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Chapter Twenty-Two. World War I. Section 1. American Communities. Vigilante Justice in Bisbee, Arizona. The radical Industrial Workers of the World (“Wobblies”) organized a peaceful strike that won support from over half the town’s miners in 1917

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Chapter Twenty-Two

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Chapter twenty two

Chapter Twenty-Two

World War I

Section 1

Section 1

American Communities

Vigilante justice in bisbee arizona

Vigilante Justice in Bisbee, Arizona

  • The radical Industrial Workers of the World (“Wobblies”) organized a peaceful strike that won support from over half the town’s miners in 1917

  • They went on strike because they saw the war as an opportunity to make demands

Chapter twenty two

  • Armed men began rounding up strikers at a copper mine in Bisbee, Arizona.

    • The sheriff and town’s businessmen justified vigilantism by invoking patriotism and racial purity.

    • Of the 2,000 men kept under armed guard, 1,400 refused to return to work and were taken on a freight train to a small town in the desert.

  • Neither the federal nor the state government would act.

  • The Arizona mines operated without unions into the 1930s and with very few immigrant workers.

Section 2

Section 2

Becoming a World Power

Roosevelt the big stick

Roosevelt: The Big Stick

  • Americans believed that they had a God-given role to promote a moral world order.

  • Roosevelt Corollary

    • The United States would intervene in the countries of Haiti, Mexico, Cuba and the Dominican Republic

  • Theodore Roosevelt’s “big stick” approach called for intervention.

    • He secured a zone in Panama for a canal, completed in 1914.

    • He expanded the Monroe Doctrine to justify armed intervention in the Caribbean where the United States assumed management of several nations’ finances.

Chapter twenty two

  • In Asia, the United States pursued the “Open Door” policy.

  • TR mediated a settlement of the Russo-Japanese War.

    • Roosevelt won the Nobel Peace prize for this

Chapter twenty two

  • Root- Takahira Agreement

    • Agreed to uphold the Open Door Policy in China

    • Recognized Japan’s colonial dominance in Korea & southern Manchuria

    • Recognized China’s & Japan’s respective colonies in East Asia

    • Supported the status quo in Asia

Taft dollar diplomacy

Taft: Dollar Diplomacy

  • Roosevelt’s successor, William Howard Taft, favored “dollar diplomacy” that led to military intervention to protect the interests of America

    • Taft believed that political influence would follow increased U.S. trade and investments.

    • American investment in Central America doubled.

Chapter twenty two

  • Military interventions occurred in Honduras and Nicaragua.

  • In Asia, the quest for greater trade led to worsening relations with Japan over the issue ownership of Chinese railroads.

  • Taft favored a revived, stronger China

Wilson moralism and realism in mexico

Wilson: Moralism and Realism in Mexico

  • Woodrow Wilson had no diplomatic experience before becoming president.

  • He favored expanding the Open Door principle of equal access to markets.

  • He saw expansion of American capitalism in moral terms.

    • The complex realities of power politics interfered with his moral vision.

Chapter twenty two

  • Unable to control the revolution in Mexico, Wilson sent troops to Vera Cruz and northern Mexico.

  • After the Mexican Revolution began Wilson interfered with Mexican sovereignty

    • He stated that he had a moral justification to do this

  • When relations with Germany worsened, Wilson accepted an international commission’s recommendation and withdrew U.S. troops from Mexico.

Section 3

Section 3

The Great War

The guns of august

The Guns of August

  • Competition between Britain and Germany had led to competing camps of alliances.

    • The Triple Alliance (Central Powers): Germany, Italy, and Austria-Hungary

    • The Triple Entente (Allied Powers): England, France, and Russia

  • The alliances prevented small problems but threatened to entangle many nations in any war that erupted.

Chapter twenty two

  • Causes of the War

    • Alliances

    • Militarism

    • Imperialism

    • Nationalism

Chapter twenty two

  • The assassination of the Archduke of Austria by a Serbian nationalist in 1914 escalated into a general war.

    • Germany had pushed Austria to retaliate against Serbia.

    • Serbia was under the protection of Russia.

    • If Serbia was attacked, Russia would enter the conflict, bringing England and France as well.

American neutrality

American Neutrality

  • Wilson and most Americans wanted to stay neutral.

  • Many Americans had Old World ties.

  • The English and Germans bombarded Americans with propaganda.

  • Economic ties hurt American neutrality.

    • Wilson opposed the British blockade of Germany but did not trade with the Germans.

    • Trade with the Allies increased dramatically.

Chapter twenty two

  • The U.S. had difficulty remaining truly neutral because

    • Citizens were horrified by the reports of the fighting in Europe

    • Wilson and his administration were pro-British

    • The U.S. became heavily involved economically with the Allies

Preparedness and peace

Preparedness and Peace

  • Germany declared the waters around Britain to be a war zone and began submarine attacks.

  • In May 1915 Germans sank the Lusitania, a British passenger ship secretly loaded with armaments, killing 1,198 people including 128 Americans.

  • In March 1916, Germany changed its submarine policy, but Wilson pushed for greater war preparation.

    • Opponents mobilized on the streets and in Congress.

  • In 1916, Wilson won re-election with the slogan “He Kept Us Out of War.”

Chapter twenty two

  • U.S. trade during WWI

    • Demanded neutrality

    • Threatened Germany that they would break relations

    • National Defense Act was passed

    • Universal military training was enacted

Chapter twenty two

  • Opposition to preparations for the war came from

    • Jane Addams

    • Lillian D. Wald

    • Some of the House Democrats that were led by Claude Kitchin

Safe for democracy

Safe for Democracy

  • Germans resumed unrestricted submarine warfare in February 1917 gambling that they could destroy the Allies before America intervened.

    • Wilson broke diplomatic relations with Germany.

  • The White House publicized a note from the German foreign secretary to Mexico which proposed an alliance with Mexico if the United States entered the war.

Chapter twenty two

  • The fundamental reason Wilson gave as to why the United States should declare war on Germany in 1917 was the cause of moral rights against wrong

Chapter twenty two

  • The Zimmerman note provoked an outpouring of anti-German feeling.

    • Wilson issued an executive order authorizing the arming of merchant ships and allowing them to shoot at submarines.

    • In one month German U-boats sank seven merchant ships.

  • On April 6, 1917, Congress declared war.

Chapter twenty two

  • Reasons that pushed the U.S. to declare war on April 1917

    • Germany declaration of unrestricted submarine warfare

    • Threat of Germany-Mexico Alliance

    • Zimmerman note

    • Sinking of U.S. Ships

Section 4

Section 4

American Mobilization

Selling the war

Selling the War

  • Uncertain about public backing for the war, Wilson appointed George Creel to head the Committee on Public Information that tried to promote public support.

  • Creel enlisted over 150,000 people to promote the cause.

  • The CPI:

    • Developed literature

      • To help explain the war

    • Organized patriotic speeches before plays & movies

    • Created films to support the war

      • depicted Germans as bestial monsters

Fading opposition to war

Fading Opposition to War

  • Many progressives and intellectuals identified with Wilson’s definition of the war as a defense of democracy.

  • Women’s suffrage leaders who had initially opposed war worked behind the war effort.

    • The war effort gave women a leading role in their communities selling war bonds, coordinating food conservation drives, and working for hospitals and the Red Cross.

    • Many hoped that supporting the war effort would help the suffrage cause.

  • Only a minority maintained their opposition to the war.

You re in the army now

“You’re in the Army Now”

  • Recruiting a large army required a draft that met with only scattered organized resistance.

  • On the first day, nearly 10 million men registered for the draft.

    • By the end of the war 24 million had registered, 2.8 had been called to serve, and 2 million had volunteered.

Chapter twenty two

  • Recruits took a range of psychological and intelligence tests.

    • Stanford-Binet test

      • Revealed illiteracy rates as high as 25%

  • Some praised the army for promoting democratic equality among the troops.

Racism in the military

Racism in the Military

  • But black troops were organized into separate units and subjected to white harassment.

  • Most had noncombat jobs, but those African Americans who did fight served with distinction, and were well treated by the French.

Americans in battle

Americans in Battle

  • Initially, American support for the war effort concentrated on protecting shipping.

    • Using the convoy system

  • The massive influx of American troops and supplies hastened the end of the war.

  • In 1918, fresh American troops shored up defensive lines to stop a German advance that came within fifty miles of Paris.

Chapter twenty two

  • Americans joined the counter-offensive that followed and helped force the Germans into signing an armistice.

  • Approximately 112,000 Americans died—half from disease —and twice that number were wounded. However, these losses were far less than the millions of losses suffered by European nations.

Section 5

Section 5

Over Here

Organizing the economy

Organizing the Economy

  • In a sense, WWI was the ultimate progressive crusade.

  • Wilson established the War Industries Board to coordinate industrial mobilization.

    • Headed by Bernard Baruch, the WIB forced industries to comply with government plans.

      • Meant less laissez faire and more government – business cooperation

  • Herbert Hoover ran the Food Administration.

  • The Fuel Administration introduced daylight saving time.

Chapter twenty two

  • Financing the war required new taxes.

  • Most of the needed financing came from Liberty Bond drives.

  • Wartime developments that continued in the postwar years included

    • The Farm Bureau

    • Lobbyists seeking special interest legislation

    • Government reliance on the income tax

The business of war

The Business of War

  • Government regulations during the war meant less laissez faire and more of a government business cooperation

  • Industrialists saw the war as an opportunity for expansion and high profits.

  • Henry Ford pioneered efficient mass production techniques.

  • Businessmen and farmers saw the war years as a golden age of high demand and high profits.

    • Goods bought on credit to keep up with the high demand

Chapter twenty two

  • The need to coordinate war mobilization:

    • required more efficient management

    • resulted in an unprecedented business-government partnership

  • Government cooperation helped to create new corporations like RCA that set the stage for the new radio broadcasting industry of the 1920s.

  • Some worried about the trend toward a higher government presence in their lives.

Labor and the war

Labor and the War

  • The wartime labor shortage led to higher wages and a growth in union membership.

  • The National War Labor Board (NWLB) included AFL President Samuel Gompers and former President Taft.

    • It mediated wage disputes and arbitrated solutions that generally led to higher wages.

    • The NWLB supported workers’ rights to organize unions and the eight-hour day.

    • Improved working conditions in order to prevent strikes

Chapter twenty two

  • Immigration laws were eased in the Southwest to recruit Mexican workers.

  • The radical IWW was destroyed as businesses and government cracked down on it. Over 300 “Wobblies” were arrested in a single government roundup, effectively destroying the organization.

Chapter twenty two

  • The demand for labor during WWI

    • Increased the support for equal pay for women

    • Support for the time- and- a half pay for overtime

    • Suspension of the Immigration Act of 1917

Women at work

Women at Work

  • The war allowed women to shift from low paid domestic service to higher-paying industrial jobs.

  • The Women in Industry Service advised industry on the use of women workers and won improved conditions.

  • Women earned much less than their male counterparts.

Chapter twenty two

  • Women during WWI

    • Worked in the war industries

    • Entered into the armed forces

    • Worked in manufacturing

    • Women’s Bureau continued the wartime guidelines

Chapter twenty two

  • Women entered directly into the armed forces for the first time

  • At the end of the conflict, nearly all women lost their war-related jobs.

  • Many wartime guidelines were continued by the Women’s Bureau

Woman suffrage

Woman Suffrage

  • The war also brought a successful conclusion to the women’s suffrage campaign.

    • Prior to WWI, women in several western states had won the vote.

    • Most suffragists had opposed entry into the war.

  • Carrie Chapman Catt, a key leader, convinced her organization to back the war effort.

Chapter twenty two

  • Militants like Alice Paul pursued a strategy of agitation.

  • The war made denial of women’s suffrage seem impractical and wrong

  • Catt won Wilson’s support and by 1920 the nineteenth amendment became law.

    • the war helped this amendment



  • During the war, the temperance movement benefited from:

    • anti-German feeling that worked against breweries with German names

    • the need to conserve grain

    • moral fervor associated with the entry into the war

  • Prohibition gained during the war leading to passage of the eighteenth amendment.

Public health

Public Health

  • The war effort also addressed public health issues such as child welfare- enforcing child labor laws

  • The government attempted to safeguard the soldiers’ moral health by discouraging drinking and educating troops on the dangers of venereal disease.

    • Government distribution of condoms to soldiers

  • In the postwar years, clinics for prenatal and obstetrical care greatly reduced the rate of infant and maternal mortality and disease.

Section 6

Section 6

Repression and Reaction

Muzzling dissent the espionage and sedition acts

Muzzling Dissent:The Espionage and Sedition Acts

  • WWI intensified social tensions in American life, leading to oppression of dissent. The Espionage Act of June 1917:

    • Led to an increase in government spying on U.S. citizens.

    • set severe penalties for anyone found guilty of aiding the enemy.

      • It was declared unconstitutional by the Supreme Court

      • It was directed at foreign spies

      • Took aim at those who obstructed military recruitment

Chapter twenty two

  • The Military Intelligence police force grew and a civilian Bureau of Intelligence (precursor to the FBI) was established.

  • The Sedition Act widened the government’s power to crush antiwar opposition.

  • The Supreme Court upheld the constitutionality of these prosecutions.

Chapter twenty two

  • The government decided to suppress dissent in the United States during WWI as a result of

    • Race riots- the worst in U.S. History

    • Militant labor movement

    • Bolshevik Revolution in Russia in 1917

Chapter twenty two

  • Espionage & Sedition Act

The great migration

The Great Migration

  • Economic opportunity triggered a mass African- American migration out of the South and into northern cities.

  • Black women often were the ones who moved north first

Chapter twenty two

  • Kinship and community networks were pivotal to the Great Migration.

    • Black clubs, churches, and fraternal lodges sponsored the migration of their members.

  • Most migrants settled for lower-paid jobs as laborers, janitors, porters, etc.

Racial tensions

Racial Tensions

  • Racial violence in the South had contributed to the Great Migration.

    • The NAACP held a national conference on lynching in 1919 pledging to defend persecuted African Americans, publicize the horrors of the lynch law, and seek legislation against it.

  • In the North, white outrage at the African-American influx exploded in a series of riots.

Chapter twenty two

  • African Americans who had hoped their service in the war would be rewarded were quickly disillusioned.

  • Many returned with an increased sense of militancy.

Labor strife

Labor Strife

  • Peace in Europe shattered the labor peace at home.

  • Postwar labor unrest was caused by:

    • inflation

    • non-recognition of unions

    • poor working conditions

    • concerns about job security

Chapter twenty two

  • In 1919, there were 3,600 strikes involving 4 million workers.

    • they were efforts to retain and advance gains made during the war

  • The largest was the steel strike which involved 350,000 workers and was unsuccessful.

Section 7

Section 7

An Uneasy Peace

The fourteen points

The Fourteen Points

  • Delegates from twenty-seven countries met in Versailles to work out a peace settlement.

  • The leaders of Britain, France, Italy, and the United States dominated the conference

    • The “Big Four”

      • United States

      • France

      • Great Britain

      • Italy

Chapter twenty two

  • Wilson offered his vision for peace in a series of Fourteen Points.

    • The right to “national self-determination”

    • Liberal principles for international behavior such as freedom of the seas

    • Resetting boundaries and let the people practice self-determination

    • International body to keep the peace through collective security

  • The most controversial point was Wilson’s vision of a collective security through a League of Nations as a way to maintain a stable world.

Wilson in paris

Wilson in Paris

  • Wilson’s fellow negotiators shared little of his idealism.

  • His ideal of self-determination found limited expression when independent states were carved out of the homelands of the beaten Central Powers.

  • The victorious Allies seized control of the former German colonies.

Chapter twenty two

  • Treaty of Versailles blamed the war on German aggression

  • Germany was forced to take full responsibility for starting the war and to accept a reparations bill of $33 billion.

  • Wilson was unhappy with many of the compromises in the final treaty but was pleased by the commitment to the League of Nations.

The treaty fight

The Treaty Fight

  • The League did not enjoy wide support at home, however.

    • Republicans had won control of Congress and many senators opposed American participation in any treaty.

    • Some senators were adamant isolationists; others were racist xenophobes.

    • Senate majority leader Henry Cabot Lodge of Massachusetts and many others feared the treaty of Versailles would commit the United States to collective security

Chapter twenty two

  • Wilson went on a grueling speaking tour to drum up support for the League. He collapsed and had a stroke.

  • The Senate defeated the Versailles Treaty because

    • amendments to the treaty could not be agreed upon

    • The “irreconcilables” voted against it in any form

    • The Republicans insisted Article X would compromise U.S. sovereignty

  • Wilson opposed any compromise and the treaty did not pass Congress. The United States never joined the League.

The russian revolution

The Russian Revolution

  • The Bolshevik Revolution of November 1917 led to sending Allied troops into Russia

  • The Bolshevik victory in 1917 changed the climate of foreign and domestic affairs.

  • Wilson sympathized with the overthrow of the czar.

Chapter twenty two

  • In August 1918, Wilson sent American troops into northern and eastern Russia, purportedly to protect railroad connections & pacify Britain & France

    • Some troops actually participated in the Russian civil war against the Bolsheviks.

    • The troops stayed to counter Japanese influence and avoid alienating the French and British.

The red scare

The Red Scare

  • In the United States, the charge of Bolshevism became a weapon against dissent.

  • The Red Scare of 1919 created an atmosphere that suppressed labor, women and change

  • A growing fear of foreigners fueled a new round of government repression.

    • Attorney General A. Mitchell Palmer rounded up 6,000 alleged radicals, despite the absence of any evidence against them.

    • Many were deported without evidence

    • Palmer raids deported hundreds of people without evidence

Chapter twenty two

  • The election of Warren G. Harding in 1920 showed that Americans wanted to retreat from the turmoil of international affairs and “return to normalcy.”

Chapter twenty two




  • Causes of WWI

  • Immediate Cause----June 28, 1914

    • Assassination of Franz Ferdinand of Austria

  • Hostile alliances take effect---War declared

  • Central Powersvs.Allied Powers

    • GermanyGreat Britain

    • Austria/HungaryFrance

    • Ottoman EmpireRussia

  • Trench warfare and the Western Front

  • 3. President Wilson

  • Calls for neutrality = conflicting sympathies

  • US belief = right to trade with all nations

    • Germany and Great Britain violated this policy.

WORLD WAR I, 1914 TO 1918



  • 4. From neutrality to war.

  • German policy

    • Unrestricted submarine warfare= USW

      • U-Boat, sunk the Lusitania (May 7, 1915)

  • Zimmerman Note:Jan. 1917

  • 5. April 8, 1917 US declares war on Germany……

  • Germans violated our trade and neutrality

    • War to end all war

    • The world must be made safe for democracy

  • Side with the Allies




  • President Wilson: The War to End All War

  • War outlook in Jan. 1917

    • Poor for Allies: Why?

  • U.S. troops in France---American Expeditionary Forces

    • Led by General John J. Pershing

      • US Troops

  • 2. Actions of Wilson and Congress

    3. Women in WWI

  • worked in the factories

    • 19th Amendment----women’s suffrage

      4. End of War

  • Nov. 11th = 11-11-11 = end of the war

    • Germans sign an armistice




1. President Wilson’s 14 Points

2. Treaty of Versailles = Big 4 countries

  • Germany was forced to

    • pay war debts = reparations---$53 billion

    • Remain disarmed

    • Lost all colonies

    • Responsible for war

  • Created new countries

  • 3. Wilson’s Problems at Home

  • Senate rejects Treaty of Versailles

    • Does not join the League of Nations…….Why?

      • Lodge vs. Wilson

      • Draw U.S. into another war

      • Took away Congress’s power to declare war.

      • Americans wanted neutrality

  • Notes6


    4.Results of Treaty of Versailles

    • New democracies would fail without US aid

    • Germany: treaty of revenge = leads to WWII

      5. Post war adjustments….

    Chapter twenty two

    The YanksAre Coming!




    General John J. Pershing, commanding general of the AEF. Referred to as the Doughboys and Yanks. 2 million in France by Sept. 1918

    Chapter twenty two

    Americans in the Trenches

    Chapter twenty two

    Expansion of the

    Federal Government

    Council of national defense

    Council of National Defense

    • War Industries Board

      • Bernard Baruch

    • Food Administration

      • Herbert Hoover

    • Railroad Administration

      • William McAdoo

    • National War Labor Board

      • William Howard Taft

    Chapter twenty two

    • War Industries Board

    • To build weapons for the war, US industry would undergo a massive change.

    • From a peacetime industry to a war time industry…..

    • Led by Bernard Baruch, the WIB set prices and determined what goods should be produced by private industry….

    • US Govt. controlled the economy

    • Contradiction?

    Chapter twenty two

    • War Industries Board

    Chapter twenty two


    • Food Administration:Herbert Hoover heads effort to conserve food and boost agricultural output

    • US feeds the world from the farms and ranches in the Great Plains… ”Bread basket of the World”

      • Liberty and victory gardens

      • Meatless and wheatless days

    U s food administration

    U. S. Food Administration

    National war garden commission

    National War Garden Commission

    U s school garden army

    U. S. School Garden Army

    U s shipping board

    U. S. Shipping Board

    U s fuel administration

    U. S. Fuel Administration

    Results of this new organization of the economy is it a move towards socialism

    Results of This New Organization of the Economy Is it a move towards socialism?

    • Unemployment virtually disappeared.

    • Expansion of “big government.”

    • Excessive govt. regulations in eco.

    • Some gross mismanagement --> overlapping jurisdictions.

    • Close cooperation between public and private sectors.

    • Unprecedented opportunities for disadvantaged groups.

    Chapter twenty two


    • Committee on Public Information

    • Creel Committee, headed by George Creel, told Americans what the war was about and to publicize the American aims.

    • Propaganda posters to get Americans to support the war effort.

    Chapter twenty two

    Committee on Public Information

    presidents actions

    Chapter twenty two


    • Selective Service Act

    • May of 1917, President Wilson and Congress pass into legislation a draft or conscription.

    • 21 to 30 yrs. and later extended to 40 yrs. of age.

    • Contradiction?

    congress actions

    1917 selective service act


    1917 – Selective Service Act

    • 24,000,000 men registered for the draft by the end of 1918.

      • 2,810,296 drafted and served in WWI

    • 3.7 million men served in WW1 (2,000,000 saw active combat)

      • Volunteers and draftees

    • 400,000 African-Americansserved in segregated units.

    • 15,000 Native-Americans served as scouts, messengers, and snipers in non-segregated units.

    Chapter twenty two


    congress actions

    Congress actions

    congress actions


    • Financing the war:

    • Sale of war bonds.

    • Liberty and victory loans raised $21 billion.

    • Raised income taxes

    Chapter twenty two

    Attacks on

    Civil Liberties

    ( Bill of Rights )

    National security vs civil liberties

    National Security vs. Civil Liberties

    Espionage Act – 1917

    • fforbade actions that obstructed recruitment or efforts to promote insubordination in the military.

    • ordered the Postmaster General to remove Leftist materials from the mail.

    • fines of up to $10,000 and/or up to 20 years in prison.

    • .

    Chapter twenty two


    Espionage & Sedition Act, 1918

    • Provided for up to $10,000 in fines and 20 years in prison for interfering with the war effort or using disloyal language.

    • At least 1,597 persons were arrested, and 41 received prison sentences; newspapers criticizing the government lost mailing privileges.

    • Congress and President Wilson enacted this law to promote patriotism, nationalism and protect the National Security of the US during WWI.

    congress actions

    Chapter twenty two

    National Security vs. Civil Liberties

    Sedition Act – 1918

    • It was a crime to speak against the purchase of war bonds or willfully utter, print, write or publish any disloyal, profane, scurrilous, orabusive languageabout this form of US Govt.,

    • the US Constitution, or the US armed forces or to willfully urge, incite, or advocate any curtailment of production of things necessary or essential to the prosecution of the war…with intent of such curtailment to cripple or hinder, the US in the prosecution of the war.

    Chapter twenty two

    Schenck v. U.S.: Visual

    Schenck v. U.S.: Visual

    Schenck v. U.S.: Visual

    Schenck v. U.S.: Visual

    Schenk vs. United States, 1919

    • In 1917 the United States was at War with Germany. WWI

    • Charles Schenk, a member of the Socialist Party, handed out leaflets condemning the war and urging young men to resist the military draft.

    • He was arrested and convicted for violating the Espionage and Sedition Act of 1917.

    • Schenk took his case to the United States Supreme Court arguing that his constitutional right to freedom of speech had been violated.

    Chapter twenty two

    Schenk vs. United States, 1919


    Can “free speech” be censored or restricted during war time?

    Chapter twenty two

    Schenk vs. United States, 1919

    SC ruling: Disagreed with Schenk

    Majority opinion

    BUT, every act of speech must be judged according to the circumstances in which it was spoken.

    The most stringent protection of free speech would not protect a man in falsely shouting fire in a theater and causing a panic.

    "Words can be weapons . . .The question in every case is whether the words used in such circumstances are of such nature as to create a clear and present danger that they will bring about the substantive evils that Congress has the right to prevent."

    Chapter twenty two

    Schenk vs. United States, 1919

    • Under normal circumstances, his actions would have been protected by 1st amendment

    • The country was at war, Schenk's freedom of speech was not protected.

    • SC ruling meant there were limits to freedom of speech in war time.

    • From the ruling, the Court established the "clear and present danger" principle to decide whether or not certain kinds of speech are protected.

    League cartoon1

    league cartoon1

    League cartoon11

    league cartoon1


    League cartoon12

    league cartoon1


    League cartoon13

    league cartoon1


    Chapter twenty two


    19th Amendment:Women’s Suffrage (1920) Women won the right to vote….Called the “Susan B. Anthony” amendment.

    Chapter twenty two



    Vladamir Lenin Czar Nicholas

    Czar Nicholas and the Romanov Family would be overthrown by Lenin who eventually would start the first Communistic state……

    Chapter twenty two


    • CAUSES

    • Food and fuel shortages

    • Striking workers

    • Terrible loses in WWI

    • Czar was a weak ruler

    • Marxist (communist) propaganda spread by Lenin


    • King overthrown

    • Russia pulls out of the war

    • Russia becomes a communistic country

    • Germany sends Zimmerman Note to Mexico

    Battle fronts

    battle fronts

    Battle fronts1

    battle fronts

    • German offensive in the summer of 1918 to capture Paris, France and win the war.

    • With the help of the U.S., the French and British were able to stop the German advance.

    • Germans surrender and sign an armistice on Nov. 11, 1918 to end the war.

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