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Chapter 22. The Atmosphere, Climate, and Global Warming. The Atmosphere. The thin layer of glass that envelops the Earth Chemical reactions Atmospheric circulation produces weather and climates. Climate. Climate:

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Chapter 22

Chapter 22

The Atmosphere, Climate, and Global Warming

Botkin and Keller

Environmental Science 5e


The atmosphere
The Atmosphere

  • The thin layer of glass that envelops the Earth

  • Chemical reactions

  • Atmospheric circulation produces weather and climates

Botkin and Keller

Environmental Science 5e


Botkin and Keller

Environmental Science 5e


Botkin and Keller

Environmental Science 5e


Climate
Climate

  • Climate:

    • the representative or characteristic atmospheric conditions for a region on Earth

  • Microclimate

    • The climate of a very small local area

  • Urban Dust Dome

    • Polluted urban air produced by the combination of lingering air and abundance of particulates and other pollutants in the urban air mass

Botkin and Keller

Environmental Science 5e


Botkin and Keller

Environmental Science 5e


Climatic change
Climatic Change

  • Major climatic changes have occurred during the past 2 million years

  • Appearances and retreats of glaciers

  • During the past 100 years, the mean global annual temperature ahs increased by .5 degrees Celsius

Botkin and Keller

Environmental Science 5e


Botkin and Keller

Environmental Science 5e


Botkin and Keller

Environmental Science 5e


Botkin and Keller

Environmental Science 5e


Botkin and Keller

Environmental Science 5e


Global warming
Global Warming

  • A natural or human induced increase in the average global temperature of the atmosphere near the earth’s surface

  • 4 factors

    • Amount of sunlight Earth receives

    • Amount of sunlight Earth reflects

    • Retention of heat by atmosphere

    • Evaporation and condensation of water vapor

Botkin and Keller

Environmental Science 5e


Electromagnetic radiation and earth s energy balance
Electromagnetic Radiation and Earth’s Energy Balance

  • Electromagnetic spectrum

    • The collection of all possible wavelengths of electromagnetic energy, considered a continuous range

Botkin and Keller

Environmental Science 5e


The greenhouse effect
The Greenhouse Effect

  • Greenhouse Effect

    • The process of trapping heat in the atmosphere

    • Water vapor and several other gases warm the Earth’s atmosphere because they absorb and emit radiation

  • Greenhouse Gasses

    • Gasses that have a greenhouse effect

    • Water vapor, carbon dioxide, methane, CFCs

Botkin and Keller

Environmental Science 5e


Botkin and Keller

Environmental Science 5e


Botkin and Keller

Environmental Science 5e


Botkin and Keller

Environmental Science 5e


Botkin and Keller

Environmental Science 5e


Global warming1
Global Warming

  • Negative and Positive feedback cycles affect the atmosphere

  • Increase in emission of greenhouse gasses

  • Solar Forcing, Natural Cycles, Aerosols (global dimming), Volcanic Eruptions, El Nino

Botkin and Keller

Environmental Science 5e


Botkin and Keller

Environmental Science 5e


Botkin and Keller

Environmental Science 5e


Botkin and Keller

Environmental Science 5e


Effects of global warming
Effects of Global Warming

  • Changes in climatic patterns

  • Rise in sea level

  • Changes in biosphere

Botkin and Keller

Environmental Science 5e


Botkin and Keller

Environmental Science 5e


Botkin and Keller

Environmental Science 5e


Botkin and Keller

Environmental Science 5e


Botkin and Keller

Environmental Science 5e


Botkin and Keller

Environmental Science 5e


Adjustments to global warming
Adjustments to Global Warming

  • Mitigate warming through reduction of greenhouse gasses

  • Energy conservation

  • Alternative energy sources

  • Danger: rapid climatic change

Botkin and Keller

Environmental Science 5e


Botkin and Keller

Environmental Science 5e


Botkin and Keller

Environmental Science 5e


Botkin and Keller

Environmental Science 5e


Botkin and Keller

Environmental Science 5e


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