Bipolar Disorder. Roxanna Zuniga March 6 th 2013/ Period 1. Most commonly called bipolar disorder this mental illness is also known as manic-depressive disorder. Cause and Transmission. Target Population.
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March 6th 2013/ Period 1
Mainly targets adolescents or people in their early twenties, but it takes several years to correctly diagnose bipolar disorder which conflicts with age.
Researchers are not sure what areas in the central nervous system are affected by bipolar disorder but with special technology such as magnetic resonance imagery (MRI), and single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT or neuroSPECT) scans they have determined that abnormal activity occurs in the frontal and temporal lobes of the forebrain, the prefrontal cortex, and there has been evidence of abnormalities in the amygdala. This information can not be used to diagnose bipolar disorder.
Symptoms of manic episodes:
-Feeling of euphoria
-Over self-confidence, raise in self-esteem
-Rapid, excessive talking
-Racing thoughts and acting upon bizarre ideas
-Engaging in risky behavior
-Wasteful with money
-Showing behavior of aggression or underperformance
Symptoms of depressive episodes:
-Feeling of hopelessness, despair
-Insomnia and other sleeping problems
-Change in eating patterns
-Weight loss or gain
-Becoming easily irritated
-Difficulty facing typical activities
The prognosis for bipolar disorder differs amongst people considering there are three different types of bipolar disorder which are bipolar I, bipolar II, and cyclothymia. In some cases it can be very severe and long-term or mild with less episodes occurring. The depressive states and manic states differ in how frequent compared to the others, depressive is more frequent but patients still experience a mixed state. Age factors in to how bipolar effects an individual. Children and adolescents alternate in mood and behavior while adults alternate between manic and depressive states. There has been evidence of higher death rates from suicide in patients that have bipolar disorder. Individuals that do seek treatment have shown to have greater survival rates.
-Prescription medications: reduce the amount of depression/mania/hypomania episodes and to stop the symptoms of each when they appear
-Depression & mania triggers: help the patient identify their personal triggers of depression/mania and how to avoid them
-Hospitalization: only in severe cases are patients hospitalized to avoid them hurting themselves
-Lithium: most common prescribed drug to treat depression/mania episodes
-Antipsychotics: psychiatric medication that treat psychosis (delusions/hallucinations)
-Psychotherapy: another manner of identifying specific triggers and helps recognize the first symptom that will lead to an episode
Kurt Cobain Case Study
Kay Redfield Jamison a professor of psychiatry at the Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine and a leading expert in bipolar disorder used Kurt Cobain in a 2004 study of bipolar disorder.
In an interview with Kurt’s cousin, Bev Cobain, it is revealed by Bev that Kurt had been diagnosed with bipolar disorder.
The Depressive State: Kurt Cobain had suffered from depression for most of his life beginning in his childhood. He constantly brought up thoughts of suicide in conversations, journals, and interviews.
The Manic State: He had many incidents that illustrate many characteristics of mania. Kurt abused both alcohol and drugs. He showed the rage quality of mania by writing high emotional and angry letter directed towards individuals that had wronged him. He would also destroy sets and hotel rooms during feelings of fury, but also during feelings of high spirit. Another incident was his erratic behavior when attempting to escape rehab.
There is a connection in his bipolar disorder coming from blood relatives in his family there were multiple suicides. On his father’s side, two great-uncles had committed suicide. Burle Cobain shot himself in the stomach and head. Kenneth Cobain also shot himself in the head. Ernest Cobain died from an aneurysm when falling down stairs drunk. Suicide is argued but Ernest was sternly told by doctors to stop drinking or he would surely die. On his mothers side, his great-grandfather stabbed himself in front of his mother and great-grandmother.
The “Behind the Mask” gala is just one of the upcoming events shown on their website: www.internationalbipolarfoundation.org
The International Bipolar Foundation is a San Diego based non-profit organization with a goal to cure and prevent bipolar disorder with mass research, spread awareness and provide support services to those affected, and to eliminate associated stigmas. Their committees do a variety of work which includes spreading awareness through lectures, raising funds for research through organized social events, and arranging support groups for those dealing with this illness.
Basile, M. (2005). Bipolar Disorder. In B. Narins (Ed.), The Gale Encyclopedia of Genetic Disorders (2nd ed., Vol. 1, pp. 166-170). Detroit: Gale. Retrieved from http://go.galegroup.com/ps/i.do?id=GALE%7CCX3451500062&v=2.1&u=cary81451&it=r&p=GPS&sw=w
Ford-Martin, P. A. (2002). Bipolar Disorder. In D. S. Blanchfield & J. L. Longe (Eds.), The Gale Encyclopedia of Medicine (2nd ed., Vol. 1, pp. 485-490). Detroit: Gale. Retrieved from http://go.galegroup.com/ps/i.do?id=GALE%7CCX3405600231&v=2.1&u=cary81451&it=r&p=GPS&sw=w
Nordqvist, C. (2012, August 16). "What Is Bipolar Disorder? What Causes Bipolar Disorder?."Medical News Today. Retrieved from http://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/37010.php.