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Chapter 35 The Republican Revolution. New Right/Moral Majority. New Right – Provided Reagan’s strongest support Moral Majority – Fundamentalist Christian organization led by Rev. Jerry Falwell Shared many of same political goals For – school prayer, strong defense, free economy

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new right moral majority
New Right/Moral Majority
  • New Right –
    • Provided Reagan’s strongest support
  • Moral Majority –
    • Fundamentalist Christian organization led by Rev. Jerry Falwell
  • Shared many of same political goals
    • For – school prayer, strong defense, free economy
    • Against – abortion, gun control
assassination attempt
Assassination Attempt
  • March 30, 1981
    • Reagan shot outside Washington Hilton by John Hinckley, Jr. after giving a speech
    • Just 69 days into term
    • Hinckley fired six shots in 1.7 seconds
    • Reagan hurried into limo and taken to George Washington University Hospital
    • Lost a lot of blood and almost didn’t make it
    • Hinckley remains in a mental facility
reaganomics
Reaganomics
  • Supply-side economics/”Reaganomics”
    • “Trickle-down” theory that lowering top income tax rates would cause economic growth
    • Supporters –
      • Said that people would invest their savings in business, creating jobs, more spending and tax revenue
    • Critics – favored wealthy Americans
    • Also cut EPA budget and reduced programs for less fortunate but raised defense spending
reaganomics1
Reaganomics
  • 1982 recession causes rising interest rates and budget deficit
  • Deregulation –
    • Government stopped telling businesses where they could operate and how much they could charge
    • Air Traffic Controllers strike August 1981
  • Result – Inflation down to 4% by 1983
    • People start spending again, stock market soars
trouble abroad
Trouble Abroad
  • Central America
    • Sandinistas in Nicaragua and civil war in El Salvador
  • Middle East –
    • Lebanon – Civil War between Christians and Muslims started in 1975
    • Israel – invaded Lebanon in 1982 to stop PLO
    • U.S., France, Britain and Italy send troops as peacekeepers
beirut lebanon
Beirut, Lebanon
  • April 1983 – 47 killed in bombing at U.S. Embassy
  • October 23 – Suicide bombing of Marine barracks kills 241 American soldiers
  • February 1984 – Reagan withdraws soldiers
slide14

Election of 1984

  • Democrats –
    • Walter Mondale wins over (was Carter’s VP) vs. Colorado Sen. Gary Hart and Rev. Jesse Jackson
    • Hart to Mondale – “Where’s the beef?”
  • Rep. Geraldine Ferraro of New York nominated for VP
    • “By choosing an American woman to run for our nation’s second-highest office, you send a powerful signal to all Americans… There are no doors we cannot unlock. We will place no limits on achievement. If we can do this, we can do anything.”
  • Result – Reagan wins 525-13, top margin
supreme court
Supreme Court
  • Sandra Day O’Connor –named by Reagan in 1981 to become first woman on the Supreme Court
  • Reagan named three conservative justices to the Court and also moved William Rehnquist up to Chief Justice in 1986
economics under reagan
Economics under Reagan
  • Tax cuts 1985
  • Budget deficit reaches $2 trillion in 1986
  • Insider trading –
    • Use of confidential information for personal gain on the Stock Market
  • Stock market up 230% from August 1982 to August 1987
  • Black Monday – October 19, 1987 –
    • Stock market falls 508 points, some stocks lost 30% of value
  • S&L crisis (1987-88) –
    • Many banks went out of business when risky loans to developers went unpaid, many legislators covered
challenger disaster
Challenger disaster
  • Explosion –
    • Space shuttle Challenger blows up 74 seconds after takeoff at Cape Canaveral on Jan. 28, 1986, all seven astronauts killed
      • Temperatures below freezing night before launch
  • Christa McAuliffe –
    • N.H. Social Studies teacher was supposed to be first civilian in space
  • Shuttle program on hold for 2 years, ended in 2011
iran contra affair
Iran-Contra affair
  • What happened?
    • U.S. sold arms to Iran through Israel in attempt to gain release of U.S. hostages in Lebanon
    • Funds were illegally diverted to Contras in Nicaragua
  • Oliver North –
    • Marine colonel and White House aide who funneled the money to the Contras
    • Program was approved by National Security Adviser and CIA director
  • Reagan cleared of any direct involvement but Congress said he should have known
slide24

Election of 1988

  • Candidates –
    • Republican V.P. George H.W. Bush vs. Democrat Mass. Gov. Michael Dukakis
  • Rev. Jesse Jackson –
    • African American leader ran for nomination in ‘84 and ‘88, came up just short both times
  • Willie Horton campaign ad, portrays Dukakis as soft on crime
  • Bush – “Read my lips, no new taxes!” and “a thousand points of light”
  • Result – Bush wins easily 426-111
life in the 80s
Life in the 80s
  • Economy
    • Yuppies –
      • Young Urban Professionals, took advantage of increased jobs in financial industry
    • Single-parent families in cities more than doubled
  • Science and Technology
    • PC explosion
    • AIDS – Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome, Magic Johnson HIV 1991
slide27

War on Drugs

  • What was it?
    • Federal program to provide more money to fight drug smuggling and illegal drug use
  • Panama – December 20, 1989
    • Invasion –
      • Marines invade Panama to arrest dictator and smuggler Manuel Noriega and bring him back to U.S. for trial
      • Marines blasted rock music to annoy Noriega, who had taken refuge at the Vatican embassy
    • 1992 – Noriega convicted and sentenced to 40 years
      • Has since served time in France and Panama
persian gulf war
Persian Gulf War
  • August 2, 1990 – Iraq invades Kuwait, controls 20% of oil
  • US sends over 500,000 troops to Saudi Arabia
  • January 15, 1991 – UN deadline for Iraq to withdraw from Kuwait
  • Operation Desert Storm (1/17/91) – multi-national effort led by U.S. to remove Iraq from Kuwait
  • Feb. 22, 1991 – Ground war
  • Feb. 28 – cease-fire
  • Norman Schwarzkopf – commander of U.S. forces in the Middle East
clarence thomas hearings
Clarence Thomas Hearings
  • 1991 – Thurgood Marshall, first African American on the Supreme Court, retires after 24 years
  • Clarence Thomas
    • 43-year-old federal judge named to replace Marshall, served as head of EEOC under Reagan
    • Polar opposite from Marshall
    • Anita Hill – accused Thomas of sexual harassment
    • Result – Thomas confirmed 52-48 in Senate
    • People become more aware of sexual harassment
slide39

Rodney King/L.A. Riots

  • March 3, 1991 –
    • Motorist Rodney King beaten by four LAPD officers after high-speed chase
  • April 29, 1992
    • Riots break out across L.A. after four white cops found not guilty in King beating
  • May 1 – “Can we all get along” – King
  • Total cost –
    • 53 dead, 4,000 injured, over $1 billion in property damage
    • Cops were retried in federal court on civil rights charges, two convicted and sent to prison
slide40

Rodney King/L.A. Riots

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=SW1ZDIXiuS4

slide44

Election of 1992

  • Candidates – President Bush (R) vs. Arkansas Gov. Bill Clinton (D)
  • Bush – 90% approval rating December 1991
  • Reform Party – Texas billionaire oilman H. Ross Perot starts a third party campaign
    • Perot used his own money to fund his campaign, including 30 and 60-minute infomercials on prime time network TV
  • Issues – “It’s the economy, stupid.”
    • Unemployment at 7.8% in June 1992, 8-year high
  • Result – Clinton wins (43%, 370), Bush (37%, 168), Perot 19% but no electoral votes
    • First baby boomer President
early clinton administration
Early Clinton Administration
  • Clinton has trouble getting his proposals through Congress
    • Health care was a major goal going in, but was never passed by Congress
  • North American Free Trade Agreeement (NAFTA)
    • Eliminated tariffs and trade barriers with Canada and Mexico
    • Clinton said it would create jobs and economic growth
    • Opponents said jobs would be lost to Mexico
contract with america
Contract with America
  • What was it? Republican plan before 1994 midterm elections to balance the federal budget and make other reforms
  • Republicans gain control of both House and Senate for first time since 1952
  • Result – Contract stalls out
slide49

End of Apartheid/Mandela

  • Apartheid – official South African policy separating races
  • Nelson Mandela – leader of an anti-apartheid group who spent almost 30 years in prison
  • 1994 – After being released in 1990, Mandela elected 1st black president
slide50

Terrorism

  • December 21, 1988
    • 270 killed when Pan Am 103 explodes over Scotland
    • 35 Syracuse students returning from study
  • Libya responsible
    • Bomber just died in 2012, was released early in 2009
slide51

Terrorism

  • February 26, 1993 –
    • Bomb blast at World Trade Center, six killed, more than 1,000 hurt
  • April 19, 1993 –
    • Branch Davidians– Waco, Texas
  • April 19, 1995 –
    • Federal building in Oklahoma City destroyed by truck bomb, 168 killed
    • Timothy McVeigh and Terry Nichols
slide53

Terrorism/School violence

  • July 27, 1996 –
    • Bomb during Atlanta Olympics
    • 1 person killed, 100 injured
    • Bomber had also bombed abortion clinics in South
  • April 20, 1999 –
    • Columbine High School shooting in suburban Denver
    • 12 students and 1 teacher killed, 2 killers commit suicide
slide54

Global Conflict

  • 1993 – Somalia – “Black Hawk Down”
    • Warlords hijack aid shipments meant for people
    • UN troops unable to establish order and US withdraws
  • September 13, 1993 – Oslo Accords
    • Israel and PLO officially recognize each other and set guidelines for Palestinian self-rule
  • Haiti 1994
    • U.S. ousts military dictatorship, allows elected president to return to power
slide55

Global Conflict

  • 1992-1995 – Civil War in former Yugoslavia
    • Starts when Croatia breaks away
    • Worsens when Bosnia-Herzegovina declares independence
    • Three different ethnic groups in Bosnia – Croats, Serbs and Muslims
    • Worst violence came in 1995 Bosnia-Herzegovina
    • Serbian leaders arrested for war crimes
slide58

Election of 1996

  • Candidates – President Clinton (D) vs. Kansas Sen. Bob Dole (R)
  • Reform Party – Ross Perot runs again
  • Clinton much more moderate than in 1992. Why?
  • Result – Clinton wins easily (49%, 379), Dole (40%, 159), Perot down to 8% and still no electoral votes
    • 1st Democrat since FDR to win second term
slide60

Good Times

  • U.S. enjoys largest and longest economic boom in history
  • Why?
    • Booming stock market, even when some companies weren’t turning a profit
    • Low unemployment and low inflation, usually don’t have both at the same time
    • Lots of corporate mergers
    • Upper class benefits most, mixed impact to middle and lower classes
slide62

Clinton impeachment

  • Double trouble – Clinton sued in 1994 for alleged sexual harassment (Paula Jones) and then investigated for financial dealings while Arkansas governor
  • Kenneth Starr – independent counsel who investigated Whitewater financial affair
  • 1995 – Clinton begins affair with White House intern Monica Lewinsky
  • 1996 – Lewinsky transferred to Pentagon, begins telling colleague Linda Tripp about affair
slide63

Clinton impeachment

  • 1997 – Tripp begins recording conversations with Lewinsky, tips off Starr
  • Hot water – Clinton accused of lying during deposition about affair with Lewinsky
  • Jan. 26, 1998 – “I did not have sexual relations with that woman, Ms. Lewinsky”
  • August 17, 1998 – Clinton testifies to grand jury, later admits on TV about affair with Lewinsky
  • December 20, 1998 – Clinton 2nd President to be impeached
  • February 12, 1999 – Clinton not guilty on two counts
slide66

Computer Age

  • Mid-1990s – 40% of American homes have PCs
  • Bill Gates – Microsoft founder
  • Internet/World Wide Web –
    • Allows computers to communicate easily with each other
    • Creates the “information superhighway”
  • Tech stocks soar – “dot-com” stocks soar in value in late 90s, crash in early 2000s
  • Y2K –
    • Fear that computers would be incompatible with year 2000 and society would be paralyzed
    • Much ado about nothing, passes without incident
slide67

Election of 2000

  • Candidates – Vice President Gore (D) vs. Texas Gov. George W. Bush (R)
  • Several states too close to call on Election Night
  • Controversy – Florida decided by 537 votes, automatic recount triggers disputes
    • “Hanging chads”
  • Bush v. Gore (Dec. 12, 1999) –
    • Supreme Court rules hand recounts not valid, gives Florida to Bush
  • Result –
    • Gore has more popular votes, but Bush wins Electoral College 271-266
slide70

9/11/2001

  • 8:46 am – American Airlines Flight 11 crashes into World Trade Center North Tower
  • 9:03 am – United 175 hits the South Tower
  • 9:40 am – American 77 hits the Pentagon
  • 9:42 am – FAA grounds all flights over, or bound for, continental U.S.
  • 9:59 am – South Tower collapses
  • 10:10 am – United 93 crashes near Shanksville, Pa.
  • 10:28 am – North Tower collapses
  • 11:02 – NYC Mayor Rudolph Giuliani orders evacuation south of Canal St., over 1 million people
slide71

9/11/2001

  • Death toll – 2,819 total, 265 aboard the four planes
  • Introduction of al-Qaeda – Osama bin Laden named prime suspect
    • Already wanted for 1998 bombings of US embassies in Kenya and Tanzania and 2000 bombing of USS Cole
  • Costs estimated at $25 billion for physical damage
  • President Bush 9/20/01
    • “We will not tire, we will falter, we will not fail.”
  • War on Terror begins – U.S. launches attacks on Taliban in Afghanistan (10/7/01)
  • May 2, 2011 – Osama bin Laden killed by US Navy Seals in Pakistan
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