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The EU is the world's largest seafood market, taking in 40 percent of all imported fish, with a large chunk coming from developing countries. Spaniards consume a hundred pounds (45 kilograms) of seafood a year per person, nearly double the European average and exceeded only by Lithuanians and Portuguese.


Thresher sharks in Mexico's Gulf of California will be sold locally for food; their fins will be cut off and likely shipped to Hong Kong, where shark-fin soup is a prized dish. The global fin trade alone claims an estimated 40 million sharks a year, devastating stocks of a fish that is generally slow growing and slow to reproduce. Many countries, including the U.S., Brazil, South Africa, and Australia, have banned shark-finning, but consumers' tastes have yet to change.


Now banned in many countries, deep trawling with nets held open by heavy doors bulldozes the seabed and catches sea life indiscriminately—more than 50 percent of all discarded species.


Everything surrounding a Mexican trawlerman's hands will go to waste; he will sell only the shrimp.


With competition intensifying to supply mostly European markets, fishing grounds off West Africa are going the way of Europe's: toward depletion. These Senegalese, who had hoped to catch desirable export species such as shrimp or sole, will throw away the fish in their nets—wasting valuable protein for Africa.


Hooked without a permit, a dorado—sold as mahi-mahi—was caught on an illegal longline off Mexico. With thousands of baited hooks, longlines extend for miles, often snaring fish unintentionally, notably sharks, as well as hundreds of thousands of sea turtles, marine mammals, and seabirds every year. In longline fishing, eventually discarded bycatch makes up nearly 30 percent of the take.


Guitarfish, rays, and other bycatch are tossed from a shrimp boat in the Gulf of California. During the past decade, efforts to reduce bycatch have begun to pay off with better net and hook designs, pingers on nets to repel marine mammals, and streamers behind boats to frighten away seabirds.


A reef off Indonesia—laid bare to supply restaurants with live fish—now attracts divers searching for lobsters, the last remaining valuable species. Many species of global importance are captured using cyanide, traps, or dynamite.


Northern Spain: whether children of fishing families will choose to make their living through fishing is, for the first time, an open question.


Oceans and seas
Oceans and Seas choose to make their living through fishing is, for the first time, an open question.

The fate of a global commons


Structure of lecture
Structure of Lecture choose to make their living through fishing is, for the first time, an open question.

  • Define the resource

  • Track its distribution in the world

  • Review the History of the resource

    • History of use

    • Conservation History

      • This section includes policy considerations

  • Explore its political dimensions

    • Stakeholders

    • Property issues


Structure of lecture1
Structure of Lecture choose to make their living through fishing is, for the first time, an open question.

  • Define the resource

  • Track its distribution in the world

  • Review the History of the resource

    • History of use

    • Conservation History

      • This section includes policy considerations

  • Explore its political dimensions

    • Stakeholders

    • Property issues


What is the resource
What is the resource? choose to make their living through fishing is, for the first time, an open question.

  • Fish for consumption

  • Biodiversity

  • Hydropower, esp wave-powered turbines


Fishery
Fishery choose to make their living through fishing is, for the first time, an open question.

An area with an associated fish or aquatic population which isharvested for its value (commercial, recreational, subsistence). It can be saltwater or freshwater, wild or farmed.


Marine vs freshwater
Marine vs. Freshwater choose to make their living through fishing is, for the first time, an open question.

  • Marine means salt water

  • Marine refers to “the sea”, which includes oceans

  • From Latin marinus

  • Fresh water (or “Inland fisheries”) refers to non-salty waters – rivers, lakes, streams.


Tuna and other large fish
Tuna and other large fish choose to make their living through fishing is, for the first time, an open question.


Shellfish
Shellfish choose to make their living through fishing is, for the first time, an open question.


Crustaceans choose to make their living through fishing is, for the first time, an open question.


Large Mammals choose to make their living through fishing is, for the first time, an open question.


Trout and other Fresh water species choose to make their living through fishing is, for the first time, an open question.


Harvesting methods
Harvesting Methods choose to make their living through fishing is, for the first time, an open question.


Industrial Fishing (Shrimp Trawling)‏ choose to make their living through fishing is, for the first time, an open question.


Trawling for fish
Trawling for fish choose to make their living through fishing is, for the first time, an open question.


Deep Trawling choose to make their living through fishing is, for the first time, an open question.


Purse Seine Fishing choose to make their living through fishing is, for the first time, an open question.


Longline Fishing choose to make their living through fishing is, for the first time, an open question.


“Indigenous” or Small Scale Fishing choose to make their living through fishing is, for the first time, an open question.


Fisheries a global resource
Fisheries – a global resource choose to make their living through fishing is, for the first time, an open question.

  • Food fish accounts for about 20% of animal proteins in the global diet.

  • 99% of all fish come from coastal areas


Structure of lecture2
Structure of Lecture choose to make their living through fishing is, for the first time, an open question.

  • Define the resource

  • Track its distribution in the world

  • Review the History of the resource

    • History of use

    • Conservation History

      • This section includes policy considerations

  • Explore its political dimensions

    • Stakeholders

    • Property issues


But first a quick law lesson
But first…a quick law lesson choose to make their living through fishing is, for the first time, an open question.

  • 17th century to early 20th: “freedom of the sea”

    • Considered a three-mile belt along national coast lines to be sovereign territory

  • 1945: US extended control out to the continental shelf. Other nations followed.

    • Protected natural resources

    • Protected fisheries

    • Allowed better pollution control


Law lesson con t
Law lesson (con’t)‏ choose to make their living through fishing is, for the first time, an open question.

  • 1945-1973: Many complicated laws hashing out claims to the sea and its resources

  • 1973-1994: United Nations Conference on the Law of the Sea

    • Established Exclusive Economic Zones (EEZs), extends 200 miles from nations’ coasts

    • Established “territorial waters” – 12 miles out, where nations can set laws and regulations

    • Established the UN as the site for negotiation over competing claims


Image Credit: Global Education Project choose to make their living through fishing is, for the first time, an open question.

Data: UN FAO


What is the trend shown in this graph? choose to make their living through fishing is, for the first time, an open question.

Why do you think the trend exists?

What might this trend mean for the future of fisheries? For global economic relations?


General trends to notice
General Trends to Notice choose to make their living through fishing is, for the first time, an open question.

  • World capture rates have leveled out in the last decade (excluding China), while the growth of aquaculture has made up for population growth

  • China is the largest producer of captured fish and aquaculture

  • China produces twice as much fish per capita than the global average

  • Most productive fisheries are located in coastal areas within Exclusive Economic Zones

  • Bu there has been a rise in open sea fishing, especially for deep sea species


Spike in deep water fishing
Spike in deep water fishing choose to make their living through fishing is, for the first time, an open question.

  • Causes:

    • Technological improvements

    • Increasingly restricted fishing zones

    • Decreasing resources in coastal zones

  • What possible impact could this have to marine organisms?

  • What possible solutions might be worked out?


Inland fisheries
Inland Fisheries choose to make their living through fishing is, for the first time, an open question.


Structure of lecture3
Structure of Lecture choose to make their living through fishing is, for the first time, an open question.

  • Define the resource

  • Track its distribution in the world

  • Review the History of the resource

    • History of use

    • Conservation History

      • This section includes policy considerations

  • Explore its political dimensions

    • Stakeholders

    • Property issues


Global Fishing Zones choose to make their living through fishing is, for the first time, an open question.

99% of fish catches are in upwelling zones or coastal zones.

Coastal zones are the most susceptible to transformation from landward activities.


Fish Stocks as Stress Indicators choose to make their living through fishing is, for the first time, an open question.

  • What are some fishing practices that deplete fish resources?

  • How do they contribute to the decline of fisheries?


Now banned in many countries, deep trawling with nets held open by heavy doors bulldozes the seabed and catches sea life indiscriminately—more than 50 percent of all discarded species.


A reef off Indonesia—laid bare to supply restaurants with live fish—now attracts divers searching for lobsters, the last remaining valuable species. Many species of global importance are captured using cyanide, traps, or dynamite.


Thresher sharks in Mexico's Gulf of California will be sold locally for food; their fins will be cut off and likely shipped to Hong Kong, where shark-fin soup is a prized dish. The global fin trade alone claims an estimated 40 million sharks a year, devastating stocks of a fish that is generally slow growing and slow to reproduce. Many countries, including the U.S., Brazil, South Africa, and Australia, have banned shark-finning, but consumers' tastes have yet to change.


Hooked without a permit, a dorado—sold as mahi-mahi—was caught on an illegal longline off Mexico. With thousands of baited hooks, longlines extend for miles, often snaring fish unintentionally, notably sharks, as well as hundreds of thousands of sea turtles, marine mammals, and seabirds every year. In longline fishing, eventually discarded bycatch makes up nearly 30 percent of the take.


Everything surrounding a Mexican trawlerman's hands will go to waste; he will sell only the shrimp.


With competition intensifying to supply mostly European markets, fishing grounds off West Africa are going the way of Europe's: toward depletion. These Senegalese, who had hoped to catch desirable export species such as shrimp or sole, will throw away the fish in their nets—wasting valuable protein for Africa.


Guitarfish, rays, and other bycatch are tossed from a shrimp boat in the Gulf of California. During the past decade, efforts to reduce bycatch have begun to pay off with better net and hook designs, pingers on nets to repel marine mammals, and streamers behind boats to frighten away seabirds.


Areas of Concern shrimp boat in the Gulf of California. During the past decade, efforts to reduce bycatch have begun to pay off with better net and hook designs, pingers on nets to repel marine mammals, and streamers behind boats to frighten away seabirds.

for Over-fishing


Reduction in Shark Species, 1986-2000 shrimp boat in the Gulf of California. During the past decade, efforts to reduce bycatch have begun to pay off with better net and hook designs, pingers on nets to repel marine mammals, and streamers behind boats to frighten away seabirds.


Decline in Northeastern US Fish Harvests (1982-1996 shrimp boat in the Gulf of California. During the past decade, efforts to reduce bycatch have begun to pay off with better net and hook designs, pingers on nets to repel marine mammals, and streamers behind boats to frighten away seabirds.


Collapse of the Northeastern Cod Fishery shrimp boat in the Gulf of California. During the past decade, efforts to reduce bycatch have begun to pay off with better net and hook designs, pingers on nets to repel marine mammals, and streamers behind boats to frighten away seabirds.


Collapse of the Pacific Sardine Catch shrimp boat in the Gulf of California. During the past decade, efforts to reduce bycatch have begun to pay off with better net and hook designs, pingers on nets to repel marine mammals, and streamers behind boats to frighten away seabirds.


Reduction in Northwest Atlantic Large Fish Biomass, 1900-1999

(in metric tons per km sq)‏

1900

1950

Examples of “large fish” are

cod, halibut and tuna

1975

1999



Fisheries Impact: Intrinsic v. Extrinsic Yields 1900-1999

Beyond this point,

fish harvest exceeds

fish production



Conservation efforts
Conservation Efforts fisheries?

  • Catch limits

  • Restriction of fishing licenses

  • Lessening demand on wild fish stocks through aquaculture


Aquaculture: fisheries?

Risk and Promise





A Healthy Coral Reef Ecosystem (2005)‏

Reefs grow in the warm euphotic zone


  • Coral Reef Stressors (2005)‏

  • Thermal stress is a principal cause of reef die-off. Additional stressors are mostly physical, including:

  • Damage from dredging and excavation

  • Trampling by divers

  • Fracturing due to removal of sponges and fish

  • Blocking of photosynthesis by sediments





Creating an (2005)‏

Artificial Reef

(offshore New Jersey)‏

Reef-building or dumping?


Retired New York City subway cars dumped off Cape May, (2005)‏

New Jersey in 2003 to form an artificial reef




Bycatch dramatic cause of ecosystem transformation


How do local conditions change as the result of changes at other scales (national, global, etc)?What conditions local conditions?


Resources consulted for this lecture other scales (national, global, etc)?

Cutter, Susan L. and William H. Renwick (1999) Exploitation Conservation Preservation. John Wiley and Sons, Inc. New York.

Hardin, Garrett (1968) "The Tragedy of the Commons," Science, no. 162: 1243-48.

MacPherson, C. B. (1978) "The Meaning of Property," in Property, University of Toronto Press, Toronto.

McCay, B. (2000) ”Property Rights, the Commons, and Natural Resource Management” in Kaplowitz, M. D., Property Rights, Economics, and the Environment. Stanford, CT: JAI Press

McCay, Bonnie J. (2006). "Oyster Wars, Public Trust, and the Law in New Jersey," in New Jersey's Environments: Past, Present, and Future, ed. Neil M Maher, Rutgers University Press, New Brunswick, NJ.

Ostrom, Elinor and the National Research Council (2002). The Drama of the Commons: Committee on the human dimensions of global change, National Academies Press.


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