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On PRISMA project (proposal). Yuri V. Stenkin INR RAS. The Project aims. Why PRISMA? PRI mary S pectrum M easurement A rray The main aim is: TO SOLVE THE “KNEE PROBLEM” Other aims: cosmic rays spectra and mass composition cosmic ray sources applied Geophysical measurements.

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On prisma project proposal

On PRISMA project (proposal)

Yuri V. Stenkin

INR RAS

Yu. Stenkin, UHECR'2008


The project aims
The Project aims

  • Why PRISMA?

  • PRImary Spectrum Measurement Array

  • The main aim is: TO SOLVE THE “KNEE PROBLEM”

  • Other aims:

    • cosmic rays spectra and mass composition

    • cosmic ray sources

    • applied Geophysical measurements

Yu. Stenkin, UHECR'2008


History motivation
History & Motivation

Why we need a new project?

1. The “knee problem” is a milestone of cosmic ray physics.

2. Very few experiments have been designed specially for that and

KASCADE (KArlsruhe Shower Core and Array DEtector) is the best one.

3. The problem still exists.

Yu. Stenkin, UHECR'2008


EAS

method

Yu. Stenkin, UHECR'2008


1 the knee problem
1. The “knee problem”

The problem is exactly 50-years old!

In 1958 there was published a paper (G.V. Kulikov & G.B. Khristiansen)

claiming the knee existence in cosmic ray energy spectrum.

They observed a sharp change of slope in EAS size spectrum and proposed a model describing this effect as an evidence of existence of 2 sources of c. r.: Galactic and Metagalactic ones.

But, from the beginning and up to now there exist alternative

explanations of this effect (S.I.Nikolsky, Kazanas & Nikolaidis,

A.A.Petrukhin, Yu.V. Stenkin).

Yu. Stenkin, UHECR'2008


Examples of alternative explanations
Examples of alternative explanations

Petrukhin

Stenkin

New processes

EAS

method

systematic

knee

knee

Primary

energy

EAS

energy

Primary

energy

E

Primary

energy

Missing energy

Missing energy

Yu. Stenkin, UHECR'2008


EAS components equilibrium

No of particles

Break of equilibrium

Break in attenuation

“knee”

in Ne spectrum

Depth in atmosphere

From Hayakawa manual on cosmic ray physics

Yu. Stenkin, UHECR'2008


When the break occurs
When the break occurs?

  • At E~100 TeV / nucleon

  • For p: 100 TeV

  • For Fe: 5 PeV (just the knee region)

This figures are sequences of : Lint= 90 g/cm2 in air

the Earth’s atmosphere thickness =1030 g/ cm2 (depending on altitude)

For details see: Yu.Stenkin, Yadernaya Phys., 71 (2008), 99

Yu. Stenkin, UHECR'2008


2 existing experiments
2. Existing experiments

  • KASCADE

    It gave many interesting results.

    BUT, it did not answer the question on the knee origin and thus,

    It has not solved the knee problem!

    Moreover, the problem became even less clear….(see G. Schatz.Proc. 28th ICRC, Tsukuba, (2003), 97

    or Yu. Stenkin. Proc. 29th ICRC, Pune (2005), v.6, 621)

Yu. Stenkin, UHECR'2008


Kascade kascade grande
KASCADE -> KASCADE-Grande

Yu. Stenkin, UHECR'2008


KASCADE hadronic calorimeter

Yu. Stenkin, UHECR'2008


KASCADE group connected visible knee in PeV region with c. r. protons.

Tibet AS experiment results contradict this hypothesis:

they connect the knee with iron primary.

In this case there should be the iron knee at E~1017 eV.

- Nobody saw this.

C. R. should consist only of heavy nuclei at E>1017 eV or one has to adjust many parameters to make full compensation.

- Nobody saw this. It contradicts emulsion chamber experiments (Pamir) and air luminescence data (Hi Res).

Yu. Stenkin, UHECR'2008


Compilation of experimental data (astro-ph/0507018) r. protons.

Yu. Stenkin, UHECR'2008


Kascade eas h size spectra
KASCADE EAS h-size spectra r. protons.

“knee”???

Yu. Stenkin, UHECR'2008


A. Haungs, J. Kempa et al. (KASCADE) Report FZKA6105 (1998 r. protons.);

Nucl. Phys. B (Proc. Suppl.) 75A (1999), 248

Yu. Stenkin, UHECR'2008


To make a device based on new principles asymmetrical answer

KASCADE is very precise classical instrument for EAS study. r. protons.

It would be difficult and useless to try to make better array.

to make a device based on new principles (asymmetrical answer)

On my opinion the only way is:

Yu. Stenkin, UHECR'2008


Prisma would be the answer
PRISMA would be the answer. r. protons.

Prism

PRISMA

Yu. Stenkin, UHECR'2008


New principles
New principles r. protons.

The main EAS component is: hadrons

Therefore, let us concentrate mostly on the hadronic component

Bun, instead of huge and expensive hadron calorimeter of fixed area,

let us make simple, inexpensive and of unlimited area detector.

How this could be done?

Yu. Stenkin, UHECR'2008


New methods
New Methods r. protons.

2 new methods have been developed in our Lab.

1st method is based on thermal neutrons “vapour” accompanying EAS

Yu. Stenkin, UHECR'2008



En detector design
en-detector design r. protons.

PMT

plastic

housing

ZnS(Ag) is a unique scin-

tillator for heavy particles

detection:

6Li(n,a)3H+4.8 MeV

Scintillator: ZnS(Ag)+6LiF

Similar to that using in neutron

imaging technique

160,000 photons per capture

Yu. Stenkin, UHECR'2008


The detector is almost insensitive to single charged particles.

But, it can measure the number N of charged particles if N>5.

Yu. Stenkin, UHECR'2008


Thermal neutron time distributions
Thermal neutron time distributions particles.

Multicom Prototype, Baksan

Prisma prototype, Moscow

Yu. Stenkin, UHECR'2008


Another advantage of this detector is a possibility to particles.measure thermal neutron flux of low intensity and its variations

Yu. Stenkin, UHECR'2008


2d new method
2d new method: particles.

The Muon Detector as a 1-layer hadronic calorimeter:

Yu. Stenkin, UHECR'2008


This picture represents a density map as measured by Carpet (left, shown in LOG scale) and by MD (right, linear scale in relativistic particles). (Detector in the center show a particle density of ρc=8*1.1252/0.5=5800 m-2.

jet of (26+17)/2=21.5 particles per m2 in MD. Jet size is very narrow (~1 m) with normal rather low density around it and second: the distance from the EAS core is large enough and equal to 48 m.

r jet = 21.5 /m2

r core= 5800 /

m2

Yu. Stenkin, UHECR'2008


Preliminary Baksan data: hadrons at R=47m (left, shown in LOG scale) and by MD (right, linear scale in relativistic particles). (Detector in the center show a particle density of

Yu. Stenkin, UHECR'2008


Muon/hadron ratio distribution (left, shown in LOG scale) and by MD (right, linear scale in relativistic particles). (Detector in the center show a particle density of

Preliminary data

Yu. Stenkin, UHECR'2008


Carpet: (left, shown in LOG scale) and by MD (right, linear scale in relativistic particles). (Detector in the center show a particle density of 400*1m2 en-detectors

grid with spacing of 5 m

Central muon detector:

400*1m2 plastic scinillators

Muon detector tunnels:

1200*1m2 plastic scintillators

Outer trigger detectors:

4*25*1m2 plastic scintillators

Yu. Stenkin, UHECR'2008


M-C simulations. CORSIKA 6.501 (HDPM, Gheisha6) (left, shown in LOG scale) and by MD (right, linear scale in relativistic particles). (Detector in the center show a particle density of

Yu. Stenkin, UHECR'2008


M-C simulations. CORSIKA 6.501 (HDPM, Gheisha6)+array (left, shown in LOG scale) and by MD (right, linear scale in relativistic particles). (Detector in the center show a particle density of

A map

of an event

in neutrons

Ne= 407158 Nmu= 794 E0/1TeV= 355.0245

x0= -4.448307 y0= -27.31079 TETA= 13.80 FI= 161.49 Z= 3094504. Part_type= 5626

Yu. Stenkin, UHECR'2008


M-C (left, shown in LOG scale) and by MD (right, linear scale in relativistic particles). (Detector in the center show a particle density of

Yu. Stenkin, UHECR'2008


Main features
Main features: (left, shown in LOG scale) and by MD (right, linear scale in relativistic particles). (Detector in the center show a particle density of

  • Range in primary energy: from ~10 TeV to ~30 PeV

  • energy resolution: ~ 10%

  • angular resolution: ~ 1o

  • core location: < 2.5 m

  • capability to measure independently: Ne, Nh, Nm

Yu. Stenkin, UHECR'2008


Location
Location (left, shown in LOG scale) and by MD (right, linear scale in relativistic particles). (Detector in the center show a particle density of

  • Collaboration Institutions

  • budget

  • altitude (high altitude is preferable)

It depends on:

Yu. Stenkin, UHECR'2008


Involved institutions
Involved Institutions: (left, shown in LOG scale) and by MD (right, linear scale in relativistic particles). (Detector in the center show a particle density of

1. Institute for Nuclear Research, Moscow

2. MEPhI, Moscow

3. Skobeltsyn Institute, MSU, Moscow

4.

5.

To be continued...

The collaboration is open for other participants.

You are welcome!

Yu. Stenkin, UHECR'2008


Thank you
Thank you! (left, shown in LOG scale) and by MD (right, linear scale in relativistic particles). (Detector in the center show a particle density of

Yu. Stenkin, UHECR'2008


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