Nomenclature. CH. 3. The Types of Compounds. Ionic salts, acids and bases (Electrolytes) Minerals Covalent inorganic from non living systems organic/biological- hydrocarbons, from living systems polymers - large hydrocarbons Metallic compound Pure elements, alloys and amalgams
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salts, acids and bases (Electrolytes)
inorganic from non living systems
organic/biological- hydrocarbons, from living systems
polymers - large hydrocarbons
Pure elements, alloys and amalgams
biometallic - proteins or large compounds with metal centers
Covalent compounds usually form when two non metal atoms which both have a desire to gain electrons create a bond by sharing the electrons between them.
Neither atoms has full possession of the electron; therefore neither atom is charged.
Most organic compounds or hydrocarbons would fit into this category.
With over 10 million compounds, organics comprise 90% of all the known matter.
Ionic Compounds involve the transfer of electrons from one atom making a cation to another atom making an anion.
The bond forms when the cation with a positive charge is attracted to the anion with a negative charge.
This electrostatic attraction is the ionic bond and usually occurs between a metal and a non metal atom.
Na+ & O-2
Na+x O-2y x(+1) + y(-2) = 0
find the smallest common factor
Ca+2 & N-3 x(+2) + y(-3) = 0
1A always carries a +1 charge.
Electron configuration - ns1
2A always carries a +2 charge
Electron configuration - ns2
3A metals and 3B always carries +3
electron configuration - ns2np1 or ns2nd1
When an element forms only one compound with a given anion.
name the cation
name the anion using the ending (-ide)
Many metals form more than one compound with some anions.
For these, roman numerals are used in the name to indicate the charge on the metal.
Cu1++O2- = Cu2O
copper(I) oxide copper(I) oxide
Cu2++O2- = CuO
copper(II) oxide copper(II) oxide
Here it is easier to list the ones that to only have a single common oxidation state.
All Group 3B - 3+
Ni, Zn, Cd - 2+
Ag - 1+
Lanthanides and actinides - 3+
Simple rules that will keep you out of trouble most of the time.
Groups IA, 2A, 3A (except Tl) only have a single oxidation state that is the same as the group number - don’t use numbers.
Most other metals and semimetals have multiple oxidation states - use numbers.
If you are sure that a transition group element only has a single state, don’t use a number.
Ammonium NH4+Polyatomic Ions need to know
When a compound contains a polyatomic ion, you simply use the given name.
NH4Cl ammonium chloride
NaOH sodium hydroxide
KMnO4 potassium permanganate
(NH4)2SO4 ammonium sulfate
NaOH KOH Ba(OH)2Al(OH)3
The bases listed are metal hydroxides and therefore are named as an ionic compound
A simple set of rules can be used.
name elements in the order they appear in the formula.
use prefixes to indicate how many atoms there are of each type.
mono = 1 tetra = 4 hepta = 7
di = 2 penta = 5 octa = 8
tri = 3 hexa = 6 deca = 10
use the ending (-ide) for the second element listed in the formula.
The rule may be modified to improve how a name sounds.
Example - use monoxide not monooxide.
Now that a large number of nomenclature rules have been introduced, we need to review them.
Simple binary ionic compounds
Ionic compounds of metals with multiple charges
Compounds containing polyatomic ions
Simple molecular compounds
It’s useful to be able to identify which system to use by looking at the chemical.
When the first element is a metal then usually:
If only one other element is present and
the second element is a non-metal -
name the metal first - as element.
Name non-metal second with -ide ending
If more than one other element is present -
name the metal first - as element.
The rest is most likely a polyatomic ion
so use the name from the table in book.
Is a metal present
as the first element?
(mono, di, tri ...)
Can the metal have
more than one
are not needed.
Use Roman numerals
to indicate oxidation state of metal