Unit 3: Matter & Change
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Topics to be Covered Physical & Chemical Properties Intrinsic v. Extrinsic Properties Physical and Chemical Changes Pure Substances Mixtures States of Matter PowerPoint PPT Presentation


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Unit 3: Matter & Change. Topics to be Covered Physical & Chemical Properties Intrinsic v. Extrinsic Properties Physical and Chemical Changes Pure Substances Mixtures States of Matter. Everything that has mass and takes up space (“volume”) is called matter. What is matter?.

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Topics to be Covered Physical & Chemical Properties Intrinsic v. Extrinsic Properties Physical and Chemical Changes Pure Substances Mixtures States of Matter

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Topics to be covered physical chemical properties intrinsic v extrinsic properties physical and chemical changes pure substances mixtures states of matter

Unit 3: Matter & Change

Topics to be Covered

Physical & Chemical Properties

Intrinsic v. Extrinsic Properties

Physical and Chemical Changes

Pure Substances

Mixtures

States of Matter


Everything that has mass and takes up space volume is called matter

Everything that has mass and takes up space (“volume”) is called matter.

What is matter?


All matter can be described by its properties

All Matter Can be Described

by its Properties

  • Physical v. Chemical

  • Intrinsic v. Extrinsic


Topics to be covered physical chemical properties intrinsic v extrinsic properties physical and chemical changes pure substances mixtures states of matter

All Matter Can be Described

by its Properties

1. Physical properties

  • How the item looks, smells, behaves when it is not changing its identity.

  • (Examples on next slide)


Topics to be covered physical chemical properties intrinsic v extrinsic properties physical and chemical changes pure substances mixtures states of matter

Some Physical Properties of Matter


Topics to be covered physical chemical properties intrinsic v extrinsic properties physical and chemical changes pure substances mixtures states of matter

All Matter Can be Described

by its Properties

  • 2. Chemical properties

  • Can only be observed when a chemical change occurs.

  • Explain how reactive it is.

  • What it reacts with.


Topics to be covered physical chemical properties intrinsic v extrinsic properties physical and chemical changes pure substances mixtures states of matter

Comparison of Physical and Chemical Properties


Intrinsic v extrinsic properties

Intrinsic v. Extrinsic Properties

Intrinsic

also called extensive

Ex: volume and mass

change with the amount of material being measured

Extrinsic

  • Also called “intensive”

  • Ex: density, conductivity, reactivity

  • Do not change with the amount of material being measured.


Topics to be covered physical chemical properties intrinsic v extrinsic properties physical and chemical changes pure substances mixtures states of matter

All Matter Undergoes Changes

  • submicroscopic (too small to see)

  • OR

  • macroscopic (big enough to see)

  • physical

  • OR

  • chemical


Topics to be covered physical chemical properties intrinsic v extrinsic properties physical and chemical changes pure substances mixtures states of matter

All Matter Undergoes Changes

  • What we observe macroscopically (smell, bubbles forming, color changes, combustion)

  • indicates what is happening microscopically (breaking and forming of bonds between atoms)


Use of models

Use of Models

  • Sometimes we use MODELS to help us understand what is happening at the submicroscopic level

  • These models are powerful tools to help scientists predict the results of experiments.

  • Ex: solar system


Topics to be covered physical chemical properties intrinsic v extrinsic properties physical and chemical changes pure substances mixtures states of matter

Physical Changes

  • 1. Substance changes in form or appearance but does not change its chemical composition.

    • Ex1: all phase changes (ex: ice melting)

    • Ex2:cutting a piece of wood into small pieces

  • 2. Properties of that substance do not change

    • Ex: melting point

    • Ex: boiling point

    • Ex: chemical composition

  • 3.Can be reversible* or irreversible


Topics to be covered physical chemical properties intrinsic v extrinsic properties physical and chemical changes pure substances mixtures states of matter

Chemical Changes

1. A substance changes into something new.

2. Occurs due to a chemical reaction.

3. Properties of the original substance change. Ex:the density, melting point or freezing point of original substance changes.

4. Common signs of a chemical change are often observed (Ex: bubbles form, mass changes, heat releases, etc).

5. Usually irreversible.


Classifying matter by composition what it s made of

Classifying Matter by Composition (what it’s made of)

  • Substance

  • Mixture

ALL MATTER IS EITHER A

OR

Don’t Copy: Leave a page in your notes for this flow chart. We will complete it in class.


Topics to be covered physical chemical properties intrinsic v extrinsic properties physical and chemical changes pure substances mixtures states of matter

A Substance

(Don’t copy: will go on flow chart.)

  • 1. Can’t be further broken down by physical means.

  • 2. Is pure matter

  • 3. Has its own characteristic properties that are different from those of any other substance.

  • 4. Has fixed composition-every sample is the same throughout


Topics to be covered physical chemical properties intrinsic v extrinsic properties physical and chemical changes pure substances mixtures states of matter

Compounds

Made of 2+ elements combined chemically.

Can be decomposed into simpler substances by chemical changes.

Elements always in a definite ratio

Ex: H2O, NaCl

Elements

Cannot be decomposed into simpler substances by chemical changes

Ex: H, He, Li, Va

2 Types of substances

(Don’t copy: will go on flow chart.)


Topics to be covered physical chemical properties intrinsic v extrinsic properties physical and chemical changes pure substances mixtures states of matter

A Mixture

(Don’t copy: will go on flow chart.)

1. 2 or more substances that are put together but NOT chemically combined.

2. Components retain their characteristic properties

3. May be separated into pure substances by physical methods

4. Composition varies from sample to sample.


Topics to be covered physical chemical properties intrinsic v extrinsic properties physical and chemical changes pure substances mixtures states of matter

2 Types of Mixtures

(Don’t copy: will go on flow chart.)

  • Heterogeneous-

  • different composition throughout

  • large pieces-easily separated by physical means (ex: density, filtration)

  • ex: salad dressing

  • Homogeneous-

  • same composition throughout

  • ex: Kool-Aid


Topics to be covered physical chemical properties intrinsic v extrinsic properties physical and chemical changes pure substances mixtures states of matter

What are solutions?

  • Solutions are homogeneous mixtures in which there is a solvent& a solute.

  • Examples: sugar water, 40% isopropyl (rubbing) alcohol, brass

  • Solvent: substance that dissolves another substance. Ex: water

  • Solute: substance that is being dissolved. Ex: sugar


Topics to be covered physical chemical properties intrinsic v extrinsic properties physical and chemical changes pure substances mixtures states of matter

What are aqueous solutions?

Solutions in which the solvent is water!

Why do you think they are important?


Topics to be covered physical chemical properties intrinsic v extrinsic properties physical and chemical changes pure substances mixtures states of matter

What are alloys?

  • homogenous mixtures in which 2 or more metals have been combined.

  • Examples: steel, 10 carat gold


Separating mixtures

Separating Mixtures

Filtration

Distillation

separates a sol’n in which the solvent has a low BP & the solute has a high BP.

Boil away the solvent, then collect in a separate container. see picture on p 47 (CHemIH) or

  • Process that separates a solid from a liquid

  • Uses a filter that has holes that allow liquid to escape, but solid particles are too large

    Decanting

  • Pouring a liquid off the top of a solid or another liquid.


Distillation apparatus

Distillation Apparatus

(Don’t copy, but leave room in notes. I will have you copy a diagram.)


Topics to be covered physical chemical properties intrinsic v extrinsic properties physical and chemical changes pure substances mixtures states of matter

Law of

Conservation of Matter

  • Matter cannot be created nor destroyed.

  • It is just converted from one form to another.


Topics to be covered physical chemical properties intrinsic v extrinsic properties physical and chemical changes pure substances mixtures states of matter

States of Matter &

Kinetic Molecular Theory

KMT: Particles of matter are in constant motion

  • STATES OF MATTER ARE:

  • Solid

  • Liquid

  • Gas

  • Plasma

  • Others


Topics to be covered physical chemical properties intrinsic v extrinsic properties physical and chemical changes pure substances mixtures states of matter

Solids

  • Have definite shape

  • Particles are in fixed positions

  • Have definite volume

  • Particles touch so they can’t be compressed

  • Particles move: they vibrate & rotate


Topics to be covered physical chemical properties intrinsic v extrinsic properties physical and chemical changes pure substances mixtures states of matter

Liquids

  • Have no definite shape

    • Particles “flow” past one another.

    • Move more rapidly & freely than in solids.

  • Have definite volume

    • Particles touch so they can’t be compressed

  • Particles have “flow” (move around one another freely)


Topics to be covered physical chemical properties intrinsic v extrinsic properties physical and chemical changes pure substances mixtures states of matter

Gases

  • Have no definite shape

    • Particles “flow” past one another.

  • Have an indefinite volume

    • Particles are far apart from one another

    • Particles move much more quickly than in liquids.


Topics to be covered physical chemical properties intrinsic v extrinsic properties physical and chemical changes pure substances mixtures states of matter

Plasma

  • Ionized gas-made of ions and their freed electrons

  • Produced at very high temperatures

  • Most common state of matter in the universe-about 99% of known matter.

  • Least common on Earth

  • Found in plasma TVs, fluorescent lights


Topics to be covered physical chemical properties intrinsic v extrinsic properties physical and chemical changes pure substances mixtures states of matter

States of Matter


Topics to be covered physical chemical properties intrinsic v extrinsic properties physical and chemical changes pure substances mixtures states of matter

  • PRODUCTS IN WHICH PLASMAS ARE USED:

  • (Copy a few of interest to you.)

  • Computer chips &integrated circuits

  • Computer hard drives

    • Electronics

  • Machine tools

  • Medical implants&prosthetics

  • Audio and video tapes

  • Aircraft & auto engine parts

  • Printing on plastic food containers

  • Energy-efficient window coatings

  • High-efficiency window coatings

  • Safe drinking water

  • Voice and data communications components

  • Anti-scratch and anti-glare coatings on eyeglasses and other optics


Topics to be covered physical chemical properties intrinsic v extrinsic properties physical and chemical changes pure substances mixtures states of matter

  • Plasma-Based Water Treatment for Water Sterilization (DO NOT COPY)

  • intense UV emission disables the DNA of micro-organisms in the water which then can’t replicate.

  • no effect on taste or smell of the water and the technique only takes about 12 seconds.


Topics to be covered physical chemical properties intrinsic v extrinsic properties physical and chemical changes pure substances mixtures states of matter

Plasma-Based UV Water Treatment Sytems, cont. (DO NOT COPY)

  • effective against all water-born bacteria and viruses.

  • especially relevant to the needs of developing countries b/c they can be made simple to use and have low maintenance and low cost.

  • use about 20,000 times less energy than boiling water!


Topics to be covered physical chemical properties intrinsic v extrinsic properties physical and chemical changes pure substances mixtures states of matter

FYI: The slides that follow are for your interest

(Don’t need to copy any more from this slide show.)


Topics to be covered physical chemical properties intrinsic v extrinsic properties physical and chemical changes pure substances mixtures states of matter

  • Sir William Crookes, an English physicist, identified a fourth state of matter, now called plasma, in 1879

  • The word "PLASMA" was first applied to ionized gas by Dr. Irving Langmuir, an American chemist and physicist, in 1929.


Topics to be covered physical chemical properties intrinsic v extrinsic properties physical and chemical changes pure substances mixtures states of matter

Star formation in the Eagle NebulaSpace Telescope Science Institute, NASA

(below)

(Above)

X-ray view of Sun from Yohkoh, ISAS and NASA


Topics to be covered physical chemical properties intrinsic v extrinsic properties physical and chemical changes pure substances mixtures states of matter

Plasma radiation within the Princeton Tokamak during operation.


Topics to be covered physical chemical properties intrinsic v extrinsic properties physical and chemical changes pure substances mixtures states of matter

Laser plasma interaction during inertial confinement fusion test at the University of Rochester.


Topics to be covered physical chemical properties intrinsic v extrinsic properties physical and chemical changes pure substances mixtures states of matter

  • PLASMA

  • a collection of free-moving electrons and ions - atoms that have lost electrons.

  • Energy is needed to strip electrons from atoms to make plasma.

  • The energy can be of various origins: thermal, electrical, or light (ultraviolet light or intense visible light from a laser).

  • With insufficient sustaining power, plasmas recombine into neutral gas.


Topics to be covered physical chemical properties intrinsic v extrinsic properties physical and chemical changes pure substances mixtures states of matter

Plasma can be accelerated and steered by electric and magnetic fields which allows it to be controlled and applied. Plasma research is yielding a greater understanding of the universe. It also provides many practical uses: new manufacturing techniques, consumer products, and the prospect of abundant energy.


Topics to be covered physical chemical properties intrinsic v extrinsic properties physical and chemical changes pure substances mixtures states of matter

Products manufacturedusing plasmas impact our daily lives:


Topics to be covered physical chemical properties intrinsic v extrinsic properties physical and chemical changes pure substances mixtures states of matter

Plasma technologies are important in industries with annual world markets approaching $200 billion

  • Waste processing

  • Coatings and films

  • Electronics

  • Computer chips and integrated circuits

  • Advanced materials (e.g., ceramics)

  • High-efficiency lighting


Topics to be covered physical chemical properties intrinsic v extrinsic properties physical and chemical changes pure substances mixtures states of matter

Environmental impact:

Drastically Reduce Landfill Size


Topics to be covered physical chemical properties intrinsic v extrinsic properties physical and chemical changes pure substances mixtures states of matter

High-temperature plasmas in arc furnaces can convert, in principle, any combination of materials to a vitrified or glassy substance with separation of molten metal. Substantial recycling is made possible with such furnaces and the highly stable, nonleachable, vitrified material can be used in landfills with essentially no environmental impact.


Topics to be covered physical chemical properties intrinsic v extrinsic properties physical and chemical changes pure substances mixtures states of matter

Environmental impact:

Electron-beam generated plasma reactors can clean up hazardous chemical waste or enable soil remediation. Such systems are highly efficient and reasonably portable, can treat very low concentrations of toxic substances, and can treat a wide range of substances.


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