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“An Effective Poor Man’s “SMART” Distribution Volt/var Management System” Monday April 27 - 3:00 p.m. Tom Jauch Life Senior Member, IEEE Application Consultant - Beckwith Electric Co. Largo, FL.

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An effective poor man s smart distribution volt var management system monday april 27 3 00 p m

“An Effective Poor Man’s “SMART” Distribution Volt/var Management System”Monday April 27 - 3:00 p.m.

Tom Jauch

Life Senior Member, IEEE

Application Consultant - Beckwith Electric Co.

Largo, FL


“An Effective Poor Man’s “SMART” Distribution Volt/var Management System”orReaping the Benefits of Controlled Voltage Profiles(Volt / var / kW Management)Monday April 27 - 3:00 p.m.

Tom Jauch

Life Senior Member, IEEE

Application Consultant - Beckwith Electric Co.

Largo, FL


Volt / Var / Volt/var Management System”kW Management Objectives

  • Reduce losses (kW & kvar)(even kW thru an inductance creates vars)

  • Increase Power Delivery Capacity

  • (Deliver kvars locally)

  • Minimize Voltage Variations(With X/R=4, kvar causes 4x Vdrop of kW)

  • Reduce maintenance costs

  • (Less tapchanges – field setting changes)

  • Reduce/defer capital spending

  • Reduce operating costs

  • CONSERVATION VOLTAGE CONTROL (CVC)


Volt / Var / Volt/var Management System”kW Management Strategies & Methods

  • VOLTAGE CONTROLControl regulates bus voltages high enough so no customer ever has “low” voltage

  • POWER FACTOR CONTROLa) Use fixed cap banks to avoid lagging P.F.

  • b) Switch cap banks to maintain high P.F.

  • CONSERVATION VOLTAGE CONTROL (CVC)Dynamically control (minimize) distribution customer voltage levels for energy conservation


CONSERVATION VOLTAGE CONTROL (CVC) Volt/var Management System”

(Minimizing loads by minimizing voltages)

Dynamically control (minimize) distribution customer voltage levels within 114v to 126v range

Recent 3 YR Study Results:

(without customer complaints!)

www.rwbeck.com/neea

Typical substation (average) –

1% VR reduced ENERGY (kWhr) by 0.86%

1% VR reduced KVAR load by 4%

------------------------------------------------------------------------------------


CONSERVATION VOLTAGE CONTROL (CVC) Volt/var Management System”

(Minimizing loads by minimizing voltages)

Dynamically control (minimize) distribution customer voltage levels within 114v to 126v range

Recent 3 YR Study Results:

(without customer complaints!)

www.rwbeck.com/neea

Typical substation (average) –

1% VR reduced ENERGY (kWhr) by 0.86%

1% VR reduced KVAR load by 4%

------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Typical substation results:

Total possible energy savings = 1 - 3%

Total kW demand reduction = 2 - 4%

Total kvar demand reduction = 4 - 10%


Conservation Voltage Control Volt/var Management System”(CVC)

Results in:

Immediate benefits in Gen, T & D systems

Immediate reduction in generation emissions

Immediate increase in generation reserves

Immediate relief in customer’s bills

Volt/var Management equipment is readily available


Volt/var MGMT EQUIPMENT Volt/var Management System”

* LTC Transformers* LTC Substation & Line Regulators* Substation Capacitor Banks* Distribution Line Capacitor Banks


Distribution System Example Volt/var Management System”

DG


Typical Voltage Control Operation Volt/var Management System”

Block Raise

Setting

Block Lower

Setting


DISTRIBUTION VOLTAGE CONTROL Volt/var Management System”

LTC Transformer & Regulator Locations


LTC Area of Responsibility Volt/var Management System”

V

VD=3v

VD=5v

VD=7v

VD=2v


BUS Volt/var Management System”

Voltage Control

Feeder Voltage Profile

VD=3v

BUS

VD=5v

VD=2v

126v

VD=7v

125v

124v

122v

118v

VD=7v

Min Volts

First customer

Mid-line customer

Last customer

117v

Assumptions:

Acceptable customer voltage = 114v to 126V

Allowable minimum primary voltage = 117V


BUS Volt/var Management System”

Voltage Control

Common Setting Practice

BUS

126v

VD=7v

125v

124v

Regulated Voltage Range – Full Load

122v

118v

117v

First customer

Mid-line customer

Last customer

Min Volts

125v setpoint +/-1v


BUS Volt/var Management System”

Voltage Control

Common Setting Practice

BUS

126v

VD=7v

125v

124v

Regulated Voltage Range @ no load

Regulated Voltage Range – Full Load

122v

118v

117v

First customer

Mid-line customer

Last customer

Min Volts

125v setpoint +/-1v


Distribution Volt/var Management System”Feeders

BUS

V

COMPENSATION

VOLTAGE

V

Set

0

200 ma

(CT)

0

I

Conservation Voltage Control

LTC Control Feature – LDC-Z

LDC - Z (General Compensation)

  • Application: Distribution bus regulation (or CVC)

  • Concept: Increase bus voltage

  • as the load level increases

  • No individual line information

  • Uses current magnitude ONLY


BUS Volt/var Management System”

Conservation Voltage Control

Control Setting

BUS

VD=7v

126v

125v

124v

122v

Regulated Voltage Range @ no load

118v

No load

117v

First customer

Mid-line customer

Last customer

118v setpoint +/-1v: LDCZ=7v

(No Load) + (MAX Voltage drop)


BUS Volt/var Management System”

Conservation Voltage Control

Control Setting

BUS

VD=7v

126v

125v

124v

Regulated Voltage Range – Full Load

122v

Regulated Voltage Range @ no load

118v

No load

117v

First customer

Mid-line customer

Last customer

118v setpoint +/-1v: LDCZ=7v

(No Load) + (MAX Voltage drop)


BUS Volt/var Management System”

Conservation Voltage Control

Feeder Voltage Profile 50% Load

BUS

126v

VD=7v

125v

124v

50% load

122v

118v

120.5v

First customer

Mid-line customer

Last customer

117v

Conservation Setting

118.5v setpoint +/-1v : LDC-Z = 7v Common setting

125v setpoint +/-1v

3.5V Reduction = 3%


BUS Volt/var Management System”

Conservation Voltage Control

Feeder Voltage Profile 50% Load

BUS

126v

VD=7v

125v

124v

50% load

122v

118v

120.5v

First customer

Mid-line customer

Last customer

117v

Conservation Setting

118v setpoint +/-1v : LDC-Z = 7v Common setting

125v setpoint +/-1v

3.5V Reduction = 3%


BUS Volt/var Management System”

Conservation Voltage Control

Feeder Voltage Profile 50% Load

BUS

126v

VD=7v

125v

124v

50% load

122v

118v

120.5v

First customer

Mid-line customer

Last customer

117v

3.5V Reduction = 3%


Di Volt/var Management System”

Feeder Voltage Profile With Regulator

VD=3v

Reduce with regs

BUS

New limiting

condition

126v

VD=7v

125v

124v

Regulated Voltage Range @ FULL load

VD=5v

VD=2v

122v

Full load

50% load

118v

117v

First customer

Mid-line customer

Last customer

118v setpoint +/-1v LDCZ=5v


Var Control Volt/var Management System”

Pole top capacitor banks

(SWITCHED)


Var Control Volt/var Management System”

GEN

Basic Premise

  • Poletop capacitor banks are for offsetting distribution system VAr requirements

    • which REDUCES CURRENT

    • which also

      • reduces losses (I2R)

      • reduces voltage variation

      • reduces consequential VArs (I2X)

      • increases equipment capacities


Var Control Volt/var Management System”

THE IMPORTANCE OF PROPER CAPACITOR BANK SWITCHING !!

System Effects of VArs


Var Control Volt/var Management System”

Important Considerations

  • Effects of var loads on Voltages!

  • Feeders:

    • *Feeder X/R Ratio (3 - 5) * Load Power Factor

      • * NUMBER OF REGULATOR TAPCHANGES !

    • --------------------------------------------------------------------------------

  • Substation Bus:

  • *Transformer X/R Ratio (25-50) * Load Power Factor

  • * NUMBER OF LTC TAPCHANGES !


Var Control Volt/var Management System”

Innovative Volt/var Management Technique

Installed capacitors

For unity PF


Var Control Volt/var Management System”

Innovative Volt/var Management Technique

Control input

Largest cap bank


Var Control Volt/var Management System”

Innovative Volt/var Management Technique

Control input

Largest cap bank

Var Bias


Var Control Volt/var Management System”

Innovative Volt/var Management Technique

Control input

Transformer impedance


An effective poor man s smart distribution volt var management system questions comments

“An Effective Poor Man’s “SMART” Distribution Volt/var Management System”QUESTIONS ? COMMENTS ?

Tom Jauch

Life Senior Member, IEEE

Application Consultant - Beckwith Electric Co.

Largo, FL


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