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Rise of the Hospital: 1700-1900. Islamic Medical Institutions. Hospitals More medically oriented than their western counterparts Developed a teaching function sooner, as well. Types of Hospitals. Poor law hospitals Royal hospitals (London only) Endowed by Henry VIII Voluntary hospitals

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Islamic medical institutions
Islamic Medical Institutions

  • Hospitals

  • More medically oriented than their western counterparts

  • Developed a teaching function sooner, as well


Types of hospitals
Types of Hospitals

  • Poor law hospitals

  • Royal hospitals (London only)

    • Endowed by Henry VIII

  • Voluntary hospitals

    • First emerged in 18th century


Voluntary general hospitals
Voluntary General Hospitals

  • Also intended to care for the poor

  • Depended on donations

  • 1st established in London in 1720 (Westminster)

  • Last – St. Mary’s (1851)




  • Patients selected on the basis of:

    • Moral behaviour

    • Utilitarianism

  • Preferred to admit adult males who were gainfully employed

  • Utilitarian principles influenced much of charitable work in the 19th century




Specialist voluntary hospitals

Specialist Voluntary Hospitals charities

1. Lock Hospitals


  • Admitted women suffering from VD charities

  • Reflected British middle class anxieties about prostitutes & working class women

  • Purpose was to morally reform prostitutes


  • Linda Mahood. charitiesThe Magdalenes: Prostitution in the Nineteenth Century

  • Judith Walkowitz. Prostitution in Victorian Society: Women, Class and the State

  • New approaches to old problems often signal shifts in social beliefs




  • Glasgow system charities

  • Interlocking system of repression

    • Communicable diseases acts

    • Magdalene homes

    • Lock hospitals

  • Police could arrest any woman suspected of prostitution


  • Subjected to medical examination charities

  • If infected, to Lock hospital

  • If not, to magdalene home

  • Controversy over use of speculum

  • Resistance to CD acts by feminists


2 lying in hospitals
2. Lying-in Hospitals charities

  • Provided limited maternity services to working class women

  • Contributed to medicalization of childbirth


3 infectious fever isolation hospitals
3. Infectious (fever, isolation) hospitals charities

  • Less popular

  • Less financial support from donors

  • No one wanted them in their neighbourhood



Hospital architecture
Hospital Architecture Hospitals

  • In early years, any building would do

  • Gradual emphasis on the role that architecture played in:

    • Health of patients

    • Moral development of patients


Nightingale Hospitals

Development of pavilion hospitals

St. Thomas Hospital, c. 1870

Design of Nightingale wards

2500 cu. ft. air/hr

Width 30 ft.

Beds on exterior walls



  • Adams & Theodore. “Designing for ‘the little convalescents’: Children’s Hospitals in Toronto & Montreal.” Canadian Bulletin for the History of Medicine

  • Surroundings of hospital were completely at odds with normal living conditions of working class children & parents




Hospitals as social systems
Hospitals as Social Systems convalescents’: Children’s Hospitals in Toronto & Montreal.”

  • Types of patients

    • Sex

    • Occupations

    • Financial circumstances

  • Type of care

  • Length of stay


  • Therapeutic regimes convalescents’: Children’s Hospitals in Toronto & Montreal.”

  • Hospital routines

  • Moralizing strategies

  • Patients’ resistance


  • Staffing convalescents’: Children’s Hospitals in Toronto & Montreal.”

    • Nurses

    • Medical staff

    • Medical students

  • Impact on mortality


Crisis change
Crisis & Change convalescents’: Children’s Hospitals in Toronto & Montreal.”

  • Significant turmoil in voluntary hospitals in late 19th century

  • Erosion of absolute authority of hospital governors


  • Financial convalescents’: Children’s Hospitals in Toronto & Montreal.”

    • Linkages with other charities

    • Working class contributions

    • Advent of the paying patient

  • Power struggles between governors & medical profession


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