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Chapter Twenty-Two. World War I. Section 1. American Communities. Vigilante Justice in Bisbee, Arizona. The radical Industrial Workers of the World (“Wobblies”) organized a peaceful strike that won support from over half the town’s miners in 1917

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Chapter twenty two

Chapter Twenty-Two

World War I


Section 1

Section 1

American Communities


Vigilante justice in bisbee arizona
Vigilante Justice in Bisbee, Arizona

  • The radical Industrial Workers of the World (“Wobblies”) organized a peaceful strike that won support from over half the town’s miners in 1917

  • They went on strike because they saw the war as an opportunity to make demands


  • Armed men began rounding up strikers at a copper mine in Bisbee, Arizona.

    • The sheriff and town’s businessmen justified vigilantism by invoking patriotism and racial purity.

    • Of the 2,000 men kept under armed guard, 1,400 refused to return to work and were taken on a freight train to a small town in the desert.

  • Neither the federal nor the state government would act.

  • The Arizona mines operated without unions into the 1930s and with very few immigrant workers.


Section 2

Section 2 Bisbee, Arizona.

Becoming a World Power


Roosevelt the big stick
Roosevelt: The Big Stick Bisbee, Arizona.

  • Americans believed that they had a God-given role to promote a moral world order.

  • Roosevelt Corollary

    • The United States would intervene in the countries of Haiti, Mexico, Cuba and the Dominican Republic

  • Theodore Roosevelt’s “big stick” approach called for intervention.

    • He secured a zone in Panama for a canal, completed in 1914.

    • He expanded the Monroe Doctrine to justify armed intervention in the Caribbean where the United States assumed management of several nations’ finances.



  • Root- Takahira Agreement policy.

    • Agreed to uphold the Open Door Policy in China

    • Recognized Japan’s colonial dominance in Korea & southern Manchuria

    • Recognized China’s & Japan’s respective colonies in East Asia

    • Supported the status quo in Asia


Taft dollar diplomacy
Taft: Dollar Diplomacy policy.

  • Roosevelt’s successor, William Howard Taft, favored “dollar diplomacy” that led to military intervention to protect the interests of America

    • Taft believed that political influence would follow increased U.S. trade and investments.

    • American investment in Central America doubled.



Wilson moralism and realism in mexico
Wilson: policy. Moralism and Realism in Mexico

  • Woodrow Wilson had no diplomatic experience before becoming president.

  • He favored expanding the Open Door principle of equal access to markets.

  • He saw expansion of American capitalism in moral terms.

    • The complex realities of power politics interfered with his moral vision.


  • Unable to control the revolution in Mexico, Wilson sent troops to Vera Cruz and northern Mexico.

  • After the Mexican Revolution began Wilson interfered with Mexican sovereignty

    • He stated that he had a moral justification to do this

  • When relations with Germany worsened, Wilson accepted an international commission’s recommendation and withdrew U.S. troops from Mexico.


Section 3

Section 3 troops to Vera Cruz and northern Mexico.

The Great War


The guns of august
The Guns of August troops to Vera Cruz and northern Mexico.

  • Competition between Britain and Germany had led to competing camps of alliances.

    • The Triple Alliance (Central Powers): Germany, Italy, and Austria-Hungary

    • The Triple Entente (Allied Powers): England, France, and Russia

  • The alliances prevented small problems but threatened to entangle many nations in any war that erupted.


  • Causes of the War troops to Vera Cruz and northern Mexico.

    • Alliances

    • Militarism

    • Imperialism

    • Nationalism


  • The assassination of the Archduke of Austria by a Serbian nationalist in 1914 escalated into a general war.

    • Germany had pushed Austria to retaliate against Serbia.

    • Serbia was under the protection of Russia.

    • If Serbia was attacked, Russia would enter the conflict, bringing England and France as well.


American neutrality
American Neutrality nationalist in 1914 escalated into a general war.

  • Wilson and most Americans wanted to stay neutral.

  • Many Americans had Old World ties.

  • The English and Germans bombarded Americans with propaganda.

  • Economic ties hurt American neutrality.

    • Wilson opposed the British blockade of Germany but did not trade with the Germans.

    • Trade with the Allies increased dramatically.


  • The U.S. had difficulty remaining truly neutral because nationalist in 1914 escalated into a general war.

    • Citizens were horrified by the reports of the fighting in Europe

    • Wilson and his administration were pro-British

    • The U.S. became heavily involved economically with the Allies


Preparedness and peace
Preparedness and Peace nationalist in 1914 escalated into a general war.

  • Germany declared the waters around Britain to be a war zone and began submarine attacks.

  • In May 1915 Germans sank the Lusitania, a British passenger ship secretly loaded with armaments, killing 1,198 people including 128 Americans.

  • In March 1916, Germany changed its submarine policy, but Wilson pushed for greater war preparation.

    • Opponents mobilized on the streets and in Congress.

  • In 1916, Wilson won re-election with the slogan “He Kept Us Out of War.”


  • U.S. trade during WWI nationalist in 1914 escalated into a general war.

    • Demanded neutrality

    • Threatened Germany that they would break relations

    • National Defense Act was passed

    • Universal military training was enacted



Safe for democracy
Safe for Democracy nationalist in 1914 escalated into a general war.

  • Germans resumed unrestricted submarine warfare in February 1917 gambling that they could destroy the Allies before America intervened.

    • Wilson broke diplomatic relations with Germany.

  • The White House publicized a note from the German foreign secretary to Mexico which proposed an alliance with Mexico if the United States entered the war.





Section 4

Section 4 feeling.

American Mobilization


Selling the war
Selling the War feeling.

  • Uncertain about public backing for the war, Wilson appointed George Creel to head the Committee on Public Information that tried to promote public support.

  • Creel enlisted over 150,000 people to promote the cause.

  • The CPI:

    • Developed literature

      • To help explain the war

    • Organized patriotic speeches before plays & movies

    • Created films to support the war

      • depicted Germans as bestial monsters


Fading opposition to war
Fading Opposition to War feeling.

  • Many progressives and intellectuals identified with Wilson’s definition of the war as a defense of democracy.

  • Women’s suffrage leaders who had initially opposed war worked behind the war effort.

    • The war effort gave women a leading role in their communities selling war bonds, coordinating food conservation drives, and working for hospitals and the Red Cross.

    • Many hoped that supporting the war effort would help the suffrage cause.

  • Only a minority maintained their opposition to the war.


You re in the army now
“You’re in the Army Now” feeling.

  • Recruiting a large army required a draft that met with only scattered organized resistance.

  • On the first day, nearly 10 million men registered for the draft.

    • By the end of the war 24 million had registered, 2.8 had been called to serve, and 2 million had volunteered.



Racism in the military
Racism in the Military tests.

  • But black troops were organized into separate units and subjected to white harassment.

  • Most had noncombat jobs, but those African Americans who did fight served with distinction, and were well treated by the French.


Americans in battle
Americans in Battle tests.

  • Initially, American support for the war effort concentrated on protecting shipping.

    • Using the convoy system

  • The massive influx of American troops and supplies hastened the end of the war.

  • In 1918, fresh American troops shored up defensive lines to stop a German advance that came within fifty miles of Paris.


  • Americans joined the counter-offensive that followed and helped force the Germans into signing an armistice.

  • Approximately 112,000 Americans died—half from disease —and twice that number were wounded. However, these losses were far less than the millions of losses suffered by European nations.


Section 5

Section 5 helped force the Germans into signing an armistice.

Over Here


Organizing the economy
Organizing the Economy helped force the Germans into signing an armistice.

  • In a sense, WWI was the ultimate progressive crusade.

  • Wilson established the War Industries Board to coordinate industrial mobilization.

    • Headed by Bernard Baruch, the WIB forced industries to comply with government plans.

      • Meant less laissez faire and more government – business cooperation

  • Herbert Hoover ran the Food Administration.

  • The Fuel Administration introduced daylight saving time.


  • Financing the war required new taxes. helped force the Germans into signing an armistice.

  • Most of the needed financing came from Liberty Bond drives.

  • Wartime developments that continued in the postwar years included

    • The Farm Bureau

    • Lobbyists seeking special interest legislation

    • Government reliance on the income tax


The business of war
The Business of War helped force the Germans into signing an armistice.

  • Government regulations during the war meant less laissez faire and more of a government business cooperation

  • Industrialists saw the war as an opportunity for expansion and high profits.

  • Henry Ford pioneered efficient mass production techniques.

  • Businessmen and farmers saw the war years as a golden age of high demand and high profits.

    • Goods bought on credit to keep up with the high demand


  • The need to coordinate war mobilization: helped force the Germans into signing an armistice.

    • required more efficient management

    • resulted in an unprecedented business-government partnership

  • Government cooperation helped to create new corporations like RCA that set the stage for the new radio broadcasting industry of the 1920s.

  • Some worried about the trend toward a higher government presence in their lives.


Labor and the war
Labor and the War helped force the Germans into signing an armistice.

  • The wartime labor shortage led to higher wages and a growth in union membership.

  • The National War Labor Board (NWLB) included AFL President Samuel Gompers and former President Taft.

    • It mediated wage disputes and arbitrated solutions that generally led to higher wages.

    • The NWLB supported workers’ rights to organize unions and the eight-hour day.

    • Improved working conditions in order to prevent strikes



  • The demand for labor during WWI Mexican workers.

    • Increased the support for equal pay for women

    • Support for the time- and- a half pay for overtime

    • Suspension of the Immigration Act of 1917


Women at work
Women at Work Mexican workers.

  • The war allowed women to shift from low paid domestic service to higher-paying industrial jobs.

  • The Women in Industry Service advised industry on the use of women workers and won improved conditions.

  • Women earned much less than their male counterparts.


  • Women during WWI Mexican workers.

    • Worked in the war industries

    • Entered into the armed forces

    • Worked in manufacturing

    • Women’s Bureau continued the wartime guidelines



Woman suffrage
Woman Suffrage time

  • The war also brought a successful conclusion to the women’s suffrage campaign.

    • Prior to WWI, women in several western states had won the vote.

    • Most suffragists had opposed entry into the war.

  • Carrie Chapman Catt, a key leader, convinced her organization to back the war effort.



Prohibition
Prohibition time

  • During the war, the temperance movement benefited from:

    • anti-German feeling that worked against breweries with German names

    • the need to conserve grain

    • moral fervor associated with the entry into the war

  • Prohibition gained during the war leading to passage of the eighteenth amendment.


Public health
Public Health time

  • The war effort also addressed public health issues such as child welfare- enforcing child labor laws

  • The government attempted to safeguard the soldiers’ moral health by discouraging drinking and educating troops on the dangers of venereal disease.

    • Government distribution of condoms to soldiers

  • In the postwar years, clinics for prenatal and obstetrical care greatly reduced the rate of infant and maternal mortality and disease.


Section 6

Section 6 time

Repression and Reaction


Muzzling dissent the espionage and sedition acts
Muzzling Dissent: timeThe Espionage and Sedition Acts

  • WWI intensified social tensions in American life, leading to oppression of dissent. The Espionage Act of June 1917:

    • Led to an increase in government spying on U.S. citizens.

    • set severe penalties for anyone found guilty of aiding the enemy.

      • It was declared unconstitutional by the Supreme Court

      • It was directed at foreign spies

      • Took aim at those who obstructed military recruitment





The great migration
The Great Migration States during WWI as a result of

  • Economic opportunity triggered a mass African- American migration out of the South and into northern cities.

  • Black women often were the ones who moved north first



Racial tensions
Racial Tensions Migration.

  • Racial violence in the South had contributed to the Great Migration.

    • The NAACP held a national conference on lynching in 1919 pledging to defend persecuted African Americans, publicize the horrors of the lynch law, and seek legislation against it.

  • In the North, white outrage at the African-American influx exploded in a series of riots.



Labor strife
Labor Strife would be rewarded were quickly disillusioned.

  • Peace in Europe shattered the labor peace at home.

  • Postwar labor unrest was caused by:

    • inflation

    • non-recognition of unions

    • poor working conditions

    • concerns about job security



Section 7

Section 7 workers.

An Uneasy Peace


The fourteen points
The Fourteen Points workers.

  • Delegates from twenty-seven countries met in Versailles to work out a peace settlement.

  • The leaders of Britain, France, Italy, and the United States dominated the conference

    • The “Big Four”

      • United States

      • France

      • Great Britain

      • Italy


  • Wilson offered his vision for peace in a series of Fourteen Points.

    • The right to “national self-determination”

    • Liberal principles for international behavior such as freedom of the seas

    • Resetting boundaries and let the people practice self-determination

    • International body to keep the peace through collective security

  • The most controversial point was Wilson’s vision of a collective security through a League of Nations as a way to maintain a stable world.


Wilson in paris
Wilson in Paris Points.

  • Wilson’s fellow negotiators shared little of his idealism.

  • His ideal of self-determination found limited expression when independent states were carved out of the homelands of the beaten Central Powers.

  • The victorious Allies seized control of the former German colonies.


  • Treaty of Versailles blamed the war on German aggression Points.

  • Germany was forced to take full responsibility for starting the war and to accept a reparations bill of $33 billion.

  • Wilson was unhappy with many of the compromises in the final treaty but was pleased by the commitment to the League of Nations.


The treaty fight
The Treaty Fight Points.

  • The League did not enjoy wide support at home, however.

    • Republicans had won control of Congress and many senators opposed American participation in any treaty.

    • Some senators were adamant isolationists; others were racist xenophobes.

    • Senate majority leader Henry Cabot Lodge of Massachusetts and many others feared the treaty of Versailles would commit the United States to collective security


  • Wilson went on a grueling speaking tour to drum up support for the League. He collapsed and had a stroke.

  • The Senate defeated the Versailles Treaty because

    • amendments to the treaty could not be agreed upon

    • The “irreconcilables” voted against it in any form

    • The Republicans insisted Article X would compromise U.S. sovereignty

  • Wilson opposed any compromise and the treaty did not pass Congress. The United States never joined the League.


The russian revolution
The Russian Revolution for the League. He collapsed and had a stroke.

  • The Bolshevik Revolution of November 1917 led to sending Allied troops into Russia

  • The Bolshevik victory in 1917 changed the climate of foreign and domestic affairs.

  • Wilson sympathized with the overthrow of the czar.


  • In August 1918, Wilson sent American troops into northern and eastern Russia, purportedly to protect railroad connections & pacify Britain & France

    • Some troops actually participated in the Russian civil war against the Bolsheviks.

    • The troops stayed to counter Japanese influence and avoid alienating the French and British.


The red scare
The Red Scare and eastern Russia, purportedly to protect railroad connections & pacify Britain & France

  • In the United States, the charge of Bolshevism became a weapon against dissent.

  • The Red Scare of 1919 created an atmosphere that suppressed labor, women and change

  • A growing fear of foreigners fueled a new round of government repression.

    • Attorney General A. Mitchell Palmer rounded up 6,000 alleged radicals, despite the absence of any evidence against them.

    • Many were deported without evidence

    • Palmer raids deported hundreds of people without evidence



  • REVIEW Americans wanted to retreat from the turmoil of international affairs and “return to normalcy.”


Notes1
notes1 Americans wanted to retreat from the turmoil of international affairs and “return to normalcy.”

  • Causes of WWI

  • Immediate Cause----June 28, 1914

    • Assassination of Franz Ferdinand of Austria

  • Hostile alliances take effect---War declared

  • Central Powersvs. Allied Powers

    • Germany Great Britain

    • Austria/Hungary France

    • Ottoman Empire Russia

  • Trench warfare and the Western Front

  • 3. President Wilson

  • Calls for neutrality = conflicting sympathies

  • US belief = right to trade with all nations

    • Germany and Great Britain violated this policy.

WORLD WAR I, 1914 TO 1918


Notes2
notes2 Americans wanted to retreat from the turmoil of international affairs and “return to normalcy.”

  • 4. From neutrality to war.

  • German policy

    • Unrestricted submarine warfare= USW

      • U-Boat, sunk the Lusitania (May 7, 1915)

  • Zimmerman Note:Jan. 1917

  • 5. April 8, 1917 US declares war on Germany……

  • Germans violated our trade and neutrality

    • War to end all war

    • The world must be made safe for democracy

  • Side with the Allies


Notes3
notes3 Americans wanted to retreat from the turmoil of international affairs and “return to normalcy.”

US ENTERS THE WAR

  • President Wilson: The War to End All War

  • War outlook in Jan. 1917

    • Poor for Allies: Why?

  • U.S. troops in France---American Expeditionary Forces

    • Led by General John J. Pershing

      • US Troops

  • 2. Actions of Wilson and Congress

    3. Women in WWI

  • worked in the factories

    • 19th Amendment----women’s suffrage

      4. End of War

  • Nov. 11th = 11-11-11 = end of the war

    • Germans sign an armistice


Notes5
notes5 Americans wanted to retreat from the turmoil of international affairs and “return to normalcy.”

WWI, THE AFTERMATH

1. President Wilson’s 14 Points

2. Treaty of Versailles = Big 4 countries

  • Germany was forced to

    • pay war debts = reparations---$53 billion

    • Remain disarmed

    • Lost all colonies

    • Responsible for war

  • Created new countries

  • 3. Wilson’s Problems at Home

  • Senate rejects Treaty of Versailles

    • Does not join the League of Nations…….Why?

      • Lodge vs. Wilson

      • Draw U.S. into another war

      • Took away Congress’s power to declare war.

      • Americans wanted neutrality


  • Notes6
    notes6 Americans wanted to retreat from the turmoil of international affairs and “return to normalcy.”

    4.Results of Treaty of Versailles

    • New democracies would fail without US aid

    • Germany: treaty of revenge = leads to WWII

      5. Post war adjustments….


    The Yanks Americans wanted to retreat from the turmoil of international affairs and “return to normalcy.”Are Coming!


    Pershing
    pershing Americans wanted to retreat from the turmoil of international affairs and “return to normalcy.”

    AMERICAN EXPEDTIONARY FORCES

    General John J. Pershing, commanding general of the AEF. Referred to as the Doughboys and Yanks. 2 million in France by Sept. 1918


    Americans in the Trenches Americans wanted to retreat from the turmoil of international affairs and “return to normalcy.”


    Expansion of the Americans wanted to retreat from the turmoil of international affairs and “return to normalcy.”

    Federal Government


    Council of national defense
    Council of National Defense Americans wanted to retreat from the turmoil of international affairs and “return to normalcy.”

    • War Industries Board

      • Bernard Baruch

    • Food Administration

      • Herbert Hoover

    • Railroad Administration

      • William McAdoo

    • National War Labor Board

      • William Howard Taft


    • War Industries Board Americans wanted to retreat from the turmoil of international affairs and “return to normalcy.”

    • To build weapons for the war, US industry would undergo a massive change.

    • From a peacetime industry to a war time industry…..

    • Led by Bernard Baruch, the WIB set prices and determined what goods should be produced by private industry….

    • US Govt. controlled the economy

    • Contradiction?


    • War Industries Board Americans wanted to retreat from the turmoil of international affairs and “return to normalcy.”


    US ENTRY INTO WWI Americans wanted to retreat from the turmoil of international affairs and “return to normalcy.”

    • Food Administration:Herbert Hoover heads effort to conserve food and boost agricultural output

    • US feeds the world from the farms and ranches in the Great Plains… ”Bread basket of the World”

      • Liberty and victory gardens

      • Meatless and wheatless days


    U s food administration
    U. S. Food Administration Americans wanted to retreat from the turmoil of international affairs and “return to normalcy.”


    National war garden commission
    National War Garden Commission Americans wanted to retreat from the turmoil of international affairs and “return to normalcy.”


    U s school garden army
    U. S. School Garden Army Americans wanted to retreat from the turmoil of international affairs and “return to normalcy.”


    U s shipping board
    U. S. Shipping Board Americans wanted to retreat from the turmoil of international affairs and “return to normalcy.”


    U s fuel administration
    U. S. Fuel Administration Americans wanted to retreat from the turmoil of international affairs and “return to normalcy.”


    Results of this new organization of the economy is it a move towards socialism
    Results of This New Organization of the Economy Americans wanted to retreat from the turmoil of international affairs and “return to normalcy.” Is it a move towards socialism?

    • Unemployment virtually disappeared.

    • Expansion of “big government.”

    • Excessive govt. regulations in eco.

    • Some gross mismanagement --> overlapping jurisdictions.

    • Close cooperation between public and private sectors.

    • Unprecedented opportunities for disadvantaged groups.


    US ENTRY INTO WWI Americans wanted to retreat from the turmoil of international affairs and “return to normalcy.”

    • Committee on Public Information

    • Creel Committee, headed by George Creel, told Americans what the war was about and to publicize the American aims.

    • Propaganda posters to get Americans to support the war effort.


    Committee on Public Information Americans wanted to retreat from the turmoil of international affairs and “return to normalcy.”

    presidents actions


    US ENTRY INTO WWI Americans wanted to retreat from the turmoil of international affairs and “return to normalcy.”

    • Selective Service Act

    • May of 1917, President Wilson and Congress pass into legislation a draft or conscription.

    • 21 to 30 yrs. and later extended to 40 yrs. of age.

    • Contradiction?

    congress actions


    1917 selective service act

    US ENTRY INTO WWI Americans wanted to retreat from the turmoil of international affairs and “return to normalcy.”

    1917 – Selective Service Act

    • 24,000,000 men registered for the draft by the end of 1918.

      • 2,810,296 drafted and served in WWI

    • 3.7 million men served in WW1 (2,000,000 saw active combat)

      • Volunteers and draftees

    • 400,000 African-Americansserved in segregated units.

    • 15,000 Native-Americans served as scouts, messengers, and snipers in non-segregated units.


    US ENTRY INTO WWI Americans wanted to retreat from the turmoil of international affairs and “return to normalcy.”

    congress actions


    Congress actions
    congress actions Americans wanted to retreat from the turmoil of international affairs and “return to normalcy.”

    US ENTRY INTO WWI

    • Financing the war:

    • Sale of war bonds.

    • Liberty and victory loans raised $21 billion.

    • Raised income taxes


    Attacks on Americans wanted to retreat from the turmoil of international affairs and “return to normalcy.”

    Civil Liberties

    ( Bill of Rights )


    National security vs civil liberties
    National Security vs. Civil Liberties Americans wanted to retreat from the turmoil of international affairs and “return to normalcy.”

    Espionage Act – 1917

    • fforbade actions that obstructed recruitment or efforts to promote insubordination in the military.

    • ordered the Postmaster General to remove Leftist materials from the mail.

    • fines of up to $10,000 and/or up to 20 years in prison.

    • .


    US ENTRY INTO WWI Americans wanted to retreat from the turmoil of international affairs and “return to normalcy.”

    Espionage & Sedition Act, 1918

    • Provided for up to $10,000 in fines and 20 years in prison for interfering with the war effort or using disloyal language.

    • At least 1,597 persons were arrested, and 41 received prison sentences; newspapers criticizing the government lost mailing privileges.

    • Congress and President Wilson enacted this law to promote patriotism, nationalism and protect the National Security of the US during WWI.

    congress actions


    National Security vs. Civil Liberties Americans wanted to retreat from the turmoil of international affairs and “return to normalcy.”

    Sedition Act – 1918

    • It was a crime to speak against the purchase of war bonds or willfully utter, print, write or publish any disloyal, profane, scurrilous, orabusive languageabout this form of US Govt.,

    • the US Constitution, or the US armed forces or to willfully urge, incite, or advocate any curtailment of production of things necessary or essential to the prosecution of the war…with intent of such curtailment to cripple or hinder, the US in the prosecution of the war.


    Schenck v. U.S.: Visual Americans wanted to retreat from the turmoil of international affairs and “return to normalcy.”

    Schenck v. U.S.: Visual

    Schenck v. U.S.: Visual

    Schenck v. U.S.: Visual

    Schenk vs. United States, 1919

    • In 1917 the United States was at War with Germany. WWI

    • Charles Schenk, a member of the Socialist Party, handed out leaflets condemning the war and urging young men to resist the military draft.

    • He was arrested and convicted for violating the Espionage and Sedition Act of 1917.

    • Schenk took his case to the United States Supreme Court arguing that his constitutional right to freedom of speech had been violated.


    Schenk vs. United States, 1919 Americans wanted to retreat from the turmoil of international affairs and “return to normalcy.”

    Issue

    Can “free speech” be censored or restricted during war time?


    Schenk vs. United States, 1919 Americans wanted to retreat from the turmoil of international affairs and “return to normalcy.”

    SC ruling: Disagreed with Schenk

    Majority opinion

    BUT, every act of speech must be judged according to the circumstances in which it was spoken.

    The most stringent protection of free speech would not protect a man in falsely shouting fire in a theater and causing a panic.

    "Words can be weapons . . .The question in every case is whether the words used in such circumstances are of such nature as to create a clear and present danger that they will bring about the substantive evils that Congress has the right to prevent."


    Schenk vs. United States, 1919 Americans wanted to retreat from the turmoil of international affairs and “return to normalcy.”

    • Under normal circumstances, his actions would have been protected by 1st amendment

    • The country was at war, Schenk's freedom of speech was not protected.

    • SC ruling meant there were limits to freedom of speech in war time.

    • From the ruling, the Court established the "clear and present danger" principle to decide whether or not certain kinds of speech are protected.


    League cartoon1
    league cartoon1 Americans wanted to retreat from the turmoil of international affairs and “return to normalcy.”


    League cartoon11
    league cartoon1 Americans wanted to retreat from the turmoil of international affairs and “return to normalcy.”

    WOMEN PARTICIPATION


    League cartoon12
    league cartoon1 Americans wanted to retreat from the turmoil of international affairs and “return to normalcy.”

    WOMEN PARTICIPATION


    League cartoon13
    league cartoon1 Americans wanted to retreat from the turmoil of international affairs and “return to normalcy.”

    WOMEN PARTICIPATION


    WOMEN'S SUFFRAGE Americans wanted to retreat from the turmoil of international affairs and “return to normalcy.”

    19th Amendment:Women’s Suffrage (1920) Women won the right to vote….Called the “Susan B. Anthony” amendment.


    RUSSIAN REVOLUTION Americans wanted to retreat from the turmoil of international affairs and “return to normalcy.”

    vs

    Vladamir Lenin Czar Nicholas

    Czar Nicholas and the Romanov Family would be overthrown by Lenin who eventually would start the first Communistic state……


    RUSSIAN REVOLUTION Americans wanted to retreat from the turmoil of international affairs and “return to normalcy.”

    • CAUSES

    • Food and fuel shortages

    • Striking workers

    • Terrible loses in WWI

    • Czar was a weak ruler

    • Marxist (communist) propaganda spread by Lenin

    • EFFECTS

    • King overthrown

    • Russia pulls out of the war

    • Russia becomes a communistic country

    • Germany sends Zimmerman Note to Mexico


    Battle fronts
    battle fronts Americans wanted to retreat from the turmoil of international affairs and “return to normalcy.”


    Battle fronts1
    battle fronts Americans wanted to retreat from the turmoil of international affairs and “return to normalcy.”

    • German offensive in the summer of 1918 to capture Paris, France and win the war.

    • With the help of the U.S., the French and British were able to stop the German advance.

    • Germans surrender and sign an armistice on Nov. 11, 1918 to end the war.


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