Child labor in the 21 st century
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Child Labor in the 21 st Century. The Well-Being of Children in The Contemporary Global System. Labor & Well-Being. Rapid change in the contemporary global system clearly has its benefits Material well-being Human rights Just as clearly, it has heavy costs

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Child Labor in the 21 st Century

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Child labor in the 21 st century

Child Labor in the 21st Century

The Well-Being of Children in

The Contemporary Global System


Labor well being

Labor & Well-Being

  • Rapid change in the contemporary global system clearly has its benefits

    • Material well-being

    • Human rights

  • Just as clearly, it has heavy costs

    • Traditional means of sustenance are not available to billions

    • Jeopardy within the global economy is a serious problem


Re emergence of slavery

Re-emergence of Slavery

  • Because some people are powerless and others are willing to exploit them, a new slavery has emerged

    • Bonded workers

    • Trafficking in women and children

    • Illegal immigrants


Slavery distinctions

Chattel Slavery

Legal

People held deeds to other people

Slaves were investments, therefore the slave owner had an incentive to keep the slave healthy

The New Slavery

Illegal

People controlled rather than owned

Slaves are disposable

Continuing supply of desperate people to take advantage of or parents to pay off

Slavery Distinctions


Examples of child slavery

Examples of Child Slavery

  • Boys as soldiers, girls as “wives”

  • Bonded workers who never leave the work site

  • Sex slaves, mainly but not only girls

  • Domestic workers


International labor organization convention 182

International Labor OrganizationConvention 182

  • Addresses the worst forms of child labor

    • Slavery

    • Sex work

    • Child soldiers

    • Dangerous work

    • Work that prevents the proper development of children


International approach to eliminating child labor

International ApproachTo Eliminating Child Labor

  • Problem cannot be overcome with policies that are limited to domestic economies

  • Global trade creates income opportunities for people able to exploit the labor of children

  • Allowing the worst forms of child labor is unfair competition for legitimate workers

  • Only a global attack has a chance of succeeding


Culture childhood child labor

Culture, Childhood & Child Labor

  • In all cultures, children work

  • The issue: the types of work and conditions of work

  • Clearly in poorer countries, some families need the income of children

  • Clearly in poorer countries, some education is a waste of time


Cultural issues

Cultural Issues

  • Who is a child?

  • What should a child be allowed (be forced?) to do?

  • How much education should be required for all children, and how should it be funded?

  • Who decides, and when is it decided, who gets further education?


International protection

International Protection

  • The general instruments

    • Universal Declaration of Human Rights, Covenant on Economic, Social & Cultural Rights, Covenant on Civil & Political Rights

  • Child specific instruments

    • Convention on the Rights of the Child

    • Convention on Women’s Rights

  • ILO instruments

    • Conventions 138 and 182


Us participation in the elimination of child labor

US Participation in the Elimination Of Child Labor

  • Thanks to Iowa’s Senator Harkin, the US in many ways is in the vanguard of the attack on inappropriate child labor

  • But … the US has still ratified neither the Convention on the Rights of the Child nor the Convention on Economic, Social & Cultural Rights

  • How about the country you are studying?

    • UICHR’s Child Labor Rights Initiative


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