Introduction to BALAAGHA Art of Eloquence Lesson Seven. From AL-BALAAGHA AL-WAADHEHA Modifications by Sheikh Safdar Razi. KINAAYAH (implication). Indirect (implied) indication (of a description or behavior or an act.)
From AL-BALAAGHA AL-WAADHEHA
Sheikh Safdar Razi
2. Indication of described thing (MOWSOOF) Indicates a self that is tangible
This can be describing a man for the one who holds the arrow and for being described by the one who has “HINNAH” (paint) on her hand. In one of the poetry the poet mentions that in front of the king the one who has arrow is equal to the one who’s hand is painted with HINNAH.
This means the king does not distinguish between the male / female gender.
3. Indication of a relation/tie (NISBAH)
In this type the KINAAYAH indicates something related to a self/description (tangible / concrete or intangible / abstract) or associated with self or description
The Lion is in his attire. – KINAAYAH
Arabs used certain personalities with certain characteristics and simile such as they described a generous person with HATIM and a wise person with LUQMAAN.
HITLER or SADDAM or YAZEED can be used to describe an oppressor
KINAAYAH or figure of speech is a kind of indirect implication of the real meaning and in one of the cause of eloquence in the KINAAYAH is that it brings the meaning into tangible things such as the generosity which is non-tangible meaning is presented by the abundance of ashes. Ashes thus are tangible things which create stronger picture of generosity. Therefore the listeners can materialize the non-materialistic meaning and comprehend the beauty of the non-materialistic meanings.
Note: there are times where a text of Arabic literature could contain all forms of BAYAAN such as simile, metaphor, figure of speech and the poet or author may jump from one to another creating a bouncing beautiful affect in the heart of the listener. Thus creating more depth in beauty and eloquence in speech.
Sentences are of two types in BALAAGHA:
Purpose of KHABAR can be either Benefit or Benefited depending upon the person
Dua of Prophet Zakariya in Sura Mariam Verse 4
[Shakir 19:4] He said: My Lord! surely my bones are weakened and my head flares with hoariness, and, my Lord! I have never been unsuccessful in my prayer to Thee:
Prophet Zakaria (AS) is informing God about his weakness but God is aware of it. Thus this is Benefited KHABAR (God already knows about it)
Any communication to Allah will always be Benefited KHABAR because he knows already.
I’m from a brave nation
Grieve / Mourning
Tragedy of Karbala in a sad way
Initial KHABAR (IBTIDAA’E): For a listener who does not have any knowledge about the content of the KHABAR, no emphases is used.
Emphasized KHABAR (TALABI): For a listener who is hesitant about your KHABAR and not sure about its accuracy. It is preferred to emphasize this KHABAR with verily, surly and other tools of emphases (INNA, QADD, QASAM,…)
Strongly emphasized KHABAR (INKAARI): The listener denies and refuses to accept the KHABAR. He must emphasize it using one or more tools of emphasis suitable for the degree of his denial in strength and weakness.
INSHAA are appealing sentences (requirement).
Appealing sentences come in various styles:
The book mentions various types of non-appealing INSHAA which will be discussed in the next level.
There are occasions when present tense is used as a form of command. An example would be the narrations of the Infallibles (AS). An example is when a person comes to the imam and mentions that his attire got impure. The response of the Imam is present tense prefixed by imperative LAAM. Thus the Infallible will say LEYAGHSIL (He should wash).
As in the trade and transactions:
Buying and selling
There is only one form of prohibition.
Laa An-Naaheya (Prohibiting Laa) precedes the present tense such as the verse of Prohibiting Fornication : Wa Laa Taqrabu Zina.
Tools of interrogation
Hamza: a’’ Anta Mohammadun? Are you Mohammad
Hul: Hul Anta Mohammadun ? Are You Mohammad?
Hamza and Hul could include two or more options in which the listener is required to chose one. In such a case Um (or) is used.
A’’ Anta Mohammadun Um Aliyun? OR Hul Anta Mohammadun Um Aliyun?
Mun (who) : This is used for intellectuals
Maa (what) : It is used for non-intellectual thing or to ask your name or to ask further clarifaciton of the reality of a thing
Mata (When) : It is used for asking about time in the past or future.
Ay’yan (When) : It is asked for future only in a terrifying subject.
Kayfa (How): Ask about the status
Ayna (Where): Ask where
Unna : Unna can mean How, When, or where.
Kam (How Many/Much): Kam is used to ask about numbers
Aye (Which) : To Define one of the two confused things such as time, number, thing, status, person,.
Notes: The Interrogative forms of sentences are used to seek answers of unknown information, however it could be used for other reasons such as :exclamation, astonishment, blaming, insulting, praising, condemning, amplifying (magnifying).
TAMANEE: Desiring things that are either impossible or highly difficult to attain.
Layta (hope), Hal, Low (hope) and La’ala can be used.
Note: If the desirable was achievable then it will be considered Hope (Rajaa’) and it will be expressed by La’lala (Maybe) or Asa (Maybe)
و"أي"، و"يَا"، و"آ"، و"آي" و"أَيا"، و"هيَا"، و"وا".
An-Nidaa has 8 tools:
Hamza and Aye are used to call someone nearby. All the other tools are used for someone far away.
Sometimes the far person can be caled by Hamza and Aye because he is closest to the heart or present in the mind.
Sometimes the closest person can be used with the tools of furtherest due to high rank, Low status, or heedlessness.
The Nidaa can divert from its purpose of calling someone to metaphorical purposes indicated by context clues such as regret or temptation.
AlQasro (Al-Hasro) – Restricting Phrase
ADAAT ALHASR: Particles used for restriction (INNAMA, MAA+ILLA, LAA+ILLA )
Mohammad is None but Messenger (MAA=ILLA)
There is no god but Allah (LAA+ILLA)
We are restricting God to be None but Allah
We are restringing Mohammad is nothing but a Messenger
Forms of Restrictions:
وَجَاء رَبُّكَ وَالْمَلَكُ صَفًّا صَفًّا
Eejaaz (Synopsis) : There are words that are implicit and meaning is presented without words therefore the words are less and the meanings are more.
Sura Fajr Verse 22
[Shakir 89:22] And your Lord comes and (also) the angels in ranks,
Lord does not come so there is something mistake.
There is an implicit word of Amr or Yowm (Jaa a Rabbuka Amr or Yowm , thus that means the meaning is more than the words.
There are several verses in the quran that has Eejaaz, such as people will be looking at their Lord, people will be looking at the Bounties of the Lord. Ask the city, it should be Asking the People of the City.
رَبِّ اغْفِرْ لِي وَلِوَالِدَيَّ وَلِمَن دَخَلَ بَيْتِيَ مُؤْمِنًا وَلِلْمُؤْمِنِينَ وَالْمُؤْمِنَاتِ وَلَا تَزِدِ الظَّالِمِينَ إِلَّا تَبَارًا
The words are more than the meaning.
Sura Noah Verse 28
[Shakir 71:28] My Lord! forgive me and my parents and him who enters my house believing, and the believing men and the believing women; and do not increase the unjust in aught but destruction!
Itnaab occurs in the above Ayat when he is asking forgiveness for the believers entering his house then it includes in his dua for the believing men and believing women.
Thus the sentence “ who enters my house beliving” is Itnaab.
In Quran Itnaab happened with a purpose.
Purposes of ITNAAB:
ITNAAB could be done for one of the following reasons:
1. Specifying the general to give alert to the specific
2. Generalizing a specific to stretch the benefit of specific to the general category
3. Elaboration after vagueness of the meaning
4. Repetition to emphasize the meaning either to convince or to regret
5. Interrupting / Parenthetical Sentence will be discussed in the higher level.