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Figure 6-5 (continued fasting). Energy Balance and Weight Management. ENERGY IN Regulation of food intake: Hunger Satiation and satiety Appetite. ENERGY OUT. Energy expenditure at rest:

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Energy balance and weight management
Energy Balance and Weight Management

ENERGY IN

  • Regulation of food intake:

  • Hunger

  • Satiation and satiety

  • Appetite


Energy out
ENERGY OUT

  • Energy expenditure at rest:

  • BMR - basal metabolic rate: rate of energy expended at rest (kcal/hr or kcal/day), also called RMR (resting metabolic rate).

  • Factors that affect BMR (page 257)


Energy out1
ENERGY OUT

  • Energy expenditure for physical activity:

  • Depends on the activity duration, type, and intensity (page 255)

  • Also affected by body size and fitness level


Energy out2
ENERGY OUT

  • NEAT is the energy associated with unintentional activities like fidgeting, maintenance of posture, or spontaneous muscle contraction


Energy out3
ENERGY OUT

  • Energy expenditure to process food:

  • Thermic effect of food (TEF) – the energy used to digest, absorb, and metabolize energy-yielding food

  • TEF is lower for fat than for carbohydrate and protein

  • TEF peaks one hour after eating, and normally dissipates within 5 hours

  • Accounts for ~10% of total energy expenditure


Components of energy expenditure
Components of Energy Expenditure

  • Physical Activity = 30-50%

  • TEF = 10%

  • BMR = 50-65%


Measurement of energy expenditure
MEASUREMENT of ENERGY EXPENDITURE

  • Estimating energy expenditure:

  • EER – an equation used to estimate REE based on age, weight, height, and sex

  • Page 257


Body composition
BODY COMPOSITION

  • Assessing body weight:

  • weight tables

  • body mass index (BMI) =

    weight (kg)

    height (m2)


Body composition1
BODY COMPOSITION

  • As the BMI table shows, healthy weight falls between a BMI of approximately 18.5 and 24.9.


Body fat distribution
BODY FAT DISTRIBUTION

  • gynoid obesity (pear-shaped figure), more common in women

  • android obesity (apple-shaped figure), more common in men

    • increases risk of heart disease and diabetes mellitus (Type II)



What causes obesity current thinking
WHAT CAUSES OBESITY?Current Thinking

  • Hereditary and genetic factors

  • Sociocultural influences

  • Age and lifestyle

  • Sex

  • Race and ethnicity

  • Socioeconomic status

  • Employment

  • Psychological factors


Energy imbalance overweight and obesity
ENERGY IMBALANCE: Overweight and Obesity

  • Health risks (page 265)

  • Prevalence of overweight and obesity – it is a worldwide public health problem. We are now seeing an obesity epidemic in children as well as adults.


Obesity in our children
OBESITY in our CHILDREN

  • National Center for Health Statistics suggests nearly 25% of children are overweight or obese

  • There are now about 5 million obese children in the United States – up by 50% since 1991


Obesity in our children1
OBESITY in our CHILDREN

A 1999 Survey of Seattle High Schools showed that:

  • 9% of males and 6% of females were overweight


Health consequences
HEALTH CONSEQUENCES

  • Overweight children and adolescents are more likely to become overweight or obese adults

  • Type 2 diabetes, high blood lipids, hypertension, early maturation and orthopedic problems also occur with increased frequency in overweight youth


Economic consequences
ECONOMIC CONSEQUENCES

  • In 2000, the total cost of obesity was estimated to be $117 billion

  • Most of the cost associated with obesity is due to type 2 diabetes, coronary heart disease, and hypertension


Weight management what works
WEIGHT MANAGEMENTWhat Works?????

  • Unfortunately, there is no magic pill, no perfect diet. The simple fact is, if you consume more calories than you burn, you will gain weight

  • A slow weight loss (1-2 pounds per week) is the best way

  • To lose 1 pound of fat, you must burn an extra 3500 calories (in one week that = 500 calories per day)


Weight management
WEIGHT MANAGEMENT

  • Important Components:

    • Diet composition

    • Physical activity

    • Behavioral change

    • Balancing acceptance and change

    • Support!


Diet composition
DIET COMPOSITION

  • A Healthful Eating Plan Involves:

    • Realistic energy intake

    • Nutritional adequacy

    • Small portions, small frequent meals

    • Reduced simple sugar and alcohol intake

    • Adequate water


Physical activity
PHYSICAL ACTIVITY

  • Contributions to weight loss and maintenance:

    • Direct increases in energy output (muscles and cardiovascular system)

    • Indirect energy output (elevated BMR)

    • Appetite control

    • Psychological benefits

  • Note: Spot reducing is not possible.


Behavioral change

Figure 7-7 Food and Activity Diary

BEHAVIORAL CHANGE

  • Behavior modification: the changing of behavior by the manipulation of antecedents (cues or environmental factors that trigger behavior), the behavior itself, and consequences (the penalties or rewards attached to behavior).


Support
SUPPORT

  • Family

  • Friends

  • Weight Loss Support Groups


Weight management1
WEIGHT MANAGEMENT

  • Adjuncts to treatment

    • Drugs

    • Self-help activities

    • Commercial programs

    • Professional private counselors

    • Surgery: gastric bypass, gastric banding


Why is abdominal fat bad
Why is abdominal fat bad?

  • http://www.health.harvard.edu/newsweek/Abdominal-fat-and-what-to-do-about-it.htm


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