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Chapter 5 Types of Compounds. Ionic Compounds Covalent Compounds. Electronegativity (EN). Def: The strength with which an atom in a bond pulls on e-s. Covalent Bonds (bonds btwn 2 nonmetals). Nonmetals have high electronegativity values (REVIEW) Electrons are shared

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Chapter 5 Types of Compounds

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Chapter 5Types of Compounds

  • Ionic Compounds

  • Covalent Compounds

LecturePLUS Timberlake


Electronegativity (EN)

Def: The strength with which an atom in a bond pulls on e-s.

LecturePLUS Timberlake


Covalent Bonds (bonds btwn 2 nonmetals)

  • Nonmetals have high electronegativity values

    (REVIEW)

  • Electrons are shared

    single bond shares 1 pair electrons

    double bond shares 2 pairs electrons

    triple bond shares 3 pairs electrons

LecturePLUS Timberlake


Covalent Bonds

Two nonmetal atoms form a covalent bond because they have less energy (are more stable!) after they bonded

H+H H : H = HH = H2hydrogen molecule

LecturePLUS Timberlake


Learning Check

Indicate whether a bond between the following would be 1) Ionic2) covalent

____A. sodium & oxygen

____B. nitrogen & oxygen

____C. phosphorus & chlorine

____D. calcium & sulfur

____E. chlorine & bromine

LecturePLUS Timberlake


Solution

Indicate whether a bond between the following would be 1) Ionic2) covalent

1A. sodium and oxygen

2B. nitrogen and oxygen

2C. phosphorus and chlorine

1D. calcium and sulfur

2E. chlorine and bromine

LecturePLUS Timberlake


Types of Covalent (Molecular) Cpds

  • Elements that form diatomic molecules

  • Binary covalent compounds

  • Organic compounds/ Hydrocarbon

  • Acids & Bases

  • (Common v. Formal Names)

LecturePLUS Timberlake


Diatomic Elements

Elements that exist as diatomic molecules

are : H2, F2, N2, O2, Cl2, Br2, I2

octets

    

 N  + N  N:::N



triple bond

LecturePLUS Timberlake


Learning Check

Use the name of the element to name a diatomic molecules.

H2hydrogen

N2nitrogen

Cl2_______________

O2_______________

I2_______________

LecturePLUS Timberlake


Solution

Use the name of the element to name the following diatomic molecules.

H2hydrogen

N2nitrogen

Cl2chlorine

O2oxygen

I2iodine

LecturePLUS Timberlake


Naming Binary Covalent Compounds

Two nonmetals (def of binary covalent)

  • Name each element

  • End the last element in -ide

  • Add prefixes to show how many atoms of each

    • (except when there’s only 1 atom of the 1st element listed)

      Prefixes-(see Table 5.5, p 168 of text)

      mon1 penta5

      di2hexa6

      tri3hepta7

      tetra4octa8

LecturePLUS Timberlake


Learning Check

Fill in the blanks to complete the following names of covalent compounds.

CO carbon ______oxide

CO2carbon _______________

PCl3phosphorus _______chloride

CCl4carbon ________chloride

N2O_____nitrogen _____oxide

LecturePLUS Timberlake


Solution

CO carbon monoxide

CO2carbon dioxide

PCl3phosphorus trichloride

CCl4carbon tetrachloride

N2Odinitrogen monoxide

LecturePLUS Timberlake


Learning Check

A.P2O51) phosphorus oxide

2) phosphorus pentoxide

3) diphosphorus pentoxide

B.Cl2O71) dichlorine heptoxide

2) dichlorine oxide

3) chlorine heptoxide

C. Cl21) chlorine

2) dichlorine

3) dichloride

LecturePLUS Timberlake


Solution

A.P2O53) diphosphorus pentoxide

B.Cl2O71) dichlorine heptoxide

C. Cl21) chlorine

LecturePLUS Timberlake


Naming Organic Compounds

  • Def: organic compounds contain __ atoms hooked together.

  • (Why do you think this element can hook up with many other atoms, including itself?)


Hydrocarbons-A Type of Organic Compound

  • Def: hydrocarbons are made of ___ & ___

  • They are named by the number of Carbon atoms a molecule contains.

  • See Table 5.8, p 183


Table 5.8: Hydrocarbons

CH4methane

C2H6ethane

C3H8propane

C4H10butane

C5H12pentane

C6H14hexane

C7H16heptane

C8H18octane

C9H20nonane

C10H22decane


Common v. Formal Names

  • Formal Names follow the rules we have learned for naming compounds.

  • Common Names are ones that don’t follow these rules.

    • Ex: water=


Frequently Used Common Names

  • Water = H2O

  • Ammonia = NH3

  • Common Acids & Bases


  • Acids & Bases

    (Table 5.7, p 182)

    ACIDS

    FormulaName

    HClhydrochloric acid

    H2SO4sulfuric acid

    H3PO4phosphoric acid

    HNO3nitric acid

    HC2H3O2acetic acid (vinegar)


    Table 5.7 (cont.):

    BASES

    FormulaName

    NaOHsodium hydroxide

    KOHpotassium hydroxide

    NH3ammonia


    Covalent Bonds in NH3

    Bonding pairs

    H

     

    H: N : H

     

    Lone pair of electrons

    LecturePLUS Timberlake


    Allotropes

    • Def: molecules of the same element that differ in structure

    • Ex: Carbon…graphite, charcoal, Buckminsterfullerine (“bucky ball”)

      - see Fig ___ on p ___ of text

    • Ex2: O2 (oxygen) and O3 (ozone)


    Q:Why do we have to specify the number of atoms of each element in a covalent compound?

    • A: Atoms of the same elements can combine in different ratios.

    • Ex: C & O

      • CO

      • CO2


    Writing Formulas for Covalent Compounds

    1. Identify it as a covalent: containing only nonmetals.

    2. Determine what type of covalent it is:

    diatomic elementbinary

    hydrocarbon (ends in –ane)acid/base

    3. Reverse the naming process.

    LecturePLUS Timberlake


    Naming Ionic Compounds

    • Binary Ionic

    • Ionic Compounds contain-ing Polyatomic Ions.

    • Ionic Cpds containing Transition Metals

    LecturePLUS Timberlake


    PLEASE NOTE:

    • IF YOU ARE UNABLE TO IDENTIFY IONIC & COVALENT COMPOUNDS, YOU WILL BE LOST!!!

    • PLEASE SEE ME IMMEDIATELY TO GET CAUGHT UP.

    LecturePLUS Timberlake


    Ionic Bonding & Electronegativity

    • Nonmetals have high EN’s.

    • Metals have low EN’s.

      Bonds between a metal & a nonmetal involve transfers of e-s b/c of the big difference in EN!

    LecturePLUS Timberlake


    Binary Ionic Compounds

    • Binary= 2 elements

    • Ionic= 1 metal & 1 nonmetal

    LecturePLUS Timberlake


    Naming Binary Ionic Compounds

    1. Identify & name the 2 elements in the compound.

    2. Name the cation, which is the given the name of the element.

    3. Name the anion, which is given the name of the element, w/the ending changed to “–ide.”

    LecturePLUS Timberlake


    PRACTICE Naming Binary Ionic Compounds

    1. Na║Cl

    2. Na = “sodium”

    3. Cl = “chloride”

    (full name is “sodium chloride”)

    LecturePLUS Timberlake


    PRACTICE Naming Binary Ionic Compounds

    1. Li2O

    2 & 3.

    ____║____= ______ ______

    (cation(anion (cation name) (anion name) symbol) symbol)

    LecturePLUS Timberlake


    MORE PRACTICE Naming Binary Ionic Compounds-p __ of I.N.

    • KF

    • CaF2

    • Al2O3

    LecturePLUS Timberlake


    Naming Ionic Compounds w/ Polyatomic Ions

    • DEF: Charged particles containing more than 1 type of atom. Ex: SO42-

    LecturePLUS Timberlake


    Naming Ionic Compounds w/ Polyatomic Ions

    • Identify the cation & the anion. (Draw a line between the 2 ions)

    • Name the cation, then the anion (find polyatomics on Table 5.3, p 159 of text). That’s it!

    LecturePLUS Timberlake


    PRACTICE :Naming Ionic Compounds w/ Polyatomic Ions

    EX: Na2SO4

    ____║____= ______ ______

    (cation(anion (cation name) (anion name) symbol) symbol)

    LecturePLUS Timberlake


    Naming Ionic Compounds w/ Polyatomic Ions

    • Most polyatomic ions are anions.

    LecturePLUS Timberlake


    A Couple of Important Exceptions w/Polyatomic Ions

    Important Exception #1: there are 2 cations that contain NO METALS:

    NH4+ (ammonium)

    H3O+ (hydronium)

    (this can be tricky b/c we have always identified ionic compounds because they start with a metal cation.)

    LecturePLUS Timberlake


    A Couple of Important Exceptions w/Polyatomic Ions

    Important Exception #2: Some anions contain metals.

    Ex: MnO4- = permanganate

    Cr2O72- = dichromate

    (this can be tricky b/c anions are usually a nonmetal)

    LecturePLUS Timberlake


    Copy Table 5.2 into Notes

    LecturePLUS Timberlake


    Naming Ionic Cpds Containing Transition Metals

    Ex: NiO2

    • Determine the total # of negative charges in a unit of the compound:

      Ex: O2- & O2- = 4 total - charges

      2. Determine the charge on the cation that will give you 4 total + charges Ex: Ni4+

      3. Write the cation & anion names. Write cation with the oxidation # written as a Roman numeral in parentheses:

      Ex: nickel (IV) oxide

    LecturePLUS Timberlake


    Writing Formulas for Binary Ionic Compounds

    1. Identify the ionic charge (“oxidation number”) on the cation & anion.

    LecturePLUS Timberlake


    Writing Formulas for Binary Ionic Compounds

    ELEMENTOXIDATION #

    • Group 11+

    • Group 22+

    • Group 133+

    • Group 144+ or 4-

    • Group 153-

    • Group 162-

    • Group 171-

    LecturePLUS Timberlake


    Practice Predicting Oxidation #s

    • Li

    • O

    • Mg

    • F

    • B

    LecturePLUS Timberlake


    Writing Formulas for Binary Ionic Compounds

    2. A compound has NO CHARGE on it, so a formula unit (the smallest ratio of cations to anions) must have equal numbers of + & - charges. (use the LCM)

    LecturePLUS Timberlake


    Cross-Over Method

    • You can use this to write formulas.

    • Take the charge on the cation and use it as the subscript on the anion

    • Take the charge on the anion and use it as the subscript on the cation

    • Reduce the subscripts, if necessary

    LecturePLUS Timberlake


    Using the LCM to Write Ionic Formulas

    • Ex: Li & F

    • Ex: Li & O

    • Ex: Al & O

    LecturePLUS Timberlake


    ANSWERS

    • LiF

    • Li2O

    • Al2O3

    LecturePLUS Timberlake


    Writing Formulas for I.Cpds Containing Polyatomic Ions

    • Determine the cation & anion

    • Determine the oxidation # on each ion. (oxidation #s for polyatomics are found on Table 5.2)

    • Write a balanced formula

      • If there is more than 1 of an ion, use parentheses, then a subscript

    LecturePLUS Timberlake


    Writing Formulas for I.Cpds Containing Polyatomic Ions

    • Ex: see Practice Problems, p 162

      3. Write the formula for the compound formed from the following pairs of ions

      a) ammonium & sulfite ions

    • IONS: NH4+&SO3 2-

      NH4+

    • FORMULA: (NH4)2SO3

    LecturePLUS Timberlake


    Practice Problems, cont.from p 16 2of text

    3b)

    3c)

    3d)

    4a)

    4b)

    4c)

    4d)

    LecturePLUS Timberlake


    Transition Metals

    • QUESTION: What was strange about the e- configurations of transition metals?

    ANSWER: Their d sublevels overlap with the other sublevels in the next higher main E.L.

    LecturePLUS Timberlake


    Oxidation #s of Transition Metals

    • The d sublevel e-s are so close to the actual valence e-s, they sometimes act like valence e-s!

    • See Table 5.4 on p 164 of text: Common Ions of Select Transition Metals

    • Ex: Fe 2+ & Fe 3+

    • Write the e- configuration

    LecturePLUS Timberlake


    e- Configuration for Fe

    • Fe=26 e-s

    • 1s22s22p63s23p64s23d6

    • Valence e-s=4s2

    • BUT, some 3d e-s can be lost too!

    LecturePLUS Timberlake


    Writing Formulas for Ionic Cpds containing Transition Metals

    1. Identify the cation & anion

    2. Determine the oxidation #s on the cation & anion

    • The oxidation # of the cation is given in the name ex: Nickel (IV) = Ni4+

    • The Roman numeral is the oxidation#

      3. Write a formula w/ 0 charge.

    LecturePLUS Timberlake


    Distillation

    • Def: process of separating ionic & covalent compounds by heating them till the covalent compound evaporates.

      • The ionic compound remains in the flask

      • The covalent compound can be cooled & collected in a separate container.

      • This process is called distillation


    Learning Check

    Match each set with the correct name:

    A.Na2CO31) magnesium sulfite

    MgSO32) magnesium sulfate

    MgSO43) sodium carbonate

    B.Ca(HCO3)21) calcium carbonate

    CaCO32) calcium phosphate

    Ca3(PO4)2 3) calcium bicarbonate

    LecturePLUS Timberlake


    Solution

    A.Na2CO33) sodium carbonate

    MgSO31) magnesium sulfite

    MgSO42) magnesium sulfate

    B.Ca(HCO3)23) calcium bicarbonate

    CaCO31) calcium carbonate

    Ca3(PO4)2 2) calcium phosphate

    LecturePLUS Timberlake


    Learning Check

    A. aluminum nitrate

    1) AlNO3 2) Al(NO)3 3) Al(NO3)3

    B. copper(II) nitrate

    1) CuNO32) Cu(NO3)23) Cu2(NO3)

    C. Iron (III) hydroxide

    1) FeOH2) Fe3OH3) Fe(OH)3

    D. Tin(IV) hydroxide

    1) Sn(OH)4 2) Sn(OH)2 3) Sn4(OH)

    LecturePLUS Timberlake


    Solution

    A. aluminum nitrate

    3) Al(NO3)3

    B. copper(II) nitrate

    2) Cu(NO3)2

    C. Iron (III) hydroxide

    3) Fe(OH)3

    D. Tin(IV) hydroxide

    1) Sn(OH)4

    LecturePLUS Timberlake


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