Cognitive Level of Analysis. Memory. Cognitive Psychology. Cognition ( cognoscere ) “to know” Ulric Neisser (1967) “all the processes by which the sensory input is transformed, reduced, elaborated, stored, recovered, and used.” Includes the structure and function of the mind
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Cognitive Level of Analysis
STOP & QUIETLY WAIT FOR THE ANSWERS.
If you didn’t succeed in retrieving all seven, you are in good company. Most people can’t do this task easily. And that’s very helpful because we can use the results to demonstrate some important features of remembering and forgetting.A simplified model of remembering involves a three-stage process:
To become a memory, information must first be registered in sensory memory –
it must stand out among a variety of stimuli and be selected for further processing.
2. STORAGE When we rehearse short-term memories sufficiently, we encode them for placement in long-term memory.
3. RETRIEVALWe seek information from long-term memory storage.
Sensory Memory: refers to the initial recording of sensory information in the memory system. All information is held here briefly (1/2 to 4 seconds)
Sensory Memories include both:
Sensory memory is very hard to measure since it fades as we try to measure it.
1. Practice makes perfect. The more rehearsal he did on day 1, the less rehearsal it took to learn the syllables again on day 2. Over learning increased retention.
2. The Spacing Effect: the tendency for studying over a long period of time produces better long term retention than is achieved through massed study or practice. SPACED STUDYING BEATS CRAMMING!!!
The magic number is 7+or –2
In other words, the most we can hold in our short term stores is just 5-9 items!
But what if you have to remember more than that?
How confident are you
that you correctly memorized all 31 numbers?
How do you remember a phone #?
You CHUNK it!
952- 829- 5379
make it VISUAL
HUMANISM –a psychological approach that focuses on
So when you see the word “humanism” I tell you to think about:
I want you to remember:
METHOD OF LOCI
George Washington is in my bedroom
John Adams is right outside my bedroom door
Thomas Jefferson is in the bathroom
James Madison is at the top of the stairs
make it MEANINGFUL
Experiment - making meaning
make it RHYTHMIC
Prospective Memory: remembering to do something in the future
Ex. I need to remember to get my wife an anniversary gift.
Retrospective Memory: remembering you already did something in the past
Ex. I already got my wife an anniversary gift