
-Knowledge of explosives was adapted into gunnery, first guns and cannons
-increase in trade, competition, and new dominance of Europe
-new technologies and improvements, more manufacturing
-different social hierarchies created in the New World
-development of labor systems
-Loss of indigenous populations,
-Huge increase in mixing of ethnicities, creating of new cultures through mulattoes and mestizoes
-stressed governments’ encouragement of limitation of imports from other nations, bettering own internal economy to improve tax revenues
-popular during 1600s and 1700s in Europe
-sought to be on winning side of economic competition, limit trade deficit
-investment of funds in hopes of larger profits
-spread from big trading companies to production of goods
-encomiendas given to Spanish conquerors; Indians treated like slaves and exploited for labor
-when the encomiendas began to fail, the Spanish administration began to use the mita, or the mandatory public service that rose to prominence in the Inca empire.
-the haciendas begin to become more prominent in the economy
-slavery became a vital part of the global economy due to growing Indian resistance towards the Spaniards and the sugar and mining industries begin to rise
-serfdom continues in Russia (until about the 20th century); agriculture is still prominent in the economy,as agriculture composes 95% of the economy after the Mongol occupation
-wage labor begins to rise in Europe after the decline of feudalism; the Plague affected the economy by lowering the amount of people who could work, so serfdom was in decline.
-the impact of these labor systems was the rise of labor specialization in the New World, the continuity of peasant revolts in Russia, the rise of the Atlantic Slave Trade, and the development of wage labor, which created a global economy that that was beginning to move toward industrialization and capitalism.
∆ Americas ∆
§ Spanish and Portuguese come and intentionally change Religion.
-Convert to Catholicism
§ Other european Practices
§ African Slaves
∆ Overland Expansion ∆
§ Russia under Ivans
-Rapid expansion to
§ Western Europe
∆ Sea based empires ∆
- Spain conquered the majority of the western hemisphere
- First overseas empire
- Got Brazil
- Mostly worked on getting land for trading in indian ocean.
∆ Colonial Governments ∆
§Spain, Portugal, France, England, Netherlands
- Concerned mostly with resources.
- 3 G’s
∆ Absolutism ∆
§ Trend of ruling monarchies in western europe.
§ An absolute monarch wields unrestricted political power over the sovereign state and its people
§ Exemplified by Louis XIV