CHAPTER 22 Working Capital Management. Alternative working capital policies Cash, inventory, and A/R management Accounts payable management Short-term financing policies Bank debt and commercial paper. Basic Definitions. Gross working capital: Total current assets.
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Total current assets.
Current assets - Current liabilities.
Operating CA – Operating CL =
(Cash + Inv. + A/R) – (Accruals + A/P)
Includes both establishing working capital policy and then the day-to-day control of cash, inventories, receivables, accruals, and accounts payable.
Turnover of cash16.67x22.22x
DSO (365-day basis)45.6332.00
F. A. turnover11.35x12.00x
T. A. turnover2.08x3.00x
The cash conversion cycle focuses on the time between payments made for materials and labor and payments received from sales:
Cash Inventory Receivables Payables
conversion = conversion + collection - deferral .
cycle period period period
Days per year
CCC = + –
CCC = + 45.6 – 30
CCC = 75.7 + 45.6 – 30
CCC = 91.3 days.
2.Information on collections delay.
3.Forecast of purchases and payment terms.
4.Forecast of cash expenses: wages, taxes, utilities, and so on.
5.Initial cash on hand.
6.Target cash balance.
Net Cash Inflows
Rent 2,500.00 2,500.00
Cash at start if no borrowing$ 3,000.00$16,857.64
Net CF (slide 13) 13,857.64 18,311.85
Less: target cash 1,500.00 1,500.00
SKI’s forecasted cash budgetindicates that the company’s cash holdings will exceed the targetedcash balance every month, except for October and November.
YES! A tighter credit policy may
discourage sales. Some customers
may choose to go elsewhere if they
are pressured to pay their bills
SKI buys $506,985 net, on terms of 1/10, net 30, and pays on Day 40. How much free and costly trade credit, and what’s the cost of costly trade credit?
Net daily purchases = $506,985/365
Annual gross purch. = $506,985/(1-0.01)
Payables level if take discount:
Payables = $1,389(10) = $13,890.
Payables level if don’t take discount:
Payables = $1,389(40) = $55,560.
Total trade credit= $55,560
Free trade credit= 13,890
Costly trade credit= $41,670
rNom = = 0.1229 = 12.29%.
Firm loses 0.01($512,106) = $5,121 of discounts to obtain $41,670 in
extra trade credit, so
But the $5,121 is paid all during the year, not at year-end, so EAR rate is higher.
Pays 1.01% 12.167 times per year.
Periodic rate = 0.01/0.99 = 1.01%.
Periods/year = 365/(40 – 10) = 12.1667.
EAR= (1 + Periodic rate)n – 1.0
= (1.0101)12.1667 – 1.0 = 13.01%.
Lower dashed line, more aggressive.