The History of Thermodynamics: Past and Future. Gases Solids Electrolytes Molecular dynamics Ab initio The future. Horror vacui Phlogiston Aether Heat and work Basic laws Axioms Kinetic gas theory. ThermoTech seminar NTNU, 2. December 2005 Tore Haug-Warberg.
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The History of Thermodynamics: Past and Future
Heat and work
Kinetic gas theory
ThermoTech seminar NTNU, 2. December 2005Tore Haug-Warberg
Horror vacuiNature abhors a vacuum
Vacuum (force)Condensing water can be used to create a partial vacuum upon which the atmosphere can do mechanical work.
Pressure (force)Boiling water can be used to create a pressure which is suitable for mechanical work.
Steam enginesThe development of the nearly perfect atmospheric steam engine required no thermodynamics.
PhlogistonA substance without color, odor, taste, or weight that is given off in burning. In modern terms: antioxygen. It initiated an attempt to rationalize chemistry, and eventually caused the death of alchemy and the search of Philosopher’s stone.
AetherA substance of a more subtle kind than visible bodies, supposed to exist in those parts of space which are apparently empty.
Caloric (French)An invisible fluid which transfer heat from one body to another without being created or destroyed.
The 2nd law of thermodynamicsThe entropy of the universe tends to a maximum (Clausius)
The 1st law of thermodynamicsThe energy of the universe is constant (Clausius)
The 0th law of thermodyn.If two systems A and B are in (thermal) equilibrium, and B and C are also in equilibrium, then A and C are in equilibrium (Maxwell).
The 3rd law of thermodynamicsThe entropy tends to zero in the limit of zero temperature. Requires that Cp approaches zero faster than T itself.
The rise and fallIn no other discipline have the same equations been published so many times by different authors in different notations and therefore claimed as his own by each (Truesdell).
Axiomatic thermodynamicsThe 4 laws of thermodynamics tell only something about the interaction of the system and the environment, but nothing about the mathematical properties of the system itself.
Gas lawsThermodynamics is a general framework without predictive power. For this purpose physical models are needed. The most important example is ideal gas (pV = NRT):
Molecular dynamicsNewtonian mechanics in electric force fields
Ab initioOK, the Schrødinger equation is maybe the answer to “Life, Universe and Everything”, but the calculated physical properties depend entirely on the boundary conditions. This is there the real challenge is.