Elements to consider. Audience Purpose Organization Style Flow/Coherence Other?. Audience. Who was the audience for the last thing you wrote? Did you write for him/her or was he she just an intermediary to your “real” audience. Ultimately who are you learning to write to?
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1 Chronologically or Reverse-Chronologically
2 In spatial relation
3 From General to Specific (inductive)
4 From Specific to General (deductive)
5 From Least Important to Most Important
6 Through Division and Classification
7 By Cause and Effect
8 By Problem and Solution
9 Through Comparison or Analogy
10 Through Contrast
11 By Process
12 Through Definition
Essays, reports, presentations and research papers are just some examples of documents written in the academic style.
In brief, academic writing is \'structured research\' written by \'scholars\' for other scholars (with all university writers being \'scholars\' in this context).
Academic writing is;
and most importantly,
Formal English is used mainly in
- academic writing, and
- business communications
Whereas informal English is
-appropriate when communicating with friends and family.
Formal Writing is ACCURATE:
-Precise evidence is presented.
-Facts are distinguished from opinions and feelings.
-Sources are carefully used and acknowledged.
-Sentences are clear and constructed carefully.
-Punctuation marks are accurately used.
Structure and vocabulary are formal;
-Full forms are used (What have, cannot...)
-More formal, abstract words with Latin or Greek origins are often preferred.
-A personal viewpoint is expressed.
-Statements are not necessarily accurate.
-Facts and opinions are not necessarily distinct.
-Sources are used rarely and carelessly.
-Sentences are shorter, and not so carefully constructed.
-Dramatic punctuation marks (?, !, ...) are common.
Formal writing is TENTATIVE;
-There are few definite statements.
-Quick conclusions are avoided.
Structure and vocabulary are informal;
-Short forms and contractions (I’ve, he’s, can’t...) are often used.
-Shorter, less formal language is preferred (e.g. phrasal verbs, compound words, idioms, slang and colloquial language).
-There are often definite statements and generalizations.
-Conclusions may be drawn from insufficient evidence.
In an academic context, students are required to write essays including references to other sources to support their thesis statements and main ideas.
To support their ideas, they need to research what authorities have to say about their topics and include relevant support from outside sources by
- or paraphrasing it.
What is concrete support?
that you insert into your essay to add weight to your arguments and make them more convincing.
Guidelines for Choosing a Piece of Concrete Support
Ask yourself these questions:
i. University publications are usually trustwothy.
ii. Government documents may or may not be.
iii. Blogs, which are often free, written discussions of various topics, are not always reliable. Make sure the author is an expert in the field before using his or her opinions.
3. Choose a passage that directly supports ypur point.
4. Do not take a passage out of context.
5. Do not use more than two pieces of concrete support in one paragraph. Most of the paragragh should be your own words.
6. Do not choose a passage that is too technical or field specific for your reader to understand (Above all, you need to understand it well in the firt place).
the search for knowledge, or as any systematic investigation, to establish novel facts, solve new or existing problems, prove new ideas, or develop new theories, usually using a scientific method.
"a studious inquiry or examination; especially : investigation or experimentation aimed at the discovery and interpretation of facts, revision of accepted theories or laws in the light of new facts, or practical application of such new or revised theories or laws” (The Merriam-Webster Online Dictionary)
The primary purpose for basic research (as opposed to applied research) is discovering, interpreting, and the development of methods and systems for the advancement of human knowledge.
The goal of the research process is to produce new knowledge. This process takes three main forms
Research can also fall into two distinct types:
In social sciences and later in other disciplines, the following two research methods can be applied
The exact terminology and definitions vary by field and specific journal, but often include: