Lev Vygotsky

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Lev Vygotsky

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1. Lev Vygotsky MSU Billings


3. Biography Born in Russia in 1896 Graduated from University of Moscow in 1917 Lectured on psychology and taught literature Became interested in language and cognitive development Developed Social Development Theory Died of Tuberculosis in 1934 at the age of 38

4. Social Development Theory Social interaction fundamental in the development of cognition Personal and social experience cannot be separated Example: Pointing a finger Social and cultural institutions , technologies, and tools, are the driving force behind interpersonal interactions. A function in the cultural development of a child develops on two planes: Socio-cultural plane Psychological plane

5. Zone of Proximal Development Range of skills that can be developed with the guidance of a knowledgeable adult that exceeds what can be attained alone. Depends on full social interaction Four levels of learning for ZPD Student needs assistance from other to do skill Student needs assistance, but he/she is in control Student masters the skill and can work on their own Recursive (disrupted) ĖChild sometimes must go back to other stages

6. ZPD continued Teacher needs to teach at level where there is a minimum amount of assistance, but the student is still not on his/her own yet. When children are guided by explanation, demonstrations, and work, they can attain higher levels of thinking Example: IQ testing Scaffolding: helping a child to understand difficult concepts (like using a scaffold to reach the top part of the house when painting)

7. Vygotsky and Language ďThe relation between word is a living process; thought is born through words. A word devoid of thought is a dead thing, and a thought unembodied in word remains a shadow. The connection between them, however, is not a performed and constant one. It emerges in the course of development and itself evolves.Ē -Vygotsky

8. Collaborative learning Influenced by Vygotskyís work Collaborative classrooms have four major characteristics Shared knowledge among teachers and students Shared authority among teachers and students Teachers as mediators Heterogeneous groupings of students Assessment in a collaborative classroom

9. Applying Vygotskyís Ideas Observe children carefully and plan curriculum that encourages childrenís emerging abilities. Plan Challenging Curriculum to stretch a childís competence Encourage conversations and social interaction Provide opportunities for children to work together Pair children up to learn from each other

10. Vygotskyís Works The Psychology of Art, 1925 Consciousness as a problem in the Psychology of Behavior, 1925 Educational Psychology, 1926 Historical meaning of the crisis in Psychology, 1927 The Problem of the Cultural Development of the Child, 1929 The Socialist alteration of Man, 1930 Primitive Man and his Behavior, c. 1930 Mind and Society, 1930 Adolescent Pedagogy, 1931 Play and its role in the Mental development of the Child, 1933 Thinking and Speech, 1934

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