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Nomenclature. CH. 3. The Types of Compounds. Ionic salts, acids and bases (Electrolytes) Minerals Covalent inorganic from non living systems organic/biological- hydrocarbons, from living systems polymers - large hydrocarbons Metallic compound Pure elements, alloys and amalgams

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The types of compounds
The Types of Compounds

Ionic

salts, acids and bases (Electrolytes)

Minerals

Covalent

inorganic from non living systems

organic/biological- hydrocarbons, from living systems

polymers - large hydrocarbons

Metallic compound

Pure elements, alloys and amalgams

biometallic - proteins or large compounds with metal centers


Covalent compounds
COVALENT Compounds

Covalent compounds usually form when two non metal atoms which both have a desire to gain electrons create a bond by sharing the electrons between them.

Neither atoms has full possession of the electron; therefore neither atom is charged.

Most organic compounds or hydrocarbons would fit into this category.

With over 10 million compounds, organics comprise 90% of all the known matter.


Ionic compounds
IONIC Compounds

Ionic Compounds involve the transfer of electrons from one atom making a cation to another atom making an anion.

The bond forms when the cation with a positive charge is attracted to the anion with a negative charge.

This electrostatic attraction is the ionic bond and usually occurs between a metal and a non metal atom.


Balancing charge
Balancing Charge

Na+ & O-2

Na+x O-2y x(+1) + y(-2) = 0

find the smallest common factor

Na2O

Ca+2 & N-3 x(+2) + y(-3) = 0

Ca3N2


Fixed charge metals
Fixed Charge Metals

1A always carries a +1 charge.

Electron configuration - ns1

2A always carries a +2 charge

Electron configuration - ns2

3A metals and 3B always carries +3

electron configuration - ns2np1 or ns2nd1


Naming inorganic compounds
Naming inorganic compounds

When an element forms only one compound with a given anion.

name the cation

name the anion using the ending (-ide)

  • NaCl sodium chloride

  • MgBr2 magnesium bromide

  • Al2O3 aluminum oxide

  • K3N potassium nitride


Naming ionic compounds
Naming ionic compounds

Many metals form more than one compound with some anions.

For these, roman numerals are used in the name to indicate the charge on the metal.

Cu1++O2- = Cu2O

copper(I) oxide copper(I) oxide

Cu2++O2- = CuO

copper(II) oxide copper(II) oxide


Metals with multiple charges
Metals with multiple charges

Transition metals.

Here it is easier to list the ones that to only have a single common oxidation state.

All Group 3B - 3+

Ni, Zn, Cd - 2+

Ag - 1+

Lanthanides and actinides - 3+


Summary
Summary

Simple rules that will keep you out of trouble most of the time.

Groups IA, 2A, 3A (except Tl) only have a single oxidation state that is the same as the group number - don’t use numbers.

Most other metals and semimetals have multiple oxidation states - use numbers.

If you are sure that a transition group element only has a single state, don’t use a number.


Polyatomic ions need to know

Nitrate NO31-

Carbonate CO3-2

Sulfate SO4-2

Phosphate PO4-3

Chlorate ClO31-

Hydroxide OH-

Cyanide CN-

Acetate C2H3O21-

Ammonium NH4+

Polyatomic Ions need to know


Polyatomic ions
Polyatomic ions

When a compound contains a polyatomic ion, you simply use the given name.

NH4Cl ammonium chloride

NaOH sodium hydroxide

KMnO4 potassium permanganate

(NH4)2SO4 ammonium sulfate


Acids and bases
Acids and Bases

Acid

HCl HNO3H2SO4H3PO4

Base

NaOH KOH Ba(OH)2Al(OH)3

The bases listed are metal hydroxides and therefore are named as an ionic compound


Acids
Acids

Binary acids

  • the anion is a single element ending in -IDE

  • the acid is named hydro - root - ic acid

  • HCl - Hydrogen Chloride or

  • hydro- chlor - ic acid


Ternary acids
Ternary Acids

  • Anion ends in -IDE

    • hydro - root - ic acid

    • HCN, hydrogen cyanide is hydro cyan ic acid

  • anion ends in -ATE

    • root - ic acid

    • HNO3, hydrogen nitrate is nitr ic acid

  • anion ends in -ITE

    • root -ous acid

    • H3PO3, hydrogen phosphite is phosphorous acid


Naming covalent molecules
Naming Covalent Molecules

A simple set of rules can be used.

name elements in the order they appear in the formula.

use prefixes to indicate how many atoms there are of each type.

mono = 1 tetra = 4 hepta = 7

di = 2 penta = 5 octa = 8

tri = 3 hexa = 6 deca = 10

use the ending (-ide) for the second element listed in the formula.


Naming covalent compounds
Naming covalent compounds

  • N2O5

  • CO2

  • CO

  • SiO2

  • ICl3

  • P2O5

  • CCl4

  • dinitrogen pentoxide

  • carbon dioxide

  • carbon monoxide

  • silicon dioxide

  • iodine trichloride

  • diphophorous pentoxide

  • carbon tetrachloride

The rule may be modified to improve how a name sounds.

Example - use monoxide not monooxide.


Naming organic compounds
Naming Organic Compounds

  • Contain Carbon and hydrogen atoms

  • Use prefix to count number of carbons present in the compound

  • functional groups


Nomenclature overview
Nomenclature overview

Now that a large number of nomenclature rules have been introduced, we need to review them.

Simple binary ionic compounds

Ionic compounds of metals with multiple charges

Compounds containing polyatomic ions

Simple molecular compounds

It’s useful to be able to identify which system to use by looking at the chemical.


A bit more on nomenclature
A bit more on nomenclature

When the first element is a metal then usually:

If only one other element is present and

the second element is a non-metal -

name the metal first - as element.

Name non-metal second with -ide ending

If more than one other element is present -

name the metal first - as element.

The rest is most likely a polyatomic ion

so use the name from the table in book.


A bit more on nomenclature1
A bit more on nomenclature

No

Is a metal present

as the first element?

Use prefixes

(mono, di, tri ...)

Yes

Can the metal have

more than one

oxidation state?

No

Roman numerals

are not needed.

Yes

Use Roman numerals

to indicate oxidation state of metal


Naming activities
Naming Activities

  • Naming Flowchart


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