Comparative digestive systems topic 3024
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Comparative Digestive Systems Topic 3024. Amanda Moore Torey Birchmeier. Digestive Systems Overviews. Digestion. Digestion: Breaking down large, nutrient macromolecules into simpler molecules for use by an organism.

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Comparative Digestive Systems Topic 3024

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Comparative digestive systems topic 3024

Comparative Digestive SystemsTopic 3024

Amanda Moore

Torey Birchmeier


Digestive systems overviews

Digestive Systems Overviews


Digestion

Digestion

  • Digestion: Breaking down large, nutrient macromolecules into simpler molecules for use by an organism.

  • Food enters the mouth and goes through mechanical and chemical changes as it passes through the alimentary canal.


Types of stomachs

Types of Stomachs

  • Simple Stomach

    • Man, Pig

  • Complex Stomach

    • Cattle, Sheep, Goats

  • Simple Stomach with enlarged ceacum

    • Horses, Rabbits, Guinea Pigs


Parts of digestive tract

Parts of Digestive Tract

  • Mouth: initial opening of alimentary canal

    • Salivary Glands

      • secrete juices that contain enzymes to help break up the food

    • Mastication

      • chewing, crushing, preparing food for swallowing


Parts of digestive tract1

Parts of Digestive Tract

  • Pharynx: funnel shaped muscle between mouth and esophagus

    • part of digestive and respiratory tracts

  • Esophagus: muscular tube connecting pharnyx to stomach

    • muscle contractions move food down to stomach


Parts of digestive tract2

Parts of Digestive Tract

  • Stomach: located between esophagus and small intestine

    • Two basics types

      • Simple

      • Ruminant


Parts of digestive tract3

Parts of Digestive Tract

Simple Stomach

  • Humans, swine, rabbits and horses

    • Divided into three regions

      • cardiac

      • fundus

      • pylorus


Simple stomach

Simple Stomach

  • Digestion:

    • is mechanical, muscle contractions

    • is chemical, enzymes soften and break down macromolecules of food

      • enzymes are catalysts, they start the chemical reactions


Simple stomach1

Simple Stomach

  • Enzymes that break down food

    • Gastric-break down proteins in stomach

    • Liver and pancreatic-break down fats in small intestine

    • Intestinal-break down carbohydrates and proteins in small intestine


Parts of digestion tract

Parts of Digestion Tract

Ruminant Stomach

  • Sheep, Cows and Goats

  • Occupies 3/4 of the abdominal cavity


Four components of ruminant stomach

Four Components of Ruminant Stomach

  • Rumen

    • composes 80% of ruminant stomach in mature bovine animals and 30% in young animals

  • Reticulum

    • composes about 5% of bovine stomach

    • prevents indigestible objects from entering the stomach


Four components of ruminant stomach1

Four Components of Ruminant Stomach

  • Omasum

    • composes 7-8% of bovine stomach

    • absorbs mostly water

  • Abomasum

    • the “true” stomach

    • composes 7-8% of stomach in mature animals and 70% in young animals


Digestion in the ruminant stomach

Digestion in the Ruminant Stomach

  • Rumination: The process of regurgitation, re-mastication, re-salivation and re-swallowing of food.

  • Purpose: To smash and break up food which provides more surface area bacteria to break down


Parts of digestive tract4

Parts of Digestive Tract

  • Small Intestine: long, coiled tube connecting the stomach with the large intestine.

    • Is covered by villi which increases surface area to increase absorption

    • Food moves through by muscle contractions called peristaltic movement

    • Final breakdown and absorption of nutrients occurs here


Parts of the digestive tract

Parts of the Digestive Tract

  • Large Intestine

    • Includes cecum, colon and rectum

    • Absorbs water

    • Very little nutrient absorption takes place here


Parts of the digestive tract1

Parts of the Digestive Tract

Accessory Organs

  • Pancreas

    • secretes enzymes which breakdown fat and starches

  • Liver

    • secrets bile which digest fats


The digestion process

The Digestion Process


The digestion process1

The Digestion Process

  • Food is broken down

  • Animals have digestive systems adapted to the foods that they consume

  • Four types of digestive systems

    • Ruminant(polygstric)

    • Simple Stomach(monogastric)

    • Avian

    • Equine-modified simple stomach


Ruminant digestive system

Ruminant Digestive System

Modified to handle the breakdown of large amounts of fiber


Ruminant digestive system1

Ruminant Digestive System

  • Mouth

    • no upper incisors, hard palate

    • molars for grinding coarse vegetation

    • saliva does not contain enzymes

  • Esophagus

    • muscular tube connecting the mouth to the stomach


Ruminant digestive systems

Ruminant Digestive Systems

The Four Compartmented Stomach

  • Rumen: storage area and fermentation vat

  • Reticulum: nails and wire may be found here-hardware stomach

  • Omasum: eliminates excess water from feed

  • Abomasum: true stomach, gastric juices and enzymes are secreted


Ruminant digestive systems1

Ruminant Digestive Systems

Stomach (cont.)

  • Regurgitation: first step in rumination

    • large quantities of roughage are consumed and are chewed just enough to swallow

    • after swallowing, regurgitation (“cud chewing”) takes place, food is re-chewed


Ruminant digestive system2

Ruminant Digestive System

  • Small Intestine

    • connects stomach to large intestine

    • food nutrients absorbed into blood

    • contains bile and pancreatic juices

    • pushes food through by muscle contractions


Ruminant digestive system3

Ruminant Digestive System

  • Large Intestine

    • Contains Cecum, Colon and Rectum

      • Cecum: sac at junction of small intestine and large intestine

      • Colon and rectum: at end of system

    • not as long as small intestine, but larger in diameter

    • water and some nutrient absorption occurs here

    • where residue solidifies before excretion


Monogastric digestive system

Monogastric Digestive System

Characterized by inability to digest roughage efficiently


Monogastric digestive system1

Monogastric Digestive System

  • Mouth

    • has upper and lower incisors

    • digestive enzymes secreted which breaks down nutrients

  • Esophagus

    • connects mouth to stomach


Monogastric digestive system2

Monogastric Digestive System

  • Stomach

    • secretes Hydrochloric Acid to break down nutrients

    • enzymes such as pepsin also secreted here

    • churning action mixes food

    • small and large intestine

      • function just as in ruminant systems


Avian digestive systems

Avian Digestive Systems

Characterized by several organs not found in other species that are adapted for grinding hard or encased food


Avian digestive systems1

Avian Digestive Systems

  • Mouth

    • no teeth which leads to the saying “scarce as a hen’s teeth!!”

    • Salivation excretion moistens food

  • Esophagus

    • has a modification called the “crop” which stores and moistens food

    • connects mouth and stomach


Avian digestive systems2

Avian Digestive Systems

  • Stomach

    • Contains two parts

      • Proventriculus:same as monogastric stomach and provides digestive excretions

      • Gizzard: located after proventriculus, very muscular, used to grind food


Avian digestive systems3

Avian Digestive Systems

  • Small Intestine

    • similar functions as in ruminants and monogastric systems

  • Large Intestine

    • similar functions as in ruminants and monogastric systems

    • “cloaca”: chamber into which urinary and genital canals open

    • “ceca”: aids in fiber digestion and absorption


Equine digestive systems

Equine Digestive Systems

Characterized by non-ruminant animals that consume and digest feeds high in fiber


Equine digestive systems1

Equine Digestive Systems

  • Mouth

    • intact top and bottom incisors

    • molars adapted to chewing fibrous feeds

    • no digestive enzymes in saliva

  • Esophagus

    • not well adapted for regurgitation

    • connects mouth and stomach


Equine digestive system

Equine Digestive System

  • Stomach

    • similar to monogastric system

  • Small intestine

    • similar to monogastric and ruminant systems

    • no gall bladder to store bile

    • enlarged cecum to aid in fiber breakdown


Equine digestive system1

Equine Digestive System

  • Large Intestine

    • similar to monogastric systems

    • cecum (at junction of small and lare intestines) and colon take up most of the volume of the equine digestive system


Accessory organs

Accessory Organs

Organs that aid in the digestive process without actually being part of the digestive system


Accessory organs1

Accessory Organs

  • Pancreas

    • produces and secretes digestive enzymes

    • produces insulin which regulates carbohydrate metabolism

  • Liver

    • produces bile-breaks down fatty acids

    • stores iron, handles fats and carbohydrates in the blood


Comparative digestive systems topic 3024

The End!!


References

References

  • Human Biology

    • http://ultranet.com/~jkimball/Biologypages/G/GITract.html


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