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War of 1812. Called “Second War for Independence”. Causes of the War of 1812. 1. Freedom of the Seas France and England trying to control American trade 2. Impressment of Sailors Merchant ships stopped by British to look for deserters

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war of 1812
War of 1812

Called “Second War for Independence”

causes of the war of 1812
Causes of the War of 1812

1. Freedom of the Seas

  • France and England trying to control American trade

2. Impressment of Sailors

  • Merchant ships stopped by British to look for deserters
  • Chesapeake incident – British opened fire on ship, forced 4 Americans into British navy
  • Jefferson issued the Embargo Act, which prohibited exports to ALL countries – was an economic disaster
causes of the war of 18121
Causes of the War of 1812

3. Land Hungry War Hawks

  • wanted more land for America expansion, hoped to gain Canada
  • Henry Clay - Kentucky
  • John C. Calhoun - S. Carolina

John C. Calhoun

causes of the war of 18122
Causes of the War of 1812
  • Trouble on the Frontier

Tecumseh and brother, Tenskwatawa “the Prophet” wanted Indian alliance against settlers , taught natives to resist white culture

    • Battle of Tippecanoe - Gen. William Henry Harrison defeated Indians (Old Tippecanoe)
    • Congress blames British for Indian uprising, supplying them with weapons

Tecumseh

causes of the war of 18123
Causes of the War of 1812

Battle of Tippecanoe

causes of the war of 18124
Causes of the War of 1812

5. National Honor

  • restricting freedom of seas and impressment challenged American Honor
  • fighting for respect
war of 18121
War of 1812
  • President Madison Declared War
    • pushed by House Speaker Henry Clay
    • in his address to Congress requesting war
      • impressment
      • interference with neutral commerce
      • British alliances with natives

Pres.. Madison

war of 18122
War of 1812

America is not ready for war

  • Army of only 12,000, turned to state militia
  • Not enough officers
  • U.S navy small compared to Royal Navy
  • Divided nation
    • war support came from west and south
    • New England States had economic ties with British
war of 18123
War of 1812
  • Important Battles
war of 18124
War of 1812
  • Invasion of Canada fails
  • Lose control of Northwest Territory
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War of 1812
  • Naval Victories bolster morale

U.S.S. Constitution “Old Ironsides” defeats British ship Guerriere

U.S.S. Constitution

war of 18126
War of 1812
  • Washington D.C. is burned
    • British marched in unopposed
    • retaliation for the burning of York, Canada
    • Dolley Madison saves picture of Washington and important documents
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War of 1812
  • Siege of Baltimore
    • Americans defend the city and Fort McHenry
    • Francis Scott Key writes “The Star Spangled Banner” (1931)
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War of 1812
  • The Treaty of Ghent
    • Restores Pre-War Situation

1. boundaries between Canada and US are set

2. demilitarizes the Great Lakes

3. Oregon Territory placed under joint rule for the next 10 years

America has “proven” itself as a nation, even though no land changed hands.

the battle of new orleans
The Battle of New Orleans
  • unaware that peace was made British attack
  • Gen. Andrew Jackson is heavily outnumbered but wins – becomes a hero
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