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“An Effective Poor Man’s “SMART” Distribution Volt/var Management System” Monday April 27 - 3:00 p.m. Tom Jauch Life Senior Member, IEEE Application Consultant - Beckwith Electric Co. Largo, FL.

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an effective poor man s smart distribution volt var management system monday april 27 3 00 p m

“An Effective Poor Man’s “SMART” Distribution Volt/var Management System”Monday April 27 - 3:00 p.m.

Tom Jauch

Life Senior Member, IEEE

Application Consultant - Beckwith Electric Co.

Largo, FL

slide2

“An Effective Poor Man’s “SMART” Distribution Volt/var Management System”orReaping the Benefits of Controlled Voltage Profiles(Volt / var / kW Management)Monday April 27 - 3:00 p.m.

Tom Jauch

Life Senior Member, IEEE

Application Consultant - Beckwith Electric Co.

Largo, FL

slide3

Volt / Var / kW Management Objectives

  • Reduce losses (kW & kvar)(even kW thru an inductance creates vars)
  • Increase Power Delivery Capacity
  • (Deliver kvars locally)
  • Minimize Voltage Variations(With X/R=4, kvar causes 4x Vdrop of kW)
  • Reduce maintenance costs
  • (Less tapchanges – field setting changes)
  • Reduce/defer capital spending
  • Reduce operating costs
  • CONSERVATION VOLTAGE CONTROL (CVC)
slide4

Volt / Var / kW Management Strategies & Methods

  • VOLTAGE CONTROLControl regulates bus voltages high enough so no customer ever has “low” voltage
  • POWER FACTOR CONTROLa) Use fixed cap banks to avoid lagging P.F.
  • b) Switch cap banks to maintain high P.F.
  • CONSERVATION VOLTAGE CONTROL (CVC)Dynamically control (minimize) distribution customer voltage levels for energy conservation
slide5

CONSERVATION VOLTAGE CONTROL (CVC)

(Minimizing loads by minimizing voltages)

Dynamically control (minimize) distribution customer voltage levels within 114v to 126v range

Recent 3 YR Study Results:

(without customer complaints!)

www.rwbeck.com/neea

Typical substation (average) –

1% VR reduced ENERGY (kWhr) by 0.86%

1% VR reduced KVAR load by 4%

------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

slide6

CONSERVATION VOLTAGE CONTROL (CVC)

(Minimizing loads by minimizing voltages)

Dynamically control (minimize) distribution customer voltage levels within 114v to 126v range

Recent 3 YR Study Results:

(without customer complaints!)

www.rwbeck.com/neea

Typical substation (average) –

1% VR reduced ENERGY (kWhr) by 0.86%

1% VR reduced KVAR load by 4%

------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Typical substation results:

Total possible energy savings = 1 - 3%

Total kW demand reduction = 2 - 4%

Total kvar demand reduction = 4 - 10%

slide7

Conservation Voltage Control (CVC)

Results in:

Immediate benefits in Gen, T & D systems

Immediate reduction in generation emissions

Immediate increase in generation reserves

Immediate relief in customer’s bills

Volt/var Management equipment is readily available

slide8

Volt/var MGMT EQUIPMENT

* LTC Transformers* LTC Substation & Line Regulators* Substation Capacitor Banks* Distribution Line Capacitor Banks

slide10

Typical Voltage Control Operation

Block Raise

Setting

Block Lower

Setting

slide11

DISTRIBUTION VOLTAGE CONTROL

LTC Transformer & Regulator Locations

slide12

LTC Area of Responsibility

V

VD=3v

VD=5v

VD=7v

VD=2v

slide13

BUS

Voltage Control

Feeder Voltage Profile

VD=3v

BUS

VD=5v

VD=2v

126v

VD=7v

125v

124v

122v

118v

VD=7v

Min Volts

First customer

Mid-line customer

Last customer

117v

Assumptions:

Acceptable customer voltage = 114v to 126V

Allowable minimum primary voltage = 117V

slide14

BUS

Voltage Control

Common Setting Practice

BUS

126v

VD=7v

125v

124v

Regulated Voltage Range – Full Load

122v

118v

117v

First customer

Mid-line customer

Last customer

Min Volts

125v setpoint +/-1v

slide15

BUS

Voltage Control

Common Setting Practice

BUS

126v

VD=7v

125v

124v

Regulated Voltage Range @ no load

Regulated Voltage Range – Full Load

122v

118v

117v

First customer

Mid-line customer

Last customer

Min Volts

125v setpoint +/-1v

slide16

DistributionFeeders

BUS

V

COMPENSATION

VOLTAGE

V

Set

0

200 ma

(CT)

0

I

Conservation Voltage Control

LTC Control Feature – LDC-Z

LDC - Z (General Compensation)

  • Application: Distribution bus regulation (or CVC)
  • Concept: Increase bus voltage
  • as the load level increases
  • No individual line information
  • Uses current magnitude ONLY
slide17

BUS

Conservation Voltage Control

Control Setting

BUS

VD=7v

126v

125v

124v

122v

Regulated Voltage Range @ no load

118v

No load

117v

First customer

Mid-line customer

Last customer

118v setpoint +/-1v: LDCZ=7v

(No Load) + (MAX Voltage drop)

slide18

BUS

Conservation Voltage Control

Control Setting

BUS

VD=7v

126v

125v

124v

Regulated Voltage Range – Full Load

122v

Regulated Voltage Range @ no load

118v

No load

117v

First customer

Mid-line customer

Last customer

118v setpoint +/-1v: LDCZ=7v

(No Load) + (MAX Voltage drop)

slide19

BUS

Conservation Voltage Control

Feeder Voltage Profile 50% Load

BUS

126v

VD=7v

125v

124v

50% load

122v

118v

120.5v

First customer

Mid-line customer

Last customer

117v

Conservation Setting

118.5v setpoint +/-1v : LDC-Z = 7v Common setting

125v setpoint +/-1v

3.5V Reduction = 3%

slide20

BUS

Conservation Voltage Control

Feeder Voltage Profile 50% Load

BUS

126v

VD=7v

125v

124v

50% load

122v

118v

120.5v

First customer

Mid-line customer

Last customer

117v

Conservation Setting

118v setpoint +/-1v : LDC-Z = 7v Common setting

125v setpoint +/-1v

3.5V Reduction = 3%

slide21

BUS

Conservation Voltage Control

Feeder Voltage Profile 50% Load

BUS

126v

VD=7v

125v

124v

50% load

122v

118v

120.5v

First customer

Mid-line customer

Last customer

117v

3.5V Reduction = 3%

slide22

Di

Feeder Voltage Profile With Regulator

VD=3v

Reduce with regs

BUS

New limiting

condition

126v

VD=7v

125v

124v

Regulated Voltage Range @ FULL load

VD=5v

VD=2v

122v

Full load

50% load

118v

117v

First customer

Mid-line customer

Last customer

118v setpoint +/-1v LDCZ=5v

slide23

Var Control

Pole top capacitor banks

(SWITCHED)

slide24

Var Control

GEN

Basic Premise

  • Poletop capacitor banks are for offsetting distribution system VAr requirements
    • which REDUCES CURRENT
    • which also
      • reduces losses (I2R)
      • reduces voltage variation
      • reduces consequential VArs (I2X)
      • increases equipment capacities
slide25

Var Control

THE IMPORTANCE OF PROPER CAPACITOR BANK SWITCHING !!

System Effects of VArs

slide26

Var Control

Important Considerations

  • Effects of var loads on Voltages!
  • Feeders:
    • *Feeder X/R Ratio (3 - 5) * Load Power Factor
      • * NUMBER OF REGULATOR TAPCHANGES !
    • --------------------------------------------------------------------------------
  • Substation Bus:
  • *Transformer X/R Ratio (25-50) * Load Power Factor
  • * NUMBER OF LTC TAPCHANGES !
slide27

Var Control

Innovative Volt/var Management Technique

Installed capacitors

For unity PF

slide28

Var Control

Innovative Volt/var Management Technique

Control input

Largest cap bank

slide29

Var Control

Innovative Volt/var Management Technique

Control input

Largest cap bank

Var Bias

slide30

Var Control

Innovative Volt/var Management Technique

Control input

Transformer impedance

an effective poor man s smart distribution volt var management system questions comments

“An Effective Poor Man’s “SMART” Distribution Volt/var Management System”QUESTIONS ? COMMENTS ?

Tom Jauch

Life Senior Member, IEEE

Application Consultant - Beckwith Electric Co.

Largo, FL

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