Chapter 35 the republican revolution
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Chapter 35 The Republican Revolution. New Right/Moral Majority. New Right – Provided Reagan’s strongest support Moral Majority – Fundamentalist Christian organization led by Rev. Jerry Falwell Shared many of same political goals For – school prayer, strong defense, free economy

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Chapter 35 The Republican Revolution

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Chapter 35 the republican revolution

Chapter 35 The Republican Revolution


New right moral majority

New Right/Moral Majority

  • New Right –

    • Provided Reagan’s strongest support

  • Moral Majority –

    • Fundamentalist Christian organization led by Rev. Jerry Falwell

  • Shared many of same political goals

    • For – school prayer, strong defense, free economy

    • Against – abortion, gun control


Assassination attempt

Assassination Attempt

  • March 30, 1981

    • Reagan shot outside Washington Hilton by John Hinckley, Jr. after giving a speech

    • Just 69 days into term

    • Hinckley fired six shots in 1.7 seconds

    • Reagan hurried into limo and taken to George Washington University Hospital

    • Lost a lot of blood and almost didn’t make it

    • Hinckley remains in a mental facility


Reaganomics

Reaganomics

  • Supply-side economics/”Reaganomics”

    • “Trickle-down” theory that lowering top income tax rates would cause economic growth

    • Supporters –

      • Said that people would invest their savings in business, creating jobs, more spending and tax revenue

    • Critics – favored wealthy Americans

    • Also cut EPA budget and reduced programs for less fortunate but raised defense spending


Chapter 35 the republican revolution

Reaganomics


Reaganomics1

Reaganomics

  • 1982 recession causes rising interest rates and budget deficit

  • Deregulation –

    • Government stopped telling businesses where they could operate and how much they could charge

    • Air Traffic Controllers strike August 1981

  • Result – Inflation down to 4% by 1983

    • People start spending again, stock market soars


Trouble abroad

Trouble Abroad

  • Central America

    • Sandinistas in Nicaragua and civil war in El Salvador

  • Middle East –

    • Lebanon – Civil War between Christians and Muslims started in 1975

    • Israel – invaded Lebanon in 1982 to stop PLO

    • U.S., France, Britain and Italy send troops as peacekeepers


Beirut lebanon

Beirut, Lebanon

  • April 1983 – 47 killed in bombing at U.S. Embassy

  • October 23 – Suicide bombing of Marine barracks kills 241 American soldiers

  • February 1984 – Reagan withdraws soldiers


Chapter 35 the republican revolution

Beirut, Lebanon


Chapter 35 the republican revolution

Dover Air Force Base, Dover, DE


Chapter 35 the republican revolution

Election of 1984

  • Democrats –

    • Walter Mondale wins over (was Carter’s VP) vs. Colorado Sen. Gary Hart and Rev. Jesse Jackson

    • Hart to Mondale – “Where’s the beef?”

  • Rep. Geraldine Ferraro of New York nominated for VP

    • “By choosing an American woman to run for our nation’s second-highest office, you send a powerful signal to all Americans… There are no doors we cannot unlock. We will place no limits on achievement. If we can do this, we can do anything.”

  • Result – Reagan wins 525-13, top margin


Chapter 35 the republican revolution

Election of 1984


Supreme court

Supreme Court

  • Sandra Day O’Connor –named by Reagan in 1981 to become first woman on the Supreme Court

  • Reagan named three conservative justices to the Court and also moved William Rehnquist up to Chief Justice in 1986


Economics under reagan

Economics under Reagan

  • Tax cuts 1985

  • Budget deficit reaches $2 trillion in 1986

  • Insider trading –

    • Use of confidential information for personal gain on the Stock Market

  • Stock market up 230% from August 1982 to August 1987

  • Black Monday – October 19, 1987 –

    • Stock market falls 508 points, some stocks lost 30% of value

  • S&L crisis (1987-88) –

    • Many banks went out of business when risky loans to developers went unpaid, many legislators covered


Challenger disaster

Challenger disaster

  • Explosion –

    • Space shuttle Challenger blows up 74 seconds after takeoff at Cape Canaveral on Jan. 28, 1986, all seven astronauts killed

      • Temperatures below freezing night before launch

  • Christa McAuliffe –

    • N.H. Social Studies teacher was supposed to be first civilian in space

  • Shuttle program on hold for 2 years, ended in 2011


Challenger disaster1

Challenger disaster


Iran contra affair

Iran-Contra affair

  • What happened?

    • U.S. sold arms to Iran through Israel in attempt to gain release of U.S. hostages in Lebanon

    • Funds were illegally diverted to Contras in Nicaragua

  • Oliver North –

    • Marine colonel and White House aide who funneled the money to the Contras

    • Program was approved by National Security Adviser and CIA director

  • Reagan cleared of any direct involvement but Congress said he should have known


Chapter 35 the republican revolution

Ollie North – Iran-Contra


Chapter 35 the republican revolution

Election of 1988

  • Candidates –

    • Republican V.P. George H.W. Bush vs. Democrat Mass. Gov. Michael Dukakis

  • Rev. Jesse Jackson –

    • African American leader ran for nomination in ‘84 and ‘88, came up just short both times

  • Willie Horton campaign ad, portrays Dukakis as soft on crime

  • Bush – “Read my lips, no new taxes!” and “a thousand points of light”

  • Result – Bush wins easily 426-111


Chapter 35 the republican revolution

Election of 1988


Life in the 80s

Life in the 80s

  • Economy

    • Yuppies –

      • Young Urban Professionals, took advantage of increased jobs in financial industry

    • Single-parent families in cities more than doubled

  • Science and Technology

    • PC explosion

    • AIDS – Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome, Magic Johnson HIV 1991


Chapter 35 the republican revolution

War on Drugs

  • What was it?

    • Federal program to provide more money to fight drug smuggling and illegal drug use

  • Panama – December 20, 1989

    • Invasion –

      • Marines invade Panama to arrest dictator and smuggler Manuel Noriega and bring him back to U.S. for trial

      • Marines blasted rock music to annoy Noriega, who had taken refuge at the Vatican embassy

    • 1992 – Noriega convicted and sentenced to 40 years

      • Has since served time in France and Panama


Chapter 35 the republican revolution

Manuel Noriega -- Panama


Panama

Panama!!


Persian gulf war

Persian Gulf War

  • August 2, 1990 – Iraq invades Kuwait, controls 20% of oil

  • US sends over 500,000 troops to Saudi Arabia

  • January 15, 1991 – UN deadline for Iraq to withdraw from Kuwait

  • Operation Desert Storm (1/17/91) – multi-national effort led by U.S. to remove Iraq from Kuwait

  • Feb. 22, 1991 – Ground war

  • Feb. 28 – cease-fire

  • Norman Schwarzkopf – commander of U.S. forces in the Middle East


Clarence thomas hearings

Clarence Thomas Hearings

  • 1991 – Thurgood Marshall, first African American on the Supreme Court, retires after 24 years

  • Clarence Thomas

    • 43-year-old federal judge named to replace Marshall, served as head of EEOC under Reagan

    • Polar opposite from Marshall

    • Anita Hill – accused Thomas of sexual harassment

    • Result – Thomas confirmed 52-48 in Senate

    • People become more aware of sexual harassment


Chapter 35 the republican revolution

Clarence Thomas hearings


Chapter 35 the republican revolution

Chapter 36 Launching the New Millenium


Chapter 35 the republican revolution

Rodney King/L.A. Riots

  • March 3, 1991 –

    • Motorist Rodney King beaten by four LAPD officers after high-speed chase

  • April 29, 1992

    • Riots break out across L.A. after four white cops found not guilty in King beating

  • May 1 – “Can we all get along” – King

  • Total cost –

    • 53 dead, 4,000 injured, over $1 billion in property damage

    • Cops were retried in federal court on civil rights charges, two convicted and sent to prison


Chapter 35 the republican revolution

Rodney King/L.A. Riots

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=SW1ZDIXiuS4


Chapter 35 the republican revolution

Election of 1992

  • Candidates – President Bush (R) vs. Arkansas Gov. Bill Clinton (D)

  • Bush – 90% approval rating December 1991

  • Reform Party – Texas billionaire oilman H. Ross Perot starts a third party campaign

    • Perot used his own money to fund his campaign, including 30 and 60-minute infomercials on prime time network TV

  • Issues – “It’s the economy, stupid.”

    • Unemployment at 7.8% in June 1992, 8-year high

  • Result – Clinton wins (43%, 370), Bush (37%, 168), Perot 19% but no electoral votes

    • First baby boomer President


Early clinton administration

Early Clinton Administration

  • Clinton has trouble getting his proposals through Congress

    • Health care was a major goal going in, but was never passed by Congress

  • North American Free Trade Agreeement (NAFTA)

    • Eliminated tariffs and trade barriers with Canada and Mexico

    • Clinton said it would create jobs and economic growth

    • Opponents said jobs would be lost to Mexico


Contract with america

Contract with America

  • What was it? Republican plan before 1994 midterm elections to balance the federal budget and make other reforms

  • Republicans gain control of both House and Senate for first time since 1952

  • Result – Contract stalls out


Chapter 35 the republican revolution

End of Apartheid/Mandela

  • Apartheid – official South African policy separating races

  • Nelson Mandela – leader of an anti-apartheid group who spent almost 30 years in prison

  • 1994 – After being released in 1990, Mandela elected 1st black president


Chapter 35 the republican revolution

Terrorism

  • December 21, 1988

    • 270 killed when Pan Am 103 explodes over Scotland

    • 35 Syracuse students returning from study

  • Libya responsible

    • Bomber just died in 2012, was released early in 2009


Chapter 35 the republican revolution

Terrorism

  • February 26, 1993 –

    • Bomb blast at World Trade Center, six killed, more than 1,000 hurt

  • April 19, 1993 –

    • Branch Davidians– Waco, Texas

  • April 19, 1995 –

    • Federal building in Oklahoma City destroyed by truck bomb, 168 killed

    • Timothy McVeigh and Terry Nichols


Chapter 35 the republican revolution

Terrorism/School violence

  • July 27, 1996 –

    • Bomb during Atlanta Olympics

    • 1 person killed, 100 injured

    • Bomber had also bombed abortion clinics in South

  • April 20, 1999 –

    • Columbine High School shooting in suburban Denver

    • 12 students and 1 teacher killed, 2 killers commit suicide


Chapter 35 the republican revolution

Global Conflict

  • 1993 – Somalia – “Black Hawk Down”

    • Warlords hijack aid shipments meant for people

    • UN troops unable to establish order and US withdraws

  • September 13, 1993 – Oslo Accords

    • Israel and PLO officially recognize each other and set guidelines for Palestinian self-rule

  • Haiti 1994

    • U.S. ousts military dictatorship, allows elected president to return to power


Chapter 35 the republican revolution

Global Conflict

  • 1992-1995 – Civil War in former Yugoslavia

    • Starts when Croatia breaks away

    • Worsens when Bosnia-Herzegovina declares independence

    • Three different ethnic groups in Bosnia – Croats, Serbs and Muslims

    • Worst violence came in 1995 Bosnia-Herzegovina

    • Serbian leaders arrested for war crimes


Chapter 35 the republican revolution

Election of 1996

  • Candidates – President Clinton (D) vs. Kansas Sen. Bob Dole (R)

  • Reform Party – Ross Perot runs again

  • Clinton much more moderate than in 1992. Why?

  • Result – Clinton wins easily (49%, 379), Dole (40%, 159), Perot down to 8% and still no electoral votes

    • 1st Democrat since FDR to win second term


Chapter 35 the republican revolution

Good Times

  • U.S. enjoys largest and longest economic boom in history

  • Why?

    • Booming stock market, even when some companies weren’t turning a profit

    • Low unemployment and low inflation, usually don’t have both at the same time

    • Lots of corporate mergers

    • Upper class benefits most, mixed impact to middle and lower classes


Chapter 35 the republican revolution

Clinton impeachment

  • Double trouble – Clinton sued in 1994 for alleged sexual harassment (Paula Jones) and then investigated for financial dealings while Arkansas governor

  • Kenneth Starr – independent counsel who investigated Whitewater financial affair

  • 1995 – Clinton begins affair with White House intern Monica Lewinsky

  • 1996 – Lewinsky transferred to Pentagon, begins telling colleague Linda Tripp about affair


Chapter 35 the republican revolution

Clinton impeachment

  • 1997 – Tripp begins recording conversations with Lewinsky, tips off Starr

  • Hot water – Clinton accused of lying during deposition about affair with Lewinsky

  • Jan. 26, 1998 – “I did not have sexual relations with that woman, Ms. Lewinsky”

  • August 17, 1998 – Clinton testifies to grand jury, later admits on TV about affair with Lewinsky

  • December 20, 1998 – Clinton 2nd President to be impeached

  • February 12, 1999 – Clinton not guilty on two counts


Chapter 35 the republican revolution

Was Clinton impeached for political or Constitutional reasons?


Chapter 35 the republican revolution

Computer Age

  • Mid-1990s – 40% of American homes have PCs

  • Bill Gates – Microsoft founder

  • Internet/World Wide Web –

    • Allows computers to communicate easily with each other

    • Creates the “information superhighway”

  • Tech stocks soar – “dot-com” stocks soar in value in late 90s, crash in early 2000s

  • Y2K –

    • Fear that computers would be incompatible with year 2000 and society would be paralyzed

    • Much ado about nothing, passes without incident


Chapter 35 the republican revolution

Election of 2000

  • Candidates – Vice President Gore (D) vs. Texas Gov. George W. Bush (R)

  • Several states too close to call on Election Night

  • Controversy – Florida decided by 537 votes, automatic recount triggers disputes

    • “Hanging chads”

  • Bush v. Gore (Dec. 12, 1999) –

    • Supreme Court rules hand recounts not valid, gives Florida to Bush

  • Result –

    • Gore has more popular votes, but Bush wins Electoral College 271-266


Chapter 35 the republican revolution

9/11/2001

  • 8:46 am – American Airlines Flight 11 crashes into World Trade Center North Tower

  • 9:03 am – United 175 hits the South Tower

  • 9:40 am – American 77 hits the Pentagon

  • 9:42 am – FAA grounds all flights over, or bound for, continental U.S.

  • 9:59 am – South Tower collapses

  • 10:10 am – United 93 crashes near Shanksville, Pa.

  • 10:28 am – North Tower collapses

  • 11:02 – NYC Mayor Rudolph Giuliani orders evacuation south of Canal St., over 1 million people


Chapter 35 the republican revolution

9/11/2001

  • Death toll – 2,819 total, 265 aboard the four planes

  • Introduction of al-Qaeda – Osama bin Laden named prime suspect

    • Already wanted for 1998 bombings of US embassies in Kenya and Tanzania and 2000 bombing of USS Cole

  • Costs estimated at $25 billion for physical damage

  • President Bush 9/20/01

    • “We will not tire, we will falter, we will not fail.”

  • War on Terror begins – U.S. launches attacks on Taliban in Afghanistan (10/7/01)

  • May 2, 2011 – Osama bin Laden killed by US Navy Seals in Pakistan


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