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Renewable feedstocks. Thursday 29th October 2009. PLATFORM CHEMICALS. Adapted from Introduction to Chemicals from Biomass, ed. Clark, J.; Deswarte, F. Wiley, 2008. Chemicals from Crude oil. Brassica. Animal feed. Food. Biofuels. Artemisia. Oil. Wheat (straw). Artemisinin. Animal feed.

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Renewable feedstocks

Renewable feedstocks

Thursday 29th October 2009




Chemicals from Crude oil Clark, J.; Deswarte, F. Wiley, 2008


  • Brassica Clark, J.; Deswarte, F. Wiley, 2008

Animal feed

Food

Biofuels

  • Artemisia

Oil

  • Wheat (straw)

Artemisinin

Animal feed

Food

Lignocellulose


Lignin Clark, J.; Deswarte, F. Wiley, 2008

Cellulose

Cell membrane

Hemi-cellulose


PHENOLICS FROM ARTEMESIA Clark, J.; Deswarte, F. Wiley, 2008


Flavones Clark, J.; Deswarte, F. Wiley, 2008

Functionalizing Flavones


Monomers for polyester formation Clark, J.; Deswarte, F. Wiley, 2008


Monomers for polyether formation Clark, J.; Deswarte, F. Wiley, 2008

Monomers for methacrylate formation


PHENOLICS FROM Clark, J.; Deswarte, F. Wiley, 2008

WASTE STRAW


Lignin is a major component of plant cell walls Clark, J.; Deswarte, F. Wiley, 2008

Lignin-degrading

microbes

Bacterial

aromatic

degraders


Assay can distinguish degraders from non-degraders: Clark, J.; Deswarte, F. Wiley, 2008

Time dependence (0-2 hr)

Non-degraders

Fluorescent Assay for Lignin Degradation

Tim Bugg, Paper Submitted to Molecular Biosystems


Large Scale Extraction Clark, J.; Deswarte, F. Wiley, 2008

  • 1.5 kg (wet) of P.chrysosporium-degraded straw was extracted using 20 L reactor

  • 12 L of water and 8 L of THF used to extract straw

  • THF was used due to combination of interesting peaks from LTQ analysis and mass recovered in previous trials

17


HPLC traces with time Clark, J.; Deswarte, F. Wiley, 2008

Non-degrader Bacillus subtilis

shows no change

Degrader Pseudomonas putida


GC-MS data for small scale lignocellulose degradation trials Clark, J.; Deswarte, F. Wiley, 2008

GC-MS total ion chromatogram with EI ionisation for Rhodococcus RHA1incubated with wheat straw lignocellulose for 7 days at 30 oC.

Mass spectrum of peak at RT 7.02 min, assigned to monosilylated derivative of ketone (1), m/z 268 (M-SiMe3)+, 253 (M-SiMe3-CH3)+.


Aromatic metabolites identified (so far) Clark, J.; Deswarte, F. Wiley, 2008


Ferulic acid. Clark, J.; Deswarte, F. Wiley, 2008

379 papers in 2008-9 on biological activity alone

£1 per 1g

Anti-oxidant

Active breast cancer, liver cancer

Active ingredient in anti-ageing creams / plumping creams

Carboxy vanillic acid.

0 papers in 2008-9

Potential use as fine chemical building block.

Vanillic acid precursor.

Diacid for use in polyesters and polyamides


Other potential major degradation products- Clark, J.; Deswarte, F. Wiley, 2008yet to be fully identified from wheat straw

No current market.

Potential in poly-ethers,

-ester or -urethanes

Vanillic acid precursor?

Diacid for use in polyesters

and polyamides

Derivative of Gallic acid.

Anti-fungal, anti-viral,

anti-oxidant.

Gallic acid is used in dyes

and inks.


OIL FROM BRASSICA Clark, J.; Deswarte, F. Wiley, 2008


Natural profiles of some rapeseed oils now available Clark, J.; Deswarte, F. Wiley, 2008

High Erucic

High Oleic

’00’ Canola


Polyurethanes (polymers) Clark, J.; Deswarte, F. Wiley, 2008


Vegetable Oils as Polymer Feedstocks (monomers) Clark, J.; Deswarte, F. Wiley, 2008

Euphorbia oil

Rapeseed oil

Hemp

Jute


WAX FROM WASTE STRAW Clark, J.; Deswarte, F. Wiley, 2008


Wax Extraction - Results Clark, J.; Deswarte, F. Wiley, 2008

It would appear that a higher content is made available by degradation, but it is unknown to the origin of the material.



Future work Poly. Science, In Prep


Future work Poly. Science, In Prep

Expand to renewable ’Waste Products’ further down manufacturing line.

e.g. food industry, Confectionary

Use outputs to make demonstrator pieces for

media and industrial dissemination


Future work Poly. Science, In Prep

Electrospinning Lignin

  • Filler in biocomposite structures

    • May promote resin / matrix adhesion between for natural fibres

  • Use in electrospun nanofibres

    • Solutions not ideal for electrospinning

    • Potential to be co-spun with other polymers (e.g. PVOH)

    • Degradation products may have beneficial anti-oxidant properties which can be incorporated


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