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Chapter 35 The Republican Revolution. New Right/Moral Majority. New Right – Provided Reagan’s strongest support Moral Majority – Fundamentalist Christian organization led by Rev. Jerry Falwell Shared many of same political goals For – school prayer, strong defense, free economy

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Chapter 35 the republican revolution

Chapter 35 The Republican Revolution


New right moral majority
New Right/Moral Majority

  • New Right –

    • Provided Reagan’s strongest support

  • Moral Majority –

    • Fundamentalist Christian organization led by Rev. Jerry Falwell

  • Shared many of same political goals

    • For – school prayer, strong defense, free economy

    • Against – abortion, gun control


Assassination attempt
Assassination Attempt

  • March 30, 1981

    • Reagan shot outside Washington Hilton by John Hinckley, Jr. after giving a speech

    • Just 69 days into term

    • Hinckley fired six shots in 1.7 seconds

    • Reagan hurried into limo and taken to George Washington University Hospital

    • Lost a lot of blood and almost didn’t make it

    • Hinckley remains in a mental facility


Reaganomics
Reaganomics

  • Supply-side economics/”Reaganomics”

    • “Trickle-down” theory that lowering top income tax rates would cause economic growth

    • Supporters –

      • Said that people would invest their savings in business, creating jobs, more spending and tax revenue

    • Critics – favored wealthy Americans

    • Also cut EPA budget and reduced programs for less fortunate but raised defense spending



Reaganomics1
Reaganomics

  • 1982 recession causes rising interest rates and budget deficit

  • Deregulation –

    • Government stopped telling businesses where they could operate and how much they could charge

    • Air Traffic Controllers strike August 1981

  • Result – Inflation down to 4% by 1983

    • People start spending again, stock market soars


Trouble abroad
Trouble Abroad

  • Central America

    • Sandinistas in Nicaragua and civil war in El Salvador

  • Middle East –

    • Lebanon – Civil War between Christians and Muslims started in 1975

    • Israel – invaded Lebanon in 1982 to stop PLO

    • U.S., France, Britain and Italy send troops as peacekeepers


Beirut lebanon
Beirut, Lebanon

  • April 1983 – 47 killed in bombing at U.S. Embassy

  • October 23 – Suicide bombing of Marine barracks kills 241 American soldiers

  • February 1984 – Reagan withdraws soldiers




Election of 1984

  • Democrats –

    • Walter Mondale wins over (was Carter’s VP) vs. Colorado Sen. Gary Hart and Rev. Jesse Jackson

    • Hart to Mondale – “Where’s the beef?”

  • Rep. Geraldine Ferraro of New York nominated for VP

    • “By choosing an American woman to run for our nation’s second-highest office, you send a powerful signal to all Americans… There are no doors we cannot unlock. We will place no limits on achievement. If we can do this, we can do anything.”

  • Result – Reagan wins 525-13, top margin



Supreme court
Supreme Court

  • Sandra Day O’Connor –named by Reagan in 1981 to become first woman on the Supreme Court

  • Reagan named three conservative justices to the Court and also moved William Rehnquist up to Chief Justice in 1986


Economics under reagan
Economics under Reagan

  • Tax cuts 1985

  • Budget deficit reaches $2 trillion in 1986

  • Insider trading –

    • Use of confidential information for personal gain on the Stock Market

  • Stock market up 230% from August 1982 to August 1987

  • Black Monday – October 19, 1987 –

    • Stock market falls 508 points, some stocks lost 30% of value

  • S&L crisis (1987-88) –

    • Many banks went out of business when risky loans to developers went unpaid, many legislators covered


Challenger disaster
Challenger disaster

  • Explosion –

    • Space shuttle Challenger blows up 74 seconds after takeoff at Cape Canaveral on Jan. 28, 1986, all seven astronauts killed

      • Temperatures below freezing night before launch

  • Christa McAuliffe –

    • N.H. Social Studies teacher was supposed to be first civilian in space

  • Shuttle program on hold for 2 years, ended in 2011



Iran contra affair
Iran-Contra affair

  • What happened?

    • U.S. sold arms to Iran through Israel in attempt to gain release of U.S. hostages in Lebanon

    • Funds were illegally diverted to Contras in Nicaragua

  • Oliver North –

    • Marine colonel and White House aide who funneled the money to the Contras

    • Program was approved by National Security Adviser and CIA director

  • Reagan cleared of any direct involvement but Congress said he should have known



Election of 1988

  • Candidates –

    • Republican V.P. George H.W. Bush vs. Democrat Mass. Gov. Michael Dukakis

  • Rev. Jesse Jackson –

    • African American leader ran for nomination in ‘84 and ‘88, came up just short both times

  • Willie Horton campaign ad, portrays Dukakis as soft on crime

  • Bush – “Read my lips, no new taxes!” and “a thousand points of light”

  • Result – Bush wins easily 426-111



Life in the 80s
Life in the 80s

  • Economy

    • Yuppies –

      • Young Urban Professionals, took advantage of increased jobs in financial industry

    • Single-parent families in cities more than doubled

  • Science and Technology

    • PC explosion

    • AIDS – Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome, Magic Johnson HIV 1991


War on Drugs

  • What was it?

    • Federal program to provide more money to fight drug smuggling and illegal drug use

  • Panama – December 20, 1989

    • Invasion –

      • Marines invade Panama to arrest dictator and smuggler Manuel Noriega and bring him back to U.S. for trial

      • Marines blasted rock music to annoy Noriega, who had taken refuge at the Vatican embassy

    • 1992 – Noriega convicted and sentenced to 40 years

      • Has since served time in France and Panama




Persian gulf war
Persian Gulf War

  • August 2, 1990 – Iraq invades Kuwait, controls 20% of oil

  • US sends over 500,000 troops to Saudi Arabia

  • January 15, 1991 – UN deadline for Iraq to withdraw from Kuwait

  • Operation Desert Storm (1/17/91) – multi-national effort led by U.S. to remove Iraq from Kuwait

  • Feb. 22, 1991 – Ground war

  • Feb. 28 – cease-fire

  • Norman Schwarzkopf – commander of U.S. forces in the Middle East


Clarence thomas hearings
Clarence Thomas Hearings

  • 1991 – Thurgood Marshall, first African American on the Supreme Court, retires after 24 years

  • Clarence Thomas

    • 43-year-old federal judge named to replace Marshall, served as head of EEOC under Reagan

    • Polar opposite from Marshall

    • Anita Hill – accused Thomas of sexual harassment

    • Result – Thomas confirmed 52-48 in Senate

    • People become more aware of sexual harassment



Chapter 36 Launching the New Millenium


Rodney King/L.A. Riots

  • March 3, 1991 –

    • Motorist Rodney King beaten by four LAPD officers after high-speed chase

  • April 29, 1992

    • Riots break out across L.A. after four white cops found not guilty in King beating

  • May 1 – “Can we all get along” – King

  • Total cost –

    • 53 dead, 4,000 injured, over $1 billion in property damage

    • Cops were retried in federal court on civil rights charges, two convicted and sent to prison


Rodney King/L.A. Riots

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=SW1ZDIXiuS4


Election of 1992

  • Candidates – President Bush (R) vs. Arkansas Gov. Bill Clinton (D)

  • Bush – 90% approval rating December 1991

  • Reform Party – Texas billionaire oilman H. Ross Perot starts a third party campaign

    • Perot used his own money to fund his campaign, including 30 and 60-minute infomercials on prime time network TV

  • Issues – “It’s the economy, stupid.”

    • Unemployment at 7.8% in June 1992, 8-year high

  • Result – Clinton wins (43%, 370), Bush (37%, 168), Perot 19% but no electoral votes

    • First baby boomer President


Early clinton administration
Early Clinton Administration

  • Clinton has trouble getting his proposals through Congress

    • Health care was a major goal going in, but was never passed by Congress

  • North American Free Trade Agreeement (NAFTA)

    • Eliminated tariffs and trade barriers with Canada and Mexico

    • Clinton said it would create jobs and economic growth

    • Opponents said jobs would be lost to Mexico


Contract with america
Contract with America

  • What was it? Republican plan before 1994 midterm elections to balance the federal budget and make other reforms

  • Republicans gain control of both House and Senate for first time since 1952

  • Result – Contract stalls out


End of Apartheid/Mandela

  • Apartheid – official South African policy separating races

  • Nelson Mandela – leader of an anti-apartheid group who spent almost 30 years in prison

  • 1994 – After being released in 1990, Mandela elected 1st black president


Terrorism

  • December 21, 1988

    • 270 killed when Pan Am 103 explodes over Scotland

    • 35 Syracuse students returning from study

  • Libya responsible

    • Bomber just died in 2012, was released early in 2009


Terrorism

  • February 26, 1993 –

    • Bomb blast at World Trade Center, six killed, more than 1,000 hurt

  • April 19, 1993 –

    • Branch Davidians– Waco, Texas

  • April 19, 1995 –

    • Federal building in Oklahoma City destroyed by truck bomb, 168 killed

    • Timothy McVeigh and Terry Nichols


Terrorism/School violence

  • July 27, 1996 –

    • Bomb during Atlanta Olympics

    • 1 person killed, 100 injured

    • Bomber had also bombed abortion clinics in South

  • April 20, 1999 –

    • Columbine High School shooting in suburban Denver

    • 12 students and 1 teacher killed, 2 killers commit suicide


Global Conflict

  • 1993 – Somalia – “Black Hawk Down”

    • Warlords hijack aid shipments meant for people

    • UN troops unable to establish order and US withdraws

  • September 13, 1993 – Oslo Accords

    • Israel and PLO officially recognize each other and set guidelines for Palestinian self-rule

  • Haiti 1994

    • U.S. ousts military dictatorship, allows elected president to return to power


Global Conflict

  • 1992-1995 – Civil War in former Yugoslavia

    • Starts when Croatia breaks away

    • Worsens when Bosnia-Herzegovina declares independence

    • Three different ethnic groups in Bosnia – Croats, Serbs and Muslims

    • Worst violence came in 1995 Bosnia-Herzegovina

    • Serbian leaders arrested for war crimes


Election of 1996

  • Candidates – President Clinton (D) vs. Kansas Sen. Bob Dole (R)

  • Reform Party – Ross Perot runs again

  • Clinton much more moderate than in 1992. Why?

  • Result – Clinton wins easily (49%, 379), Dole (40%, 159), Perot down to 8% and still no electoral votes

    • 1st Democrat since FDR to win second term


Good Times

  • U.S. enjoys largest and longest economic boom in history

  • Why?

    • Booming stock market, even when some companies weren’t turning a profit

    • Low unemployment and low inflation, usually don’t have both at the same time

    • Lots of corporate mergers

    • Upper class benefits most, mixed impact to middle and lower classes


Clinton impeachment

  • Double trouble – Clinton sued in 1994 for alleged sexual harassment (Paula Jones) and then investigated for financial dealings while Arkansas governor

  • Kenneth Starr – independent counsel who investigated Whitewater financial affair

  • 1995 – Clinton begins affair with White House intern Monica Lewinsky

  • 1996 – Lewinsky transferred to Pentagon, begins telling colleague Linda Tripp about affair


Clinton impeachment

  • 1997 – Tripp begins recording conversations with Lewinsky, tips off Starr

  • Hot water – Clinton accused of lying during deposition about affair with Lewinsky

  • Jan. 26, 1998 – “I did not have sexual relations with that woman, Ms. Lewinsky”

  • August 17, 1998 – Clinton testifies to grand jury, later admits on TV about affair with Lewinsky

  • December 20, 1998 – Clinton 2nd President to be impeached

  • February 12, 1999 – Clinton not guilty on two counts



Computer Age reasons?

  • Mid-1990s – 40% of American homes have PCs

  • Bill Gates – Microsoft founder

  • Internet/World Wide Web –

    • Allows computers to communicate easily with each other

    • Creates the “information superhighway”

  • Tech stocks soar – “dot-com” stocks soar in value in late 90s, crash in early 2000s

  • Y2K –

    • Fear that computers would be incompatible with year 2000 and society would be paralyzed

    • Much ado about nothing, passes without incident


Election of 2000 reasons?

  • Candidates – Vice President Gore (D) vs. Texas Gov. George W. Bush (R)

  • Several states too close to call on Election Night

  • Controversy – Florida decided by 537 votes, automatic recount triggers disputes

    • “Hanging chads”

  • Bush v. Gore (Dec. 12, 1999) –

    • Supreme Court rules hand recounts not valid, gives Florida to Bush

  • Result –

    • Gore has more popular votes, but Bush wins Electoral College 271-266


9/11/2001 reasons?

  • 8:46 am – American Airlines Flight 11 crashes into World Trade Center North Tower

  • 9:03 am – United 175 hits the South Tower

  • 9:40 am – American 77 hits the Pentagon

  • 9:42 am – FAA grounds all flights over, or bound for, continental U.S.

  • 9:59 am – South Tower collapses

  • 10:10 am – United 93 crashes near Shanksville, Pa.

  • 10:28 am – North Tower collapses

  • 11:02 – NYC Mayor Rudolph Giuliani orders evacuation south of Canal St., over 1 million people


9/11/2001 reasons?

  • Death toll – 2,819 total, 265 aboard the four planes

  • Introduction of al-Qaeda – Osama bin Laden named prime suspect

    • Already wanted for 1998 bombings of US embassies in Kenya and Tanzania and 2000 bombing of USS Cole

  • Costs estimated at $25 billion for physical damage

  • President Bush 9/20/01

    • “We will not tire, we will falter, we will not fail.”

  • War on Terror begins – U.S. launches attacks on Taliban in Afghanistan (10/7/01)

  • May 2, 2011 – Osama bin Laden killed by US Navy Seals in Pakistan


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