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ECE5320 Mechatronics Assignment#01: Literature Survey on Sensors and Actuators Charge-Coupled Device (CCD) Image Sensors. Prepared by: Yashodhan Tarte Dept. of Electrical and Computer Engineering Utah State University E: [email protected] ; T: ( 435)797-2845. 3/11/2005. Outline.

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ECE5320 MechatronicsAssignment#01: Literature Survey on Sensors and Actuators Charge-Coupled Device (CCD) Image Sensors

Prepared by:

Yashodhan Tarte

Dept. of Electrical and Computer Engineering

Utah State University

E: [email protected] ; T: (435)797-2845

3/11/2005

outline
Outline
  • Reference list
  • To explore further
  • Major applications
  • Examples of CCD sensors
  • Basics of digital imaging
  • CCD formats
  • CCD architectures
  • Basic working
  • A specific application of CCDs
  • Limitations
  • Application issues

ECE5320 Mechatronics. Assignment#1 Survey on sensors and actuators

reference list
Reference list
  • The Image Sensor Market by Tom Hausken, StrategiesUnlimited
  • Atmel CCD sensors
  • Understanding how image sensors work

4.Charge-Coupled Device (CCD) Image Sensors,

Eastman Kodak Company, Rochester, New York

5. Nikon Inc., USA

  • Sony Electronics e-Solutions Company LLC, USA

7. CCD vs. CMOS: Facts and Fiction by Dave Litwiller

ECE5320 Mechatronics. Assignment#1 Survey on sensors and actuators

to explore further
To explore further
  • To know the history of evolution of CCD sensors, go to:

http://ranier.hq.nasa.gov/Sensors_page/DD/HST&GLL_CCD.html

  • To explore CMOS image sensors, go to:

http://www.beyondlogic.org/imaging/camera.htm

  • You may also want to look at The Mechatronics Handbook by Robert H Bishop

ECE5320 Mechatronics. Assignment#1 Survey on sensors and actuators

major applications
Major applications
  • Robotics6

ECE5320 Mechatronics. Assignment#1 Survey on sensors and actuators

major applications cont
Major applications (cont.)
  • Digital photography5

ECE5320 Mechatronics. Assignment#1 Survey on sensors and actuators

major applications cont1
Major applications (cont.)
  • Space imaging2

ECE5320 Mechatronics. Assignment#1 Survey on sensors and actuators

major applications cont2
Major applications (cont.)
  • Biomedical imaging2

ECE5320 Mechatronics. Assignment#1 Survey on sensors and actuators

major applications cont3
Major applications (cont.)
  • Industrial inspection2

ECE5320 Mechatronics. Assignment#1 Survey on sensors and actuators

examples of ccd sensors
Examples of CCD sensors
  • CCD Linescan arrays2

ECE5320 Mechatronics. Assignment#1 Survey on sensors and actuators

examples of ccd sensors cont
Examples of CCD sensors (cont.)
  • CCD Area Arrays2

ECE5320 Mechatronics. Assignment#1 Survey on sensors and actuators

basics of digital imaging 3
Basics of digital imaging3
  • Digital cameras use a solid-state device called an image sensor to capture and store an image.
  • These fingernail-sized silicon chips contain millions of photosensitive diodes called photosites.

ECE5320 Mechatronics. Assignment#1 Survey on sensors and actuators

basics of digital imaging cont 3
Basics of digital imaging (cont.)3
  • In the brief flickering instant that the shutter is open, each  photosite records the intensity or brightness of the light that falls on it by accumulating a charge; the more light, the higher the charge.
  • The brightness recorded by each photosite is then stored  as a set of numbers that can then be used to set the color and brightness of dots to reconstruct the image.

ECE5320 Mechatronics. Assignment#1 Survey on sensors and actuators

basics of digital imaging cont 31
Basics of digital imaging (cont.)3
  • Digital photographs are made up of hundreds of thousands or millions of tiny squares called picture elements, or just pixels.
  • Each of these pixels is captured by a single photosite on the image sensor when you take the photo.

ECE5320 Mechatronics. Assignment#1 Survey on sensors and actuators

basics of digital imaging cont 32
Basics of digital imaging (cont.)3
  • On an image sensor, each photosite captures the brightness of a single pixel.
  • The layout of the photosites can take the form of a grid or honeycomb.

ECE5320 Mechatronics. Assignment#1 Survey on sensors and actuators

basics of digital imaging cont 33
Basics of digital imaging (cont.)3
  • Photosites arranged in a grid layout

ECE5320 Mechatronics. Assignment#1 Survey on sensors and actuators

basics of digital imaging cont 34
Basics of digital imaging (cont.)3
  • Photosites arranged in a honeycomb layout

ECE5320 Mechatronics. Assignment#1 Survey on sensors and actuators

ccd formats 4
CCD formats4
  • Point Scanning: Sequentially detecting scene information at discrete XY coordinates using a single pixel.

ECE5320 Mechatronics. Assignment#1 Survey on sensors and actuators

ccd formats cont 4
CCD formats (cont.)4
  • Line Scanning: An array of single cell detectors can be placed along a single axis such that scanning now takes place only in one direction.

ECE5320 Mechatronics. Assignment#1 Survey on sensors and actuators

ccd formats cont 41
CCD formats (cont.)4
  • Area Scanning: A two dimensional array of detectors can be created such that the entire image can be captured with one exposure.

ECE5320 Mechatronics. Assignment#1 Survey on sensors and actuators

ccd architectures 4
CCD architectures4
  • Full-Frame CCDs:Images are optically projected

onto the parallel array that acts as the image plane. The

device takes the scene information and partitions the image

into discrete elements that are defined by the number of

pixels thus "quantizing" the scene. The resulting rows of

scene information are then shifted in a parallel fashion to

the serial register that subsequently shifts the row of

Information to the output as a serial stream of data.

ECE5320 Mechatronics. Assignment#1 Survey on sensors and actuators

ccd architectures cont 4
CCD architectures (cont.)4
  • Full-Frame CCDs:

ECE5320 Mechatronics. Assignment#1 Survey on sensors and actuators

ccd architectures cont 41
CCD Architectures (cont.)4
  • Frame-Transfer CCDs: They are very much like FF

architectures. The difference is that a separate and

identical parallel register, called a storage array, is added

which is not light sensitive. The idea is to shift a captured

scene from the photosensitive, or image array, very quickly

to the storage array. Readout off chip from the storage

register is then performed as previously described in the

FF device while the storage array is integrating the next

frame. This enables shutterless operation.

ECE5320 Mechatronics. Assignment#1 Survey on sensors and actuators

ccd architectures cont 42
CCD architectures (cont.)4
  • Frame-Transfer CCDs:

ECE5320 Mechatronics. Assignment#1 Survey on sensors and actuators

ccd architectures cont 43
CCD architectures (cont.)4
  • Interline CCDs:These perform photo-detecting and

readout functions by forming isolated photosensitive

regions in between lines of non-sensitive or light shielded

parallel readout CCDs. After integrating a scene, the signal

collected in every pixel is transferred, all at once, into the

light shielded parallel CCD. Transfer to the output is then

carried out similarly to FF and FT CCDs. This helps in

achieving high frame rate and improves the image smear

during readout.

ECE5320 Mechatronics. Assignment#1 Survey on sensors and actuators

ccd architectures cont 44
CCD architectures (cont.)4
  • Interline CCDs:

ECE5320 Mechatronics. Assignment#1 Survey on sensors and actuators

basic working 4
Basic working4

CCD imaging is performed in a three step process:

  • Exposure which converts light into an electronic charge at discrete sites called pixels;
  • Charge transfer which moves the packets of charge within the silicon substrate; and,
  • Charge to voltage conversion and output amplification.

ECE5320 Mechatronics. Assignment#1 Survey on sensors and actuators

a specific application of ccds 2
A specific application of CCDs2
  • ATMEL Large Format Machine Vision Sensors:

Camelia 1.6M

CCD type: Area array

No. of pixels: 1536 X 1024

Output: 12 bit digital

Frames/sec.: 10 F/s

ECE5320 Mechatronics. Assignment#1 Survey on sensors and actuators

limitations
Limitations
  • Blooming
  • High power consumption
  • Higher cost
  • Complexity of design and fabrication
  • Complex support circuitry

ECE5320 Mechatronics. Assignment#1 Survey on sensors and actuators

application issues 7
Application issues7

Things to look for in a CCD sensor:

  • Responsivity
  • Dynamic range
  • Antiblooming
  • Shuttering
  • Speed
  • Uniformity
  • Windowing

ECE5320 Mechatronics. Assignment#1 Survey on sensors and actuators

application issues cont 7
Application issues (cont.)7

CCD image sensor manufacturers:

  • Sony Corporation
  • Panasonic
  • Sharp
  • Atmel
  • Eastman Kodak

ECE5320 Mechatronics. Assignment#1 Survey on sensors and actuators

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