Introduction
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Introduction. Breast cancer is the MOST common cancer affecting women, & Long Island exemplifies this phenomenon Breast cancer kills the MOST women out of ALL other cancer-related deaths Over 80% of breast cancer tumors are activated by estrogen.

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Introduction

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Introduction

Introduction

Breast cancer is the MOST common cancer affecting women, & Long Island exemplifies this phenomenon

Breast cancer kills the MOST women out of ALL other cancer-related deaths

Over 80% of breast cancer tumors are activated by estrogen

Long Island consistently exhibits ABOVE EXPECTED rates of breast cancer

Long Island exhibits one of the highest breast cancer deaths

  • Long Island has unique reserve of 4-Nonylphenol (4-NP) in its environment (Jacquez, 2001)

  •  Long Island (NY) covered by farms (since 17th century)

Environmental toxins are involved in the development of breast cancer

Estrogen increases breast cancer risk, causes birth defects + learning disabilities

 Shown to interfere with hormonally-mediated pathways

OVER half of the reported cases of breast cancer cannot be explained by known risk factors

 Therefore, external factors must contribute to increased breast cancer risk

Hypothesis

We hypothesize that 4-NP and estrogen will induce similar regulation of gene expression in U937 human immune cells, suggesting that 4-NP indeed mimics estrogen in the body, augmenting breast cancer risk.


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