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Warm-Up. Based on your reading of pgs 400-404, answer the following questions. You may use your notes. What were the 3 largest Muslim empires and why were they in decline? What problems did the Ottoman Empire face? How did Muhammad Ali modernize Egypt? What attracted foreigners to Persia?

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Warm up
Warm-Up

  • Based on your reading of pgs 400-404, answer the following questions. You may use your notes.

  • What were the 3 largest Muslim empires and why were they in decline?

  • What problems did the Ottoman Empire face?

  • How did Muhammad Ali modernize Egypt?

  • What attracted foreigners to Persia?

  • Persia is modern day ___________________ (name country)


Redrawing the classroom map
Redrawing the Classroom Map

  • How did you feel during this activity?

  • Why did you compete with other groups to claim the furniture?

  • Do you think this was a fair way to claim the furniture? Why?

  • What might have been a better way?

  • If unclaimed furniture remained, who should get it?


AFRICA 1850

AFRICA 1914


Essential question objective
Essential Question/Objective

  • How did European powers come to dominate much of the world in the late 1800s?

  • Why did this occur?


Africa in the early 1800s
Africa in the early 1800s

  • North Africa: the Sahara dessert and the Mediterranean coast line under Muslim Ottoman Rule

  • East Africa: influenced by Islam; strong trading ports like Mombasa, where cargo was slaves being shipped to the middle east

  • Southern Africa: The Zulu Kingdom emerged as a major force in the region under Shaka

    • Shaka was a brilliant and ruthless leader, raged violent wars against neighboring peoples and then absorbed the young men and women into his regiments


Effects of shaka s rule
Effects of Shaka’s Rule

His conquests resulted in mass migrations and wars leaving the region in chaos.

As people migrated north they conquered people along the way creating powerful states.

One such migrating group, the Boers, descendants of Dutch colonizers now under British rule, clashed with migrating Zulus,

A bloody battle and fight for land between the Zulus and the Boers raged until the end of the century.


Effects of the slave trade
Effects of the Slave Trade

  • In the early 1800s most European nations had outlawed the transatlantic slave trade

  • Slave trade from East Africa to Asia continued through the 1800s

  • British Sierra Leone 1787: a colony for former slaves

  • Liberia 1847: an Independent republic settled by freed blacks from the United States


Colonization of Africa began slowly, beginning with the exterior. Africans wanted to trade with Europeans but did not want to “house” them


Dr david livingston
Dr. David Livingston exterior. Africans wanted to trade with Europeans but did not want to “house” them

  • Advances in medicine and technology allow explorers to push inward

  • Catholic and Protestant Missionaries followed

  • Dr. David Livingston blazes a trail; he crisscrosses Africa for 30 years writing about the peoples he met with more sympathy and less bias than most Europeans

  • Journalist Henry Stanley meets Livingston in 1869 with the line, “Dr. Livingston, I presume?”


The berlin conference
The Berlin Conference exterior. Africans wanted to trade with Europeans but did not want to “house” them

  • As European powers sent more and more explorers into Africa, a scramble for Africa began. To avoid bloodshed European Powers met at an international conference in 1884 to divide up Africa

  • Conference took place in Berlin, Germany; no Africans were invited to the conference

  • Outcomes:

    • Free trade on the Congo and Niger Rivers

    • European power could not claim any part of Africa without first setting up a government office there

    • In less than 20 years the map of Africa was entirely redrawn


Africa 1914

Africa, 1914 exterior. Africans wanted to trade with Europeans but did not want to “house” them


The belgian congo
The Belgian Congo exterior. Africans wanted to trade with Europeans but did not want to “house” them

  • Under King Leopold II of Belgium, the Congo is exploited for its resources including copper, rubber, and ivory

  • His personal overseers brutalized villagers forcing them to labor for almost nothing while savagely beating or mutilating them

  • After international outrage Leopold’s personal colony is turned over to the government of Belgium becoming the Belgian Congo in 1908 and ending the worse abuses

  • Africans in the Congo were given no role in the government and all the money from the mines was taken outside the country


Horrors in the congo

Horrors in the Congo exterior. Africans wanted to trade with Europeans but did not want to “house” them


Others join the scramble
Others Join the Scramble exterior. Africans wanted to trade with Europeans but did not want to “house” them

  • France

    • Invaded and conquered Algeria in North Africa killing 10s of 1000s French soldiers and many times more Algerians

    • They won colonies in Tunisia and West and Central Africa

    • At its height, the French Empire in Africa was as large as the continental US

  • Great Britain

    • Britain has a scattered share of Africa

    • Controlled many heavily populated regions such as Egypt and the Sudan

    • Acquired the former Cape Colony from the Dutch in 1814 (South Africa)


The boer war 1899 1902
The Boer War 1899-1902 exterior. Africans wanted to trade with Europeans but did not want to “house” them

  • Dutch settlers in the Cape Colony fled North once the British took over, while the British settlers remained further South

  • Discovery of gold and diamonds in the Boer north led to bitter guerilla fighting amongst the British and the Boers; the British eventually win

  • In 1910, the British unite the Cape Colony and the former Boer republics into the Union of South Africa

  • A constitution in South Africa set up a government run by whites and established a system of complete racial segregation


More europeans step in
More Europeans Step In exterior. Africans wanted to trade with Europeans but did not want to “house” them

  • Italy occupied Lybia and pushed into the “horn” of Africa at the southern end of the Red Sea

  • Germany takes over in eastern and southwest Africa in Cameroon and Togo

  • Portugal carved out large colonies in Angola and Mozambique


Africa resists
Africa Resists! exterior. Africans wanted to trade with Europeans but did not want to “house” them

  • Algerians battled the French in West Africa with SamoriToure fighting to build his own empire

  • The British battle the Zulus in South Africa and the Asante in West Africa

    • The Asantes fight under their queen YaaAsantewewaa

  • Germans fought wars in East Africa

  • Maji-Maji Rebellion of 1905 led to a German victory only after they had burned acres and acres of farmland leaving 1000s of local people to die of starvation


Maji rebel leaders
Maji Rebel Leaders exterior. Africans wanted to trade with Europeans but did not want to “house” them


Ethiopia survives
Ethiopia Survives exterior. Africans wanted to trade with Europeans but did not want to “house” them

  • Ethiopia was an ancient Christian kingdom in East Africa that had been divided up among a number of rival princes who ruled their own domain or territory

  • In the late 1800s a reforming ruler Melenik II began to modernize Ethiopia

    • He hired Europeans to plan modern roads and bridges and set up a Western school system

    • He imported the latest weapons and European officers to train his army

    • In 1896 Ethiopia successfully repelled Italian invaders

  • Ethiopia was one of only two African nations to preserve its independence


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