An overview of lead poisoning and its risks and associated blood lead levels in children
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An overview of Lead poisoning and its risks and associated blood lead levels in children. Tanya Y. Withers, MPH Student Walden University PH 6165 – 8 Instructor: Dr. Jean Johnson Spring, 2009. Learning Objectives. Definition of lead and lead poisoning Areas where lead is found

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An overview of lead poisoning and its risks and associated blood lead levels in children

An overview of Lead poisoning and its risks and associated blood lead levels in children

Tanya Y. Withers, MPH Student

Walden University

PH 6165 – 8

Instructor: Dr. Jean Johnson

Spring, 2009


Learning objectives

Learning Objectives

  • Definition of lead and lead poisoning

  • Areas where lead is found

  • The number of children that are affected by lead poisoning in the U.S. and in the state of Georgia on an annual basis

  • Symptoms of lead poisoning in children and newborns

  • Risks associated with lead poisoning

  • Techniques to prevent lead poisoning

  • Techniques to reduce blood lead levels

  • CDC’s National Goals for Lead Poisoning

    • Note: All photos are courtesy of Clip Art (Microsoft Office)


An overview of lead poisoning and its risks and associated blood lead levels in children

Lead

“Lead is a highly toxic metal found in small amounts in the earth’s crust”

National Institute Of Environmental Health Science - National Institutes Of Health. (2009, January 2). Lead. Retrieved April 8, 2009, from http://www.niehs.nih.gov/health/topics/agent/lead


Where is lead found

Where is Lead Found?

  • Toys

  • Paint

  • Contaminated Soil

  • Household Dust

  • Drinking Water

  • Lead Crystal

  • Lead-Glazed Pottery

  • Home Remedies

  • Cosmetics

    National Institute Of Environmental Health Science - National Institutes Of Health. (2009, January 2). Lead. Retrieved April 8, 2009, from http://www.niehs.nih.gov/health/topics/agents/lead/


Lead poisoning

Lead Poisoning

  • A medical condition in which lead levels within the blood stream become elevated

  • Can occur by inhaling or swallowing the actual product

  • May occur over a period of months to a period of years

    Mayo Clinic Staff. (2009, April 8). Lead poisoning. Retrieved April 9, 2009, from MayoClinic Web site: http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/lead-poisoning/fl00068


An overview of lead poisoning and its risks and associated blood lead levels in children

Blood Lead Levels

What is the blood lead levels within someone’s bloodstream where they may need to seek medical advice from a doctor?


Blood lead levels

Blood Lead Levels

Answer: Greater than 10 micrograms of lead per deciliter of blood


How many children are affected by lead poisoning every year

How many Children are affected by lead Poisoning every year?

  • Annually, 310,000 children between the ages of 1 to 5 years of age have blood levels that are considered to require medical attention (levels in these cases are greater than 10 micrograms) (The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2009).

  • Within the State of Georgia, an estimated 3% of children are affected by lead poisoning (approximately 17,000 children under the age of 6) (Georgia Nursing Association, 2003).

    The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2009). Lead. Retrieved April 10, 2009, from National Center for Environmental Health Web site: http://www.cdc.gov/nceh/lead/faq/about.htm

    Georgia Nursing Association (2003). Childhood lead poisoning in Georgia. Georgia Nursing, 1-2.


Symptoms of lead poisoning in newborns

Symptoms of Lead Poisoning in Newborns

  • Learning difficulties

  • Slowness in growth and development

Mayo Clinic Staff. (2009, April 8). Lead poisoning. Retrieved April 10, 2009, from MayoClinic Web site: http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/lead-poisoning/fl00068


Symptoms of lead poisoning in children

Symptoms of Lead Poisoning in Children

  • Irritability

  • Loss of appetite

  • Weight loss

  • Fatigue

  • Abdominal pain

  • Vomiting

  • Constipation

  • Unusual paleness from anemia

  • Learning Difficulties

    Mayo Clinic Staff. (2009, April 8). Lead poisoning. Retrieved April 10, 2009, from MayoClinic Web site: http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/lead-poisoning/fl00068


Who is at risk for getting lead poisoning

Who is at risk for getting lead poisoning?

  • Babies and children under the age of 6

  • Children living in older homes

  • Children whose families have lower-income and/or are living in below the level of poverty

  • Children amongst particular

    racial and ethnic backgrounds

    The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2009). Lead. Retrieved April 10, 2009, from National Center for Environmental Health Web site: http://www.cdc.gov/nceh/lead/faq/about.htm


Risk of lead poisoning in homes

Risk of lead Poisoning in Homes

  • May occur in homes built before 1978


How can we prevent lead poisoning

How Can we prevent lead Poisoning?

  • Avoid children’s contact with lead

  • Seek medical treatment for children who are poisoned by lead

  • Removal of potential lead hazards in children’s environments

  • Educate children, families, school personnel, others in the public as well as medical personnel of the hazards associated with lead poisoning

  • Children and babies who are at risk of lead poisoning should be tested and immediately receive treatment(if necessary)

    The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2009). Lead. Retrieved April 10, 2009, from National Center for Environmental Health Web site: http://www.cdc.gov/nceh/lead/faq/about.htm


What can we do to potentially reduce high levels of lead within our bloodstream

What can we do to potentially reduce high levels of lead within our bloodstream?

  • Consult with a doctor if you are concerned or a family member is concerned about the risk of exposure to lead

  • Consult with state and local health departments about lead testing in your home (especially if your home is 30 or more years of age)

  • Frequently mop floors

  • Practice frequent hand-washing at home and at school

  • Frequently wash toys, pacifiers and other objects that can be contaminated with lead

  • Use cold tap water for drinking, cooking, etc at home and at school

  • Refrain from using home remedies and/or cosmetics that may contain lead

    The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2009). Lead. Retrieved April 10, 2009, from National Center for Environmental Health Web site: http://www.cdc.gov/nceh/lead/faq/about.htm


An overview of lead poisoning and its risks and associated blood lead levels in children

National goals for reducing lead poisoning and lead exposure by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)

  • Identify and provide services to those children who have high level of lead within their blood

  • Target and identify areas and neighborhoods that are at a high risk of getting lead poisoning

  • Provide resources for all areas that are a high risk of potential lead poisoning

  • Identify populations at special risk of being exposed to lead paint and other potential lead hazards

  • Continue to oversee areas where children are at risk of exposure to lead poisoning and provide cost-effective programs to manage and maintain low-levels of lead poisoning once the 2010 initiatives have been achieved by the CDC’s goals

    Brown, M. J. (2008). Childhood lead poisoning prevention: Getting the job done by 2010. Journal of Environmental Health, 70(6), 56 - 57.


References

References

Brown, M. J. (2008). Childhood lead poisoning prevention: Getting the job done by 2010. Journal of Environmental Health, 70(6), 56 - 57.

Georgia Nursing Association (2003). Childhood lead poisoning in Georgia. Georgia Nursing, 1-2.

Mayo Clinic Staff. (2009, April 8). Lead poisoning. Retrieved April 10, 2009, from MayoClinic Web site: http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/lead-poisoning/fl00068

National Institute of Environmental Health Science - National Institutes of Health. (2009, January 2). Lead. Retrieved April 8, 2009, from http://www.niehs.nih.gov/health/topics/agents/lead/

The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2009). Lead. Retrieved April 10, 2009, from National Center for Environmental Health Web site: http://www.cdc.gov/nceh/lead/faq/about.htm


The end

The End


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Comments orQuestions?


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