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Chapter 7. Establish Critical Limits. Objective. In this module, you will learn: How to define critical limits How to set critical limits for a CCP How to find sources of critical limit information How to determine the relationship between critical limits and operating limits. Principle 3.

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Chapter 7
Chapter 7

Establish Critical Limits


Objective
Objective

In this module, you will learn:

  • How to define critical limits

  • How to set critical limits for a CCP

  • How to find sources of critical limit information

  • How to determine the relationship between critical limits and operating limits


Principle 3
Principle 3

  • Establish critical limits


Critical limit
Critical Limit

  • A maximum and/or minimum value to which a biological, chemical or physical parameter must be controlled at a CCP to prevent, eliminate or reduce to an acceptable level the occurrence of a food-safety hazard


Examples of critical limits
Examples of Critical Limits

Hazard CCP Critical Limit

bacterial pasteurizer ≥161oF for ≥15

pathogens seconds

(biological) for elimination of

pathogens from milk


Examples of critical limits1
Examples of Critical Limits

Hazard CCP Critical Limit

bacterial drying drying schedule:

pathogens oven oven temperature: 200oF

(biological) drying time: 120 min.

air flow rate: 2 ft3/min.

product thickness: 0.5 inches

(to achieve aw0.85 to control

pathogens in dried foods)


Examples of critical limits2
Examples of Critical Limits

Hazard CCP Critical Limit

bacterial acidification Batch schedule:

pathogens product weight: 100 lbs.

(biological) soak time: 8 hours

acetic acid concentration: 3.5% volume: 50 gallons

(to achieve maximum pH of 4.6 to control Clostridium botulinum in pickled foods)


Sources of information on critical limits
Sources of Information on Critical Limits

General Source Examples

scientific publications journal articles, food science texts, microbiology texts

regulatory guidelines state and local guidelines, tolerances and action levels; USDA guidelines, tolerances and action levels; FDA guidelines, tolerances and action levels


Sources of information on critical limits1
Sources of Information on Critical Limits

General Source Examples

FDA FDA Fish and Fisheries Products Hazards and Controls Guidance Manual (referenced in Chapter 13)


Sources of information on critical limits2
Sources of Information on Critical Limits

General Source Examples

experts NACMCF (National Advisory Committee on Microbiological Criteria for Foods), thermal process authorities; consultants, food scientists/ microbiologists, equipment manufacturers, sanitarians, university extension, trade associations

experimental studies In-house experiments; contract labs


Options for controlling hazards
Options for Controlling Hazards

  • Often a variety of options exist for controlling a particular hazard

  • The selection of the best control option and critical limit is often driven by practicality and experience


Monitoring for pathogens at a cook step option no 1 monitoring for pathogens
Monitoring for Pathogens at a Cook StepOption No. 1: Monitoring for Pathogens

  • Hazard

    • presence of pathogens (microbiological)

  • CCP

    • fryer

  • Critical Limit

    • no pathogens detected

      (Not typically the best option)


Monitoring for pathogens at a cook step option no 2 monitoring internal temperature
Monitoring for Pathogens at a Cook Step Option No. 2: Monitoring Internal Temperature

  • Hazard

    • presence of pathogens (microbiological)

  • CCP

    • fryer

  • Critical Limit

    • minimum internal temperature of 150oF for 1 minute


Monitoring for pathogens at a cook step option no 3 monitoring factors that affect internal temp
Monitoring for Pathogens at a Cook Step Option No. 3: Monitoring Factors That Affect Internal Temp.

  • Hazard

    • presence of pathogens (microbiological)

  • CCP

    • fryer

  • Critical Limits

    • minimum fryer oil temperature of 350oF

    • maximum patty thickness of 1/4 inch

    • minimum cook time in the oil of 1 minute


Operating limits
Operating Limits

  • Criteria that are more stringent than critical limits and that are used by an operator to reduce the risk of a deviation

  • Operating limits may be selected for various reasons:

    • For quality reasons

    • To avoid exceeding a critical limit

    • To account for normal variability


Process adjustment
Process Adjustment

  • An action taken by the firm to bring the process back within operating limits


Operating limit process adjustment example
Operating Limit/Process Adjustment Example

Cooker Temperature

Operating Limit

Process Adjustment Needed

DegreesF

Corrective Action

Required

Critical Limit

Lot 1


Operating limit process adjustment example1
Operating Limit/Process Adjustment Example

Cooker Temperature

Operating Limit

Process Adjustment Needed

DegreesF

Corrective Action

Required

Critical Limit

Lot 1

Lot 2

Lot 3

Lot 4

Lot 5


Establishment of critical limits
Establishment of Critical Limits

Critical Control Point Critical Limits

CCP Cooker Cook at 212oF for 3 minutes

CCP - Weigh/Pack/Label All product containing sulfiting agent must declare presence


Haccp plan form critical limits
HACCP Plan Form: Critical Limits

1.

CCP

2.

Hazard

3.

Critical

Limits

4.

5.

6.

7.

8.

Corrective

Action(s)

9.

Verification

10.

Records

What How Frequency Who

Monitoring



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