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1. Lev Vygotsky MSU Billings
3. Biography Born in Russia in 1896
Graduated from University of Moscow in 1917
Lectured on psychology and taught literature
Became interested in language and cognitive development
Developed Social Development Theory
Died of Tuberculosis in 1934 at the age of 38
4. Social Development Theory Social interaction fundamental in the development of cognition
Personal and social experience cannot be separated
Example: Pointing a finger
Social and cultural institutions , technologies, and tools, are the driving force behind interpersonal interactions.
A function in the cultural development of a child develops on two planes:
5. Zone of Proximal Development Range of skills that can be developed with the guidance of a knowledgeable adult that exceeds what can be attained alone.
Depends on full social interaction
Four levels of learning for ZPD
Student needs assistance from other to do skill
Student needs assistance, but he/she is in control
Student masters the skill and can work on their own
Recursive (disrupted) –Child sometimes must go back to other stages
6. ZPD continued Teacher needs to teach at level where there is a minimum amount of assistance, but the student is still not on his/her own yet.
When children are guided by explanation, demonstrations, and work, they can attain higher levels of thinking
Example: IQ testing
Scaffolding: helping a child to understand difficult concepts (like using a scaffold to reach the top part of the house when painting)
7. Vygotsky and Language “The relation between word is a living process; thought is born through words. A word devoid of thought is a dead thing, and a thought unembodied in word remains a shadow. The connection between them, however, is not a performed and constant one. It emerges in the course of development and itself evolves.” -Vygotsky
8. Collaborative learning Influenced by Vygotsky’s work
Collaborative classrooms have four major characteristics
Shared knowledge among teachers and students
Shared authority among teachers and students
Teachers as mediators
Heterogeneous groupings of students
Assessment in a collaborative classroom
9. Applying Vygotsky’s Ideas Observe children carefully and plan curriculum that encourages children’s emerging abilities.
Plan Challenging Curriculum to stretch a child’s competence
Encourage conversations and social interaction
Provide opportunities for children to work together
Pair children up to learn from each other
10. Vygotsky’s Works The Psychology of Art, 1925 Consciousness as a problem in the Psychology of Behavior, 1925 Educational Psychology, 1926 Historical meaning of the crisis in Psychology, 1927 The Problem of the Cultural Development of the Child, 1929 The Socialist alteration of Man, 1930 Primitive Man and his Behavior, c. 1930 Mind and Society, 1930 Adolescent Pedagogy, 1931 Play and its role in the Mental development of the Child, 1933 Thinking and Speech, 1934