A topical approach to life span development l.jpg
This presentation is the property of its rightful owner.
Sponsored Links
1 / 41

A Topical Approach to LIFE-SPAN DEVELOPMENT PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 92 Views
  • Uploaded on
  • Presentation posted in: General

A Topical Approach to LIFE-SPAN DEVELOPMENT. Chapter Eight: Intelligence. John W. Santrock. Concept of Intelligence. Intelligence Similar to thinking and memory skills Cannot be directly measured Ability to solve problems; adapt to and learn from everyday experiences

Download Presentation

A Topical Approach to LIFE-SPAN DEVELOPMENT

An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

Presentation Transcript


A topical approach to life span development l.jpg

A Topical Approach toLIFE-SPAN DEVELOPMENT

Chapter Eight:

Intelligence

John W. Santrock


Concept of intelligence l.jpg

Concept of Intelligence

  • Intelligence

    • Similar to thinking and memory skills

    • Cannot be directly measured

    • Ability to solve problems; adapt to and learn from everyday experiences

    • Individual differences are stable, consistent


Concept of intelligence3 l.jpg

Concept of Intelligence

  • Intelligence tests

    • The Binet tests

      • Mental age (MA)— individual’s level of mental development relative to others

      • Chronological age (CA) — age from birth

      • Intelligence quotient (IQ)— individual’s MA divided CA, multiplied by 100

      • Normal distribution — symmetrical distribution of scores around a mean


Slide4 l.jpg

The Normal Curve and Stanford-Binet IQ Scores

Fig. 8.1


Concept of intelligence5 l.jpg

Concept of Intelligence

  • Intelligence tests

    • Wechsler sclaes

      • WAIS-III — for adults

      • WISC-IV — for children

      • WPPSI-III — for preschool and primary children

      • Overall IQ score with composite scores

      • Measures verbal and performance IQ


Concept of intelligence6 l.jpg

Concept of Intelligence

  • Use and misuse of intelligence tests

    • Tests are tools; use depends upon skills of user

    • Real world use: predictors of school success

    • Moderately correlated with work performance; correlation decreases as experience increases

    • IQ tests can easily lead to false expectations and generalizations; self-fulfilling prophecies

    • Measures current performance

    • Other factors also affect success


Concept of intelligence7 l.jpg

Concept of Intelligence

  • Theories of multiple intelligence

    • Controversy over breaking intelligence down into multiple abilities

    • Sternberg’s triarchic theory

      • Main types of IQ: analytic, creative, practical

      • Triarchic patterns differ among students; affects how each performs and is perceived by others

      • Most tasks require some combination of these


Concept of intelligence8 l.jpg

Concept of Intelligence

  • Theories of multiple intelligence

    • Gardner’s theory of multiple intelligences

      • Identifies eight types; perceived as strengths in some situations, improved with experience

        • Verbal, mathematics, spatial, interpersonal, body-kinesthetic, musical, intrapersonal, and naturalist skills

      • Can be destroyed, survive brain damage

      • Can be exaggerated: gifted, autistic savants


Concept of intelligence9 l.jpg

Concept of Intelligence

  • Theories of multiple intelligence

    • Social intelligence components included in Sternberg’s and Gardner’s theories

    • Emotional intelligence linked to social behaviors

      • Criticized as broadening IQ too much

    • Contributions of multiple intelligence theories cannot be ignored; they have much to offer

      • Many criticisms of these


Concept of intelligence10 l.jpg

Concept of Intelligence

  • Theories of multiple intelligence

    • Spearman’s two-factor theory: factor analysis correlates test scores into clusters or factors

    • Many argue there is a “general intelligence”’ and then some have additional “specific intelligence” abilities

    • Most agree all intellectual abilities are related to each other

      • IQ tests may be too narrow to measure them


Controversies and group comparisons l.jpg

Controversies and Group Comparisons

  • Influence of heredity and environment

    • Genetic influences: heritability is from genes

      • Refers to specific groups

      • Influences increase with age

      • Based on IQ tests and faulty assumptions

      • Truth: genes and experience work together


Controversies and group comparisons12 l.jpg

Controversies and Group Comparisons

  • Influence of heredity and environment

    • Environmental influences

      • Experiences make a difference in intelligence

      • Modifications in environment can change IQ scores considerably; very complex

        • SES, parent communication, schooling

      • Intelligence test scores increase each year around the world; effects of technology?

        • Flynn effect


Controversies and group comparisons13 l.jpg

Controversies and Group Comparisons

  • Research on early intervention

    • High quality intervention improves IQ and school achievement

    • Effects strongest for poor with low educated parents

    • Positive benefits continue into adolescence

    • Educates parents to be more sensitive

    • Abecedarian Project


Controversies and group comparisons14 l.jpg

Controversies and Group Comparisons

  • Group comparisons and issues

    • Cross-cultural comparisons problematic

      • Intelligence definition varies by culture;

      • Cultural values influence development

      • Practical, academic IQ can develop separately

    • Cultural bias in testing

      • Language, environmental experiences, SES


Controversies and group comparisons15 l.jpg

Controversies and Group Comparisons

  • Group comparisons and issues

    • Cultural bias in testing

      • Culture-fair tests: unbiased IQ tests

        • First type: questions on information common to all SES and ethnic groups

        • Second type: no verbal questions used

        • Results: the most educated still score higher

      • Sternberg: can only make culture-reduced tests


Controversies and group comparisons16 l.jpg

Controversies and Group Comparisons

  • Group comparisons and issues

    • Ethnic comparisons in IQ testing

      • African American and Latino children score lower than white children on average

      • SES may have more effect than ethnicity; gap narrows in college

      • Questions raised about measuring ability of tests; individual scores vary considerably

      • Influence of stereotype threat


Controversies and group comparisons17 l.jpg

Controversies and Group Comparisons

  • Group comparisons and issues

    • Gender comparisons in IQ testing

      • Average scores for females and males overlap

      • Males score better in some nonverbal abilities; some females better in verbal abilities

        • Variability higher in male scores

      • Questions of how strong differences are


The development of intelligence l.jpg

The Development of Intelligence

  • Tests of infant intelligence

    • Focus on perceptual-motor, social interaction, and much less verbal than IQ tests for older children

    • Gesell: distinguishes normal from abnormal

      • Four categories of behavior: motor, language, adaptive, and personal-social

      • Combined overall score is developmental quotient (DQ)


The development of intelligence19 l.jpg

The Development of Intelligence

  • Tests of infant intelligence

    • Bayley Scales of Infant Development (v. III)

      • Has five scales:

        • Cognitive, language, motor, adaptive, and socio-emotional

        • Three scales are direct measurement

        • Two are questions answered by caregiver

      • More suitable for clinical setting


The development of intelligence20 l.jpg

The Development of Intelligence

  • Tests of infant intelligence

    • Fagan Test of Infant Intelligence

      • Use is increasing

      • Focuses on infant ability to process information

        • Encoding objects’ attributes

        • Detecting object similarities and differences

        • Forming, retriving mental representations


The development of intelligence21 l.jpg

The Development of Intelligence

  • Stability and change in intelligence through adolescence

    • IQ score correlation statistically significant between preadolescence and age 18

    • IQ test scores can fluctuate dramatically across childhood

      • Children are adaptive and change

      • IQ not as stable as theorists once thought


The development of intelligence22 l.jpg

The Development of Intelligence

  • Intelligence in adulthood

    • Fluid and Crystallized Intelligence

      • Crystallized intelligence

        • Accumulated information and verbal skills, which increase with age

      • Fluid intelligence

        • Ability to reason abstractly, which steadily declines from middle adulthood on

      • Cross-sectional, longitudinal, and cohort testing


Slide23 l.jpg

Fluid and Crystallized Intellectual Development Across the Life Span

Fig. 8.7


The development of intelligence24 l.jpg

The Development of Intelligence

  • Intelligence in adulthood

    • Seattle Longitudinal Study — 500 adult subjects

      • Since 1956: focused on

      • Vocabulary

      • Verbal memory

      • Number (math): declined in middle age

      • Spatial orientation

      • Inductive reasoning

      • Perceptual speed: showed earliest decline


The development of intelligence25 l.jpg

The Development of Intelligence

  • Intelligence in adulthood

    • Seattle Longitudinal Study

      • Intellectual abilities decline more in cross-sectional rather than longitudinal assessments

      • Middle-age was time of peak performance

      • When two generations assessed at ages 60-67, second generation showed higher cognitive functioning


Slide26 l.jpg

Longitudinal Changes in Six Intellectual Abilities

Fig. 8.8


Slide27 l.jpg

Cross-Sectional and Longitudinal Comparisons of Intellectual Change

Fig. 8.9


The development of intelligence28 l.jpg

The Development of Intelligence

  • Cognitive mechanics and pragmatics

    • Cognitive mechanics

      • Hardware of the mind

      • Speed and accuracy of processes involved in sensory input

      • More biological influenced; declines with age


The development of intelligence29 l.jpg

The Development of Intelligence

  • Cognitive mechanics and pragmatics

    • Cognitive pragmatics

      • Culture-based; “software” of the mind

        • Reading/writing, language comprehension

        • Educational qualifications

        • Professional skills

        • Knowledge about self and life skills

      • Can improve with age


The development of intelligence30 l.jpg

The Development of Intelligence

  • Wisdom

    • Expert knowledge on practical aspects of life permitting excellent judgment about important matters

    • High levels of wisdom are rare

    • Emerges late adolescence and early adulthood

    • Factors other than age are critical

    • Personality-related factors better predictors of wisdom


Extremes of intelligence and creativity l.jpg

Extremes of Intelligence and Creativity

  • Mental retardation

    • Condition of limited mental ability

      • Low IQ on traditional test of intelligence

      • Difficulty adapting to everyday life

      • Onset by age 18; range of impairments vary

    • Some causes include

      • Organic retardation

      • Cultural-familial retardation


Slide32 l.jpg

Classification of Mental Retardation Based on IQ

Fig. 8.12


Extremes of intelligence and creativity33 l.jpg

Extremes of Intelligence and Creativity

  • Giftedness

    • Above-average intelligence; figures are arbitrary

    • IQ of 130 is often used as low threshold

    • Generally not related to mental disorder

    • Individuals tend to be more mature, have fewer emotional problems, grow up in positive family


Extremes of intelligence and creativity34 l.jpg

Extremes of Intelligence and Creativity

  • Giftedness

    • Distinct characteristics of gifted children

      • Precocity

      • March to their own drummer

      • Passion to master

    • Innate ability needs support of deliberate practice

      • Needs to be with others like themselves


Extremes of intelligence and creativity35 l.jpg

Extremes of Intelligence and Creativity

  • Creativity

    • Ability to think in novel/unusual ways, and come up with unique/good solutions

      • Requires divergent thinking

    • Intelligence and creativity not same thing; most creative people are quite intelligent but reverse not necessarily true

      • Conventional IQ tests measure convergent thinking


Extremes of intelligence and creativity36 l.jpg

Extremes of Intelligence and Creativity

  • Steps in the creative process

    • Preparation

    • Incubation

    • Insight

    • Evaluation

    • Elaboration

  • Not all creative people follow linear sequence


Extremes of intelligence and creativity37 l.jpg

Extremes of Intelligence and Creativity

  • Characteristics of Creative Thinkers

    • Flexibility and playful thinking

      • Brainstorming

    • Inner motivation

    • Willingness to risk

    • Objective evaluation of work


Extremes of intelligence and creativity38 l.jpg

Extremes of Intelligence and Creativity

  • Teaching in schools

    • Help students become more creative

      • Encourage brainstorming, taking intellectual risks

      • Provide environments that stimulate creativity

      • Don’t overcontrol students; build confidence

      • Encourage internal motivation, persistence, and delayed gratification

      • Introduce children to creative people


Extremes of intelligence and creativity39 l.jpg

Extremes of Intelligence and Creativity

  • Changes in adulthood

    • Individuals’ most creative products were generated in their thirties

    • 80% of most important creative contributions completed by age 50

    • Researchers found creativity often peaks in forties before declining

    • Age of decline varies by domain


Extremes of intelligence and creativity40 l.jpg

Extremes of Intelligence and Creativity

  • Living a More Creative Life

    • Try to be surprised by something every day

    • Try to surprise at least one person every day

    • Write down the surprises of each day

    • Follow sparked interests

    • Wake up in the morning with a specific goal

    • Take charge of your schedule

    • Spend time in stimulating settings


The end l.jpg

The End


  • Login