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Maria Dolores Vera. LAND RIGHTS AND FOOD SECURITY IN MANGROVE COMMUNITIES: A CASE STUDY IN MANABI - ECUADOR. LAND RIGHTS AND FOOD SECURITY IN MANGROVE COMMUNITIES: A CASE STUDY IN MANABI - ECUADOR. BACKGROUND: THE MANGROVE AND DESTRUCTION of the mangrove ecosystem.

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Maria Dolores Vera

LAND RIGHTS AND FOOD SECURITY IN MANGROVE COMMUNITIES: A CASE STUDY IN MANABI - ECUADOR


Land rights and food security in mangrove communities a case study in manabi ecuador
LAND RIGHTS AND FOOD SECURITY IN MANGROVE COMMUNITIES: A CASE STUDY IN MANABI - ECUADOR

  • BACKGROUND: THE MANGROVE AND DESTRUCTION of the mangrove ecosystem.

  • DESTRUCTION OF THE LIVELIHOODS OF PEOPLE LIVING IN MANGROVE COMMUNITIES

  • WORK OF FIDES FOUNDATION WITH MANGROVE COMMUNITIES.


LAND RIGHTS AND FOOD SECURITY IN CASE STUDY IN MANABI - ECUADORMANGROVE COMMUNITIES:

A CASE STUDY IN MANABI - ECUADOR

LOCATION

MANABI

ECUADOR

AMERICA


LAND RIGHTS AND FOOD SECURITY IN CASE STUDY IN MANABI - ECUADORMANGROVE COMMUNITIES:

A CASE STUDY IN MANABI - ECUADOR

BACKGROUND: TheMangrove

  • Mangrove ecosystems are considered one of the world's most productive ecosystems (RAMSAR Convention). They are strategic habitats for protecting coastal and marine biodiversity, and for reducing climate change impacts.

  • In addition to their ecological role, mangrove habitats fulfill both economic, cultural and social functions for the various communities settled on the banks of the estuaries.

  • They are engaged in activities related to the mangrove resources, such as fishing and gathering shellfish, which have been ancestral sources of food supply. Furthermore, mangrove resources have been used for the construction of houses, boats, furniture, hunting and fishing tools and kitchen utensils.


LAND RIGHTS AND FOOD SECURITY IN CASE STUDY IN MANABI - ECUADORMANGROVE COMMUNITIES:

A CASE STUDY IN MANABI - ECUADOR

BACKGROUND (Destruction of the mangrove ecosystem)

  • Despite the environmental, social, economic and cultural importance, and the existence of a legal framework for protection, about 60% of the mangroves in Ecuador and in more than 80% in the province of Manabí was destroyed by the shrimp industry.

Originally Ecuador had 362,802 hectares

(Decreto 238 MAG 06/07/87)

Currentlythere are 148,230 hectares

(Clirsen 2006)

Since the late 60s, the shrimp industry has devastated the mangrove ecosystem along the coastal strip. This is due to the construction of ponds for farming shrimp in captivity.

Photo: Shrimpponds.


LAND RIGHTS AND FOOD SECURITY IN CASE STUDY IN MANABI - ECUADORMANGROVE COMMUNITIES:

A CASE STUDY IN MANABI - ECUADOR

BACKGROUND (Destruction of the mangrove ecosystem)

  • An example of the mangrove destruction in the province of Manabí is the River Chone Estuary.

Furthermore, estuaries are contaminated by garbage, sewage, agrochemicals from agriculture and livestock and chemicals from the shrimp industry.


LAND RIGHTS AND FOOD SECURITY IN CASE STUDY IN MANABI - ECUADORMANGROVE COMMUNITIES:

A CASE STUDY IN MANABI - ECUADOR

DESTRUCTION OF THE LIVELIHOODS OF PEOPLE LIVING IN MANGROVE COMMUNITIES

  • In the context of this analysis, the destruction of more than 80% of the mangrove ecosystem by the shrimp industry in the province of Manabí has caused deteriorated living conditions in families that have lived off of the ecosystem since ancient times. This violates human rights, rights which are found in both international treaties and in the Constitution of the State (Decreased fishing effort, Diseases, Loss of freedom of transit through public spaces, Displacement of communities)


LAND RIGHTS AND FOOD SECURITY IN CASE STUDY IN MANABI - ECUADORMANGROVE COMMUNITIES:

A CASE STUDY IN MANABI - ECUADOR

DESTRUCTION OF THE LIVELIHOODS OF PEOPLE LIVING IN MANGROVE COMMUNITIES

Decreased Fishing Effort

  • In the past, a fisherman collected 800 shells (Anadarasimilis and Anadaratuberculosa) working for 4 or 5 hours a day. Now, on average, fisherman collect 80 shells and must work for longer hours. This situation affects many women (on average 40%) whose only activity is picking shells.

  • Before 800 shells - Now 80 shells

- This problem is found in all estuarine fishery activities (severaltypes of crabs, fishes, oysters, and more)

Gatherer woman of shell


LAND RIGHTS AND FOOD SECURITY IN CASE STUDY IN MANABI - ECUADORMANGROVE COMMUNITIES:

A CASE STUDY IN MANABI - ECUADOR

DESTRUCTION OF THE LIVELIHOODS OF PEOPLE LIVING IN MANGROVE COMMUNITIES

Loss of Freedom of Transit Through Public Spaces

In Ecuador, mangroves, estuaries, rivers and beaches are national assets for public use, the law guarantees free movement (transit easements)

The mangrove people ancestrally have traveled freely through estuaries and mangroves for fishing activities. It is part of their culture and their life.

The shrimp industry has privatized public spaces, closing passages in rivers and putting electric fences on the walls of shrimp ponds, and guards have shot fishermen who get close to the shrimp ponds. In Ecuador, there are many examples of fishermen killed for exercising their right to free movement through rivers and mangroves to provide their family with food.

Electrocuted animals in electric fences


LAND RIGHTS AND FOOD SECURITY IN CASE STUDY IN MANABI - ECUADORMANGROVE COMMUNITIES:

A CASE STUDY IN MANABI - ECUADOR

DESTRUCTION OF THE LIVELIHOODS OF PEOPLE LIVING IN MANGROVE COMMUNITIES

Diseases

In order to collect shells and crabs, the women must immerse themselves in contaminated water and mud, which leads to various skin diseases and infection of intimate parts.

Contaminated water also affects the fish and shellfish that absorb these pollutants. When consumed, this negatively affects the health of both the families within the communities and consumers in various cities outside of the community.


LAND RIGHTS AND FOOD SECURITY IN CASE STUDY IN MANABI - ECUADORMANGROVE COMMUNITIES:

A CASE STUDY IN MANABI - ECUADOR

OTHER CONSEQUENCES BY MANGROVE DESTRUCTION

SOCIAL AND CULTURAL

Loss of traditional knowledge and ancestral practices (from migration and other reasons)

ENVIRONMENTAL

Loss of the ecological functions of mangroves:

- Increased vulnerability of coastal communities due to tsunamis, floods, storms

- Salinization of agricultural lands


LAND RIGHTS AND FOOD SECURITY IN CASE STUDY IN MANABI - ECUADORMANGROVE COMMUNITIES:

A CASE STUDY IN MANABI - ECUADOR

WORK OF FIDES FOUNDATION WITH MANGROVE COMMUNITIES

The Foundation for Research and Social Development(FIDES), is a non-profit organization whose purpose is to contribute to human development by promoting economic, social, cultural and environmental development of vulnerable populations in rural areas and in cities.

FIDES intervention with fishing and collecting families allows the generation of alternative livelihoods for mangrove communities of Manabí through the protection and sustainable use of mangrove resources.

The FIDES Foundation is a member of the National Coordinating Corporation for the Defense of Mangrove Ecosystems (C-CONDEM), which is a national network that brings together more than 100 organizations of artisanal fishermen and gatherers of the Ecuadorian coast mangroves and several NGOs. It aims to build a community management proposal for the recovery, conservation and protection of Ecuadorian mangroves to guarantee fundamental human rights of the native people of this ecosystem, especially the right to work and the right to food security.


LAND RIGHTS AND FOOD SECURITY IN CASE STUDY IN MANABI - ECUADORMANGROVE COMMUNITIES:

A CASE STUDY IN MANABI - ECUADOR

  • MANGROVE ECOSYSTEM RESTORATION

  • Mangrove reforestation, mainly red mangrove (Rhizophora mangle)

  • Increasing populationsof local species in situ in the estuaries of Manabi:

  • Black shell (Anadarasimilisand Anadara tuberculosa)

  • Blue crab (Cardisomacrassum).

Photo: Youth working in mangrove reforestation

Photo: Working in increasing crab populations


LAND RIGHTS AND FOOD SECURITY IN CASE STUDY IN MANABI - ECUADORMANGROVE COMMUNITIES:

A CASE STUDY IN MANABI - ECUADOR

  • ALTERNATIVE ECONOMIC INITIATIVES

As mangrove destruction has caused the decline of shellfish species, which are the source of food and income for the communities, COMMUNITY TOURISM constitutes a working alternative for these communities and therefore maintains their link with the mangroves.

  • Community tourism plays both a social and environmental role, as it supports families´ generation of income and avoids pressure on the few resources that are found within the ecosystem.


LAND RIGHTS AND FOOD SECURITY IN CASE STUDY IN MANABI - ECUADORMANGROVE COMMUNITIES:

A CASE STUDY IN MANABI - ECUADOR

  • ORGANIZATIONAL CAPACITY AND POLICY INCIDENCE

  • Workcoordinatedwiththe National Coordinating Corporation for the Defense of Mangrove Ecosystems C-CONDEM (network comprised of 150 organizations)

  • Incidence of the constitutional and legal framework (Participation with proposals for the Constitution (2008), Proposals in various laws: Mangrove Law, Water Law

Delegates of mangrove communities outside the National Assembly before the first debate of the Mangrove Law.

Delegates of mangrove communities in the National Assembly plenary discussion of the Mangrove Law.


LAND RIGHTS AND FOOD SECURITY IN CASE STUDY IN MANABI - ECUADORMANGROVE COMMUNITIES:

A CASE STUDY IN MANABI - ECUADOR

  • ORGANIZATIONAL CAPACITY AND POLICY INCIDENCE

  • Workcoordinatedwiththe National Coordinating Corporation for the Defense of Mangrove Ecosystems C-CONDEM (network comprised of 150 organizations)

  • Supportingthecomplaintsagainsttheviolation of humanrights and therights of nature.

A march to stop mangrove destruction and for justice for a fisherman killed on the walls of a shrimp pond in Manabi.

Delegates of mangrove communities in the National March for Water .


LAND RIGHTS AND FOOD SECURITY IN CASE STUDY IN MANABI - ECUADORMANGROVE COMMUNITIES:

A CASE STUDY IN MANABI - ECUADOR

  • ORGANIZATIONAL CAPACITY AND POLICY INCIDENCE

  • Workcoordinatedwiththe National Coordinating Corporation for the Defense of Mangrove Ecosystems C-CONDEM (network comprised of 150 organizations)

- At present, we are working hard to create Community Protected Areas in mangrove areas, and coordinate effective participation of the people and communities in the elaborationof Management Plans for Protected Areas.

- Organizational Training.


LAND RIGHTS AND FOOD SECURITY IN CASE STUDY IN MANABI - ECUADORMANGROVE COMMUNITIES:

A CASE STUDY IN MANABI - ECUADOR

  • IMPORTANT TOPICS THAT REQUIRE POLICY DECISION BY COMPETENT AUTHORITIES

NATIONAL ASSEMBLY :

Approval of Mangrove Law based on participatory approach by the people and communities approved in the first debate (the second and final debate are pending)

Delegates of mangrove communities in the National Assembly plenary discussion of the Mangrove Law.


LAND RIGHTS AND FOOD SECURITY IN CASE STUDY IN MANABI - ECUADORMANGROVE COMMUNITIES:

A CASE STUDY IN MANABI - ECUADOR

  • IMPORTANT TOPICS THAT REQUIRE POLICY DECISION BY COMPETENT AUTHORITIES

CENTRAL GOVERNMENT (Ministry of the Environment and other ministries involved):

- Mangrove Ecosystem Recovery: A policy decision is urgent to restore mangrove ecosystem areas that were illegally destroyed.

- Ecosystem Restoration: Then they start an intensive process of restoration.

-Deem mangrove areas in the communities as PROTECTED AREA COMMUNITIES (withcommunitymanagement)

SECTIONAL GOVERNMENT (provincial and cantonal)

- Integrated Watershed Management: regulation and control to avoid pollution of the rivers is a sectional government responsibility


LAND RIGHTS AND FOOD SECURITY IN CASE STUDY IN MANABI - ECUADORMANGROVE COMMUNITIES:

A CASE STUDY IN MANABI - ECUADOR

  • ORGANIZATIONAL CAPACITY AND POLICY INCIDENCE

  • CONSTITUTION OF ECUADOR

  • 2008

  • guarantees:

Our work will not be sufficient for the Good Living of Communities (Buen Vivir - SumakKawsay) if national and international regulatory frameworks that protect nature and the rights of people are not met.

  • Rights of Nature

  • Rights of Indigenous People and Communities



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