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Central Dogma. Protein Synthesis. Two types of nucleic acids. # of strands. kind of sugar. bases used. The Importance of Protein Synthesis. Specific Roles: Enzyme action Transport Motion Protection Support Communication Regulation. Examples : Protein antibodies for immune system

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central dogma
Central Dogma

Protein Synthesis

two types of nucleic acids
Two types of nucleic acids

# of strands

kind of sugar

bases used

the importance of protein synthesis
The Importance of Protein Synthesis

Specific Roles:

  • Enzyme action
  • Transport
  • Motion
  • Protection
  • Support
  • Communication
  • Regulation
  • Examples:
  • Protein antibodies for immune system
  • Hair, nails, skin
  • Hemoglobin in blood
  • Insulin to regulate blood sugar levels
central dogma1
Central Dogma

Replication

DNA is the genetic material

within the nucleus.

DNA

The process of replication

creates new copies of DNA.

Transcription

RNA

The process of transcription

creates an mRNA using

DNA information.

Nucleus

Translation

Protein

The process of translation

creates a protein using

mRNA information.

Cytoplasm

protein synthesis
Protein Synthesis

Transcription

Translation

transcription
Transcription

3’

G

U

C

A

U

U

C

G

G

5’

RNA

  • The new RNA molecule is formed by incorporating nucleotides that are complementary to the template strand.

DNA

DNA coding strand

5’

G

T

C

A

T

T

C

G

G

3’

3’

C

A

G

T

A

A

G

C

C

5’

  • DNA template strand
slide8

Transcription

Production of mRNA copy of the DNA gene

translation
Translation

DNA

template

strand

DNA

T

T

C

A

G

T

C

A

G

Transcription

A

A

G

U

C

A

G

U

C

Messenger

RNA

mRNA

Codon

Codon

Codon

Translation

Polypeptide

(amino acid

sequence)

Protein

Lysine

Serine

Valine

  • The process of reading the RNA sequence of an mRNA and creating the amino acid sequence of a protein is called translation.
codon
Codon
  • Translation will always begin with a start codon “AUG” (Start) and end with the “TAG” (end)
translation termination
Translation Termination

A

U

G

G

G

A

U

G

U

A

A

G

C

G

A

Stop codon

5’

mRNA

U

A

A

G

C

U

U

C

U

Release

factor

P

Arg

Lys

Gly

Met

Cys

A

Ribosome reaches stop codon

translation termination1
Translation Termination

G

A

G

A

G

U

A

C

A

U

G

G

U

G

A

A

A

U

G

C

U

P

Arg

Lys

Cys

Gly

Met

A

Once stop codon is reached,

elements disassemble.

Release

factor

who am i
Who am I?

Messenger RNA

a.k.a. mRNA

Copied from DNA, conveys information from chromosomes to ribosomes. Every three nucleotides is a codon.

who am i1
Who am I?

Transfer RNA

a.k.a. tRNA

Transports amino acids to ribosomes.

who am i2
Who am I?

Ribosomal RNA

a.k.a. rRNA

Subunits where the protein is assembled

slide19

Translation

Synthesis of proteins by ribosomes

genes
Genes
  • Genes: a set of instructions encoded in the DNA sequence of each organism that specify the sequence of amino acids in proteins characteristic of that organism.

In eukaryotes, many general are interrupted by introns and exons.

  • Introns – long segments of nucleotides that have no coding information.
  • Exons – are the portions of a gene that are translated (expressed) into proteins.
prokaryotes vs eukaryotes protein synthesis
Prokaryotes vs Eukaryotes Protein Synthesis

Prokaryotes

In prokaryotes, mRNA transcripts of a coding sequence are copied from the DNA as a single contiguous sequence.

Eukaryotes

The initial RNA transcript, while in the nucleus, is composed of exons, and introns.

Before leaving the nucleus, introns are removed and splice exons together.

The processed transcript, then properly called mRNA and carrying the appropriate codon sequence for a protein, is transported from the nucleus to the ribosome for translation.

tay sachs
Tay-Sachs
  • A baby with Tay-Sachs disease appears healthy at birth. Symptoms usually first appear 3 to 6 months after birth, beginning with mild motor weakness and occasional twitches of the eye (myoclonic jerks). By 6 to 10 months of age, the baby\'s motor skills may be lost. After this, the diseases progresses rapidly to seizures, blindness, paralysis, and death at age 4 to 5.
mutations
Mutations
  • Mutations are permanent changes in the sequence of nitrogen-containing bases in DNA.
  • Mutations occur when base pairs are incorrectly matched (e.g., A bonded to C rather than A bonded to T) and can, but usually do not, improve the product coded by the gene.
  • Inserting or deleting base pairs in an existing gene can cause a mutation by changing the codon reading frame used by a ribosome.
slide27
Mutations that occur in somatic, or nongerm, cells are often not detected because they cannot be passed on to offspring. They may, however, give rise to cancer or other undesirable cellular changes.
  • Mutations in the germline can produce functionally different proteins that cause such genetic diseases as Tay-Sachs, sickle cellanemia, and Duchenne muscular dystrophy.
duchenne muscular dystrophy
Duchenne muscular dystrophy
  • In individuals with the disorder, initial findings may include an unusual, waddling manner of walking (gait); difficulty climbing stairs or rising from a sitting position; and repeated falling.
duchenne muscular dystrophy1
Duchenne muscular dystrophy

If it gets worse more problems can occur like

  • Progressive curvature of the spine
  • Wasting of thigh muscles and abnormal enlargement of the calves
  • Abnormal fixation of certain joints (joint contractures) due to muscle weakness
  • Prolonged immobility
  • Shortening of muscle fibers
  • By approximately age 10 to 12, most affected individuals require the use of a wheelchair.
warm up
Warm-Up
  • The DNA in each of your cells are exactly alike. How come so many of your cells look completely different?
  • Now talk to the person sitting next to you and see what they came up with.
  • What does trans mean?
  • What does scribe mean?
  • What would transcribe mean?
structure of dna
Structure of DNA
  • DNA Base Pairing Rules
  • A T
  • C G
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