Theory of indicators
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Theory of Indicators. HInd (aq) ⇌ H + (aq) + Ind - (aq) Colour 1 Colour 2 K ind = [H + ][Ind - ]/[HInd] log 10 K ind = log 10 [H + ] + log 10 ([Ind - ]/[HInd]) -log 10 K ind = -log 10 [H + ] + -log 10 ([Ind - ]/[HInd]) pK Ind = pH – log 10 ([Ind - ]/[HInd])

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Theory of Indicators

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Theory of indicators

Theory of Indicators

HInd (aq) ⇌ H+ (aq) + Ind- (aq)

Colour 1 Colour 2

Kind= [H+][Ind-]/[HInd]

log10 Kind = log10 [H+] + log10 ([Ind-]/[HInd])

-log10 Kind = -log10 [H+] + -log10 ([Ind-]/[HInd])

pKInd = pH – log10 ([Ind-]/[HInd])

log10 ([Ind-]/[HInd]) = pH- pKInd


Theory of buffers

Theory of Buffers

HA (aq) ⇌ H+ (aq) + A- (aq)

KA= [H+][A-]/[HA]

log10 KA = log10 [H+] + log10 ([A-]/[HA])

-log10 KA = -log10 [H+] + -log10 ([A-]/[HA])

pKA = pH – log10 ([A-]/[HA])

pH = pKA- log10 ([HA]/[A-])


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