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Intellectual Disability or Mental Retardation. KNR 270. DEVELOPMENTAL DISABILITIES. Intellectual disability (Mental retardation) Cerebral palsy Epilepsy Autism. Intellectual Disability. More frequently used outside US Increasing use in US

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Intellectual Disability or Mental Retardation

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Intellectual Disability or Mental Retardation

KNR 270


DEVELOPMENTAL DISABILITIES

  • Intellectual disability

    • (Mental retardation)

  • Cerebral palsy

  • Epilepsy

  • Autism


  • Intellectual Disability

    • More frequently used outside US

    • Increasing use in US

      • AAMR (American Association on Mental Retardation) is now AAIDD (American Association on Intellectual & Developmental Disabilities)

      • 1/2007

    • 7-8 million in US

    • 1% of total population

    • 1/10 families impacted

      • U.S. Dept. of Health & Human Service

  • Other sources: 3% of total population

    • Carter, Van Andel, & Robb, 2003


  • MENTAL RETARDATION DEFINITION

    • Significantly subaverage intellectual function

    • Concurrent with limitations in adaptive skills

      • 2 or more

    • Manifested before 18

    • Person/environment interaction

      • Similar definition APA in DSM-TR IV & AAMR


    Communication

    Home living

    Using community resources

    Work

    Free time

    Academic achievement

    Self-care

    Self-direction

    Social & interpersonal skills

    Health

    Safety

    Adaptive Skills


    MENTAL RETARDATION (old)Functional Levels

    • %AAMREDUCATORS

    • 89%55-70 mild50-75 educable (EMR)

    • 6%40-55 moderate

    • 3.5%25-40 severe25-50 trainable (TMR)

    • 1.5%0-25 profound0-25 profound


    MENTAL RETARDATION (New)

    • Functional level

      • Mild

      • Moderate

    • Support level (resources/strategies)

      • Intermittent: As needed

      • Limited: Short time intervals

      • Extensive: Regular basis in some environments

      • Pervasive: Consistent


    Mental Retardation

    • Many causes

    • 3 major causes

      • Fetal alcohol syndrome

      • Down syndrome

      • Fragile X syndrome

    • 1/3 causes unknown

      • Prolonged labor

      • Low birth weight

      • Older mothers

      • Shaken baby syndrome


    Fetal Alcohol Syndrome

    • Caused by mother drinking

    • Mental & physical birth defects

    • Growth deficits

    • Central nervous system dysfunction

    • Behavioral maladjustments

      • Fetal Alcohol Effect is less severe set of same symptoms

        • www.jau.wvu.edu


    Fragile X Syndrome

    • Hereditary

    • Range of severity

    • May have behavioral disorders

    • May have speech & language delays

    • Trouble processing sounds, sight, smell, sensations,

    • Do not like to be touched

    • More severe in males


    Down Syndrome

    • Genetic (extra genetic material from 21st chromosome)

    • Flaccid muscles / motor problems

    • Small fingers and hands /coordination problems

    • Large tongues & small mouth /language problems

    • Congenital heart defects (40-45%)

    • Lung problems

    • Obesity

    • Stubborn (central nervous system)


    Down Syndrome

    • Hearing deficits (60-80%)

    • Premature aging

    • Early onset Alzheimer’s (age 40)

    • Atlantoaxial instability (10-20%)

      • Excessive movement in C1/C2 joint

      • Doctor’s clearance for SO/sports

      • Not involve in gymnastics, diving, butterfly swimming stroke, soccer, etc.


    Co-Existing Conditions

    • Cerebral Palsy

    • Seizure Disorder

    • Vision Impairment

    • ADHD

    • More severe, more likely to have co-existing


    Suggestions for Considerations/Accommodations?


    Considerations/Accommodations

    • Assess functional level

    • Small concrete steps (task analysis)

    • Allow more time to complete tasks

    • Repetition

    • Practice time

    • Modeling (Demonstrate vs. describe)

    • Age appropriate

      • Skills & staff interaction

      • No baby talk


    Considerations/Accommodations

    • Have high expectations

    • May learn slowly

    • Teach to generalize skills to different environments

    • Routines

    • Praise

    • Facilitate social interaction & appropriate social behaviors

    • Encourage physical activity

    • Best Buddies

    • Others?????


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