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David J. O’Connor (1)* , Magdalena Sadyś (2)* , David A. Healy (1) , PowerPoint PPT Presentation


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Atmospheric concentrations of Alternaria, Cladosporium, Ganoderma and Didymella spores at Cork (Ireland) and Worcester ( United Kingdom) in 2010. David J. O’Connor (1)* , Magdalena Sadyś (2)* , David A. Healy (1) , John R. Sodeau (1) , Roy Kennedy (2) , Robert J. Herbert (3 )

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David j o connor 1 magdalena sady 2 david a healy 1

Atmospheric concentrations of Alternaria, Cladosporium, Ganoderma and Didymella sporesat Cork (Ireland) and Worcester (United Kingdom) in 2010

David J. O’Connor (1)*, Magdalena Sadyś (2)*, David A. Healy (1),

John R. Sodeau(1), Roy Kennedy (2), Robert J. Herbert (3)

1Department of Chemistry, University College Cork, Cork, Ireland.

2 National Pollen and Aerobiology Research Unit, University of Worcester, Worcester, United Kingdom.

3 Institute of Science and the Environment, University of Worcester, Worcester, United Kingdom.

* These authors contributed equally to this work.


Introduction

Introduction

The aim of this study was to compare concentration of four allergenic spore types (Alternaria, Cladosporium, Didymella, Ganoderma) and meteorological data obtained from two monitoring stations located on the British Isles: Raffeen Hill, Co. Cork (Ireland) and Worcester (United Kingdom).


Materials and methods

Materials and Methods

  • Sampling period: 1stof May to 31st of July 2010;

  • Sampling sites: Raffeen Hill, Cork (51°50’25”N, 8°22’31”W) and National Pollen and Aerobiology Research Unit in Worcester (52°11’48”N, 2°14’31”W);

  • Sampling methods: two 7-day automatic volumetric spore traps and optical microscopy:

  • 12 horizontal transects under x400 magnification (Cork);

  • one central longitudinal transect under x400 magnification (Worcester);

  • Investigated spore types: Alternaria, Cladosporium, Ganoderma and Didymella ;

  • Weather stations: Casella Nomad Weather Station (Cork), Weather Link (v.9.0) Vantage Pro2 (Worcester);

  • Investigated meteorological factors: air temperature, air pressure, relative humidity, rainfall, solar radiation, wind speed and wind direction;

  • Statistical programmes: SPSS (v. 19.0) and Microsoft Excel (2010).

Worcester

Cork


M onthly sums

Monthly sums


Fungal spore distributions

Fungal spore distributions

Total spore count: 456 s/m3 (C), 1180 s/m3 (W)

Daily mean concentration: 5 s/m3 (C), 13 s/m3 (W)

Max. concentration: 39 s/m3 (C), 83 s/m3 (W)

Date of max. concentration: 21st Jun (C), 29th Jul (W)

Total spore count: 127367 s/m3 (C), 536977 s/m3 (W)

Daily mean concentration: 1400 s/m3 (C), 5837 s/m3 (W)

Max. concentration: 11397 s/m3 (C), 36853 s/m3 (W)

Date of max. concentration: 29th Jun (C), 21st Jul (W)


Fungal spore distributions1

Fungal spore distributions

Total spore count: 2380 s/m3 (C), 4112 s/m3 (W)

Daily mean concentration: 26 s/m3 (C), 73 s/m3 (W)

Max. concentration: 175 s/m3 (C), 911 s/m3 (W)

Date of max. concentration: 20th Jul (C), 22ndJul (W)

Total spore count: 4112 s/m3 (C), 7066 s/m3 (W)

Daily mean concentration: 45 s/m3 (C), 77 s/m3 (W)

Max. concentration: 163 s/m3 (C), 218 s/m3 (W)

Date of max. concentration: 25th Jul (C), 9th Jul (W)


Correlations square rooted data

Correlations – square rooted data

Tab.1 Spearman’s rank correlation coefficients for normalized daily mean spore counts and meteorological parameters

Abbreviations: 1. Alternaria; 2. Cladosporium; 3. Didymella; 4. Ganoderma.

* Correlation is significant at the 0.05 level (2-tailed). ** Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level (2-tailed).


Regression models

Regression models

Tab.2 Linear stepwise regression models for Cork, Ireland and Worcester, UK

Sabariego et al. (2012) Annals of Agricultural and Environmental Medicine, 19 (2), 227-232.


D iurnal variations bihourly observations

Diurnal variations (bihourly observations)


Conclusions

Conclusions

  • Spore concentrations at the Worcester site were greater than in Cork.

  • Of the four genera evaluated, Cladosporium was seen in greatest concentrations.

  • Alternariaand Cladosporium reached their maxima a month earlier in Cork than in Worcester. Didymella peaked at the same time at both sites and Ganoderma peaked two weeks earlier in Worcester.

  • Alternaria spore concentration was reaching its maxima when: there was no rainfall within at least 48 hours, mean temp. was between 15°-16°C and r. h. was between 73%-76%.

  • Cladosporium spore concentration was reaching its maxima when: within at least 24 hours light rain showers occurred, mean temp. was around 17°C and the r. h. varied between 76%-79%.

  • Didymella spore concentration was reaching its maxima when: there was a dry day preceded by a day when heavy rain occurred or a day with light rain showers appearance, mean temp. was between 15°C to 16°C, r. h. was around 81%-82%.

  • Ganoderma spore concentration reached its maxima when: there was no rainfall within 48 hours or only light showers was present, the mean temp. varied from 19°C to 20°C, and r. h. was between 73% and 81%.

  • Similar diurnal trends were apparent for all of the spore types. Maximum concentration for Alternaria and Cladosporium was recorded in the afternoon (4pm and 12-2pm); Didymella and Ganoderma were the most abundant in the air during night time (4-6am and 2-4am).

  • The prediction power of forecast models varied from 0.25 to 0.70 (Adjusted R2). The best result was obtained for Ganoderma spore distribution in Worcester.


Acknowledgements

Acknowledgements

The authors would like to thank theUniversity College Cork (Ireland), the National Pollen and Aerobiology Research Unit at the University of Worcester(United Kingdom)for funding this project.


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