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Renewable feedstocks. Thursday 29th October 2009. PLATFORM CHEMICALS. Adapted from Introduction to Chemicals from Biomass, ed. Clark, J.; Deswarte, F. Wiley, 2008. Chemicals from Crude oil. Brassica. Animal feed. Food. Biofuels. Artemisia. Oil. Wheat (straw). Artemisinin. Animal feed.

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renewable feedstocks

Renewable feedstocks

Thursday 29th October 2009

slide7

Brassica

Animal feed

Food

Biofuels

  • Artemisia

Oil

  • Wheat (straw)

Artemisinin

Animal feed

Food

Lignocellulose

slide8

Lignin

Cellulose

Cell membrane

Hemi-cellulose

slide10

Flavones

Functionalizing Flavones

slide12

Monomers for polyether formation

Monomers for methacrylate formation

slide14

PHENOLICS FROM

WASTE STRAW

slide15

Lignin is a major component of plant cell walls

Lignin-degrading

microbes

Bacterial

aromatic

degraders

slide16

Assay can distinguish degraders from non-degraders:

Time dependence (0-2 hr)

Non-degraders

Fluorescent Assay for Lignin Degradation

Tim Bugg, Paper Submitted to Molecular Biosystems

slide17

Large Scale Extraction

  • 1.5 kg (wet) of P.chrysosporium-degraded straw was extracted using 20 L reactor
  • 12 L of water and 8 L of THF used to extract straw
  • THF was used due to combination of interesting peaks from LTQ analysis and mass recovered in previous trials

17

slide18

HPLC traces with time

Non-degrader Bacillus subtilis

shows no change

Degrader Pseudomonas putida

slide19

GC-MS data for small scale lignocellulose degradation trials

GC-MS total ion chromatogram with EI ionisation for Rhodococcus RHA1incubated with wheat straw lignocellulose for 7 days at 30 oC.

Mass spectrum of peak at RT 7.02 min, assigned to monosilylated derivative of ketone (1), m/z 268 (M-SiMe3)+, 253 (M-SiMe3-CH3)+.

slide21

Ferulic acid.

379 papers in 2008-9 on biological activity alone

£1 per 1g

Anti-oxidant

Active breast cancer, liver cancer

Active ingredient in anti-ageing creams / plumping creams

Carboxy vanillic acid.

0 papers in 2008-9

Potential use as fine chemical building block.

Vanillic acid precursor.

Diacid for use in polyesters and polyamides

slide22

Other potential major degradation products-yet to be fully identified from wheat straw

No current market.

Potential in poly-ethers,

-ester or -urethanes

Vanillic acid precursor?

Diacid for use in polyesters

and polyamides

Derivative of Gallic acid.

Anti-fungal, anti-viral,

anti-oxidant.

Gallic acid is used in dyes

and inks.

slide24

Natural profiles of some rapeseed oils now available

High Erucic

High Oleic

’00’ Canola

slide26

Vegetable Oils as Polymer Feedstocks (monomers)

Euphorbia oil

Rapeseed oil

Hemp

Jute

slide29

Wax Extraction - Results

It would appear that a higher content is made available by degradation, but it is unknown to the origin of the material.

slide32

Future work

Expand to renewable ’Waste Products’ further down manufacturing line.

e.g. food industry, Confectionary

Use outputs to make demonstrator pieces for

media and industrial dissemination

slide36

Future work

Electrospinning Lignin

  • Filler in biocomposite structures
    • May promote resin / matrix adhesion between for natural fibres
  • Use in electrospun nanofibres
    • Solutions not ideal for electrospinning
    • Potential to be co-spun with other polymers (e.g. PVOH)
    • Degradation products may have beneficial anti-oxidant properties which can be incorporated
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