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Emotion emotion\168_Emotion_2.mp4. Theories of Emotion: The body’s adaptive response. Theories of emotions.

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Emotionemotion\168_Emotion_2.mp4


Theories of Emotion: The body’s adaptive response


Theories of emotions

  • Emotiona response of the whole organism, involving (1) physiological arousal, (2) expressive behaviors, & (3) conscious experience. Psychology 101 - Motivation and Emotion Part (1_9) - Introduction to Emotions.flv

    • Physiological arousal

    • Expressive behavior

    • Conscious experience

  • Common sense theory


Theories of emotions

  • James-Lange theorythe theory that our experience of emotion is our awareness of our physiological responses to emotion-arousing stimuli. The James-Lange Theory of Emotion.mp4


Theories of emotions

  • James-Lange theory


Theories of emotions

  • James-Lange theory


Theories of emotions

  • Cannon-Bard theorythe theory that an emotion-arousing stimulus simultaneously triggers (1) physiological responses & (2) the subjective experience of emotion. The Cannon-Bard Theory of Emotion.mp4


Theories of emotions

  • Cannon-Bard theory


Theories of emotions

  • Two-factor theorythe Schachter-Singer theory that to experience emotion one must (1) be physically aroused & (2) cognitively label the arousal. The Schachter-Singer Two-Factor Theory of Emotion.mp4


Theories of emotions

  • Two-factor theory

    • Schachter-Singer


Theories of emotions

  • Two-factor theory

    • Schachter-Singer


Theories of emotions Psychology 101 - Motivation and Emotion Part (3_9) - Theories of Emotion.flv


We know that emotions involve bodily responses. Some of these responses are very noticeable (butterflies in our stomach when fear arises), but others are more difficult to discern (neurons activated in the brain).

Embodied Emotion


Emotions & the Autonomic Nervous System

  • Autonomic nervous system

    • Sympathetic nervous system

      • arousing

    • Parasympathetic nervous system

      • Calming

    • Moderate arousal is ideal

    • The Sympathetic and Parasympathetic Nervous Systems - Free Intro to Biology Video


Emotions & the Autonomic Nervous System


Emotions & the Autonomic Nervous System


Emotions & the Autonomic Nervous System


Arousal and Performance

Arousal in short spurts is adaptive.

We perform better under moderate arousal, but optimal performance varies with task difficulty.

Arousal and Performance.flv


Physiological Similarities Among Specific Emotions

  • Different movie experiment


Physiological Similarities

Physiological responses related to the emotions of fear, anger, love, & boredom are very similar.

M. Grecco/ Stock Boston

Excitement and fear involve a similar

physiological arousal.


Physiological Differences Among Specific Emotions

  • Differences in facial muscles

  • Differences in brain activity. different emotions activate different areas of the brain. Negative emotions show more brain activity. Depressed or neg. people show more right frontal lobe brain activity area. Pos. moods, activate the left frontal lobe.

    • Amygdala-associated with fear & fight or flight; by- passes cortex allowing =super fast emotional responses

    • Frontal lobes-Nucleus accumbens – clusters of neurons that increase dopamine levels btwn the frontal lobes to these clusters

    • Polygraph


Physiological Differences

Physical responses, like finger temperature & movement of facial muscles, change during fear, rage, & joy.

The amygdala shows differences in activation during the emotions of anger & rage. Activity of the left hemisphere (happy) is different from the right (depressed) for emotions.


Cognition & EmotionCognition Can Define Emotion

  • Spill over effect – physical reactions & cognition (to things around us) impact how we feel

    • Schachter-Singer experiment (2 factor Theory) arousal + label = emotion

  • Arousal fuels emotions, cognition channels it emotion\167_Emotion_1.mp4


Two Routes to Emotion

Zajonc and LeDoux emphasize that some emotions are immediate, without conscious appraisal. Lazarus, Schachter, and Singer emphasize that appraisal also determines emotions.


Cognition & EmotionCognition Does Not Always Precede Emotion

  • Influence of the amygdala Amygdala hijacking - Don't let it happen to you..flv


Expressed EmotionPsychology 101 - Motivation and Emotion Part (2_9) - Categorizing Emotions.mp4

Emotions are expressed on the face, by the body, & by the intonation of voice.

Is this nonverbal language of emotion universal?

Most people can detect NON Verbal cues. Especially Non Verbal Threats.

We read fear & anger mostly from the eyes. Happiness mostly from the mouth.

Introverts are better emotion-detectors than extravert, but extraverts are easier to read


Detecting Emotion

Most of us are good at deciphering emotions through nonverbal communication. In a crowd of faces a single angry face will “pop out” faster than a single happy face.


Detecting Emotion

Hard-to-control facial muscles reveal signs of emotions you may be trying to conceal. emotion\172_Emotions_and_Expressions.mp

A feigned smile may continue for more than 4-5 seconds while a genuine smile will have faded by then.

emotion\173_Nonverbal_Communication.mp4

Dr. Paul Elkman, University of California at San Francisco

Which of Paul Ekman’s smiles is genuine?


Gender, Emotion, & Nonverbal Behavior


Gender, Emotion, &Nonverbal Behavior

  • W- generally better @reading emotions (emotional Literacy)

  • verbalize more complex emotions

  • React more deeply & remember better after

  • More likely to describe themselves as empathetic

  • Convey happiness better

  • M-convey anger better


Culture & Emotional Expression emotion\171_Ekman.mp4

Happiness – MOUTH Surprise widens eyes Fear pulled together raise eyebrow

Sadness turned up brow Anger turned in brow Disgust wrinkled nose

Some gestures are cultural. Children’s facial expressions are universal

Facial Expressions are common across the world

Cultural similarities in displaying “rules”

Cultures differ in how much they express emotions


Emotions are Adaptive

Darwin speculated that our ancestors communicated with facial expressions in the absence of language.

Nonverbal facial expressions led to our ancestor’s survival.

Charles Darwin (1809-1882)


Levels of Analysis for the Study of Emotion


The Effects of Facial Expressions

  • Facial feedbackthe effect of facial expressions on experienced emotions, as when a facial expression of anger or happiness intensifies feelings of anger or happiness.


Experienced Emotion

Izard (1977) isolated 10 emotions.

Most of them are present in infancy, except for contempt, shame, and guilt.


Fear

  • Adaptive value of fear

  • The biology of fear

    • amygdala


Anger

  • Evoked by events

    • friends & loved ones who commit wrongdoings, especially if they are willful, unjustified, & avoidable.

    • foul odors, high temperatures, traffic jams, & aches & pains.

  • Catharsis -emotional release. Catharsis hypothesis maintains that “releasing’ aggressive energy (through action/fantasy) relieves aggressive urges

  • Expressing anger can increase anger


Happiness emotion\174_Happiness_Trait.mp4

  • Feel-good, do-good phenomenon people’s tendency to be helpful when already in a good mood.

  • Well-being self-perceived happiness or satisfaction with life. Used along with measures of objective well-being (for example, physical & economic indicators) to evaluate people’s quality of life.


HappinessThe Short Life of Emotional Ups & Downs

  • Watson’s studies


HappinessWealth & Well-Being


HappinessWealth & Well-Being


HappinessTwo Psychological Phenomena: Adaptation & Comparison

  • Happiness & Prior Experience

    • Adaptation-level phenomenonour tendency to form judgments (of sounds, of lights, of income) relative to a neutral level defined by our prior experience.

  • Happiness & others’ attainments

    • Relative deprivationthe perception that we are worse off relative to those with whom we compare ourselves.


Stress and Illness

  • Stress

    • Stress appraisal


Stress and IllnessThe Stress Response System

  • Selye’s general adaptation syndrome (GAS)

    • Alarm

    • Resistance

    • exhaustion


Stress and IllnessGeneral Adaptation Syndrome


Stress and IllnessGeneral Adaptation Syndrome


Stress and IllnessGeneral Adaptation Syndrome


Stress and IllnessGeneral Adaptation Syndrome


Stress and IllnessStressful Life Events

  • Catastrophes

  • Significant life changes

  • Daily hassles


Stress and the Heart

  • Coronary heart disease

  • Type A versus Type B

    • Type A

    • Type B


Stress and Susceptibility to Disease

  • Psychophysiological illnesses

  • Psychoneuroimmunology (PNI)

    • Lymphocytes

      • B lymphocytes

      • T lymphocytes

    • Stress and AIDS

    • Stress and Cancer


The End


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Definition Slides


Emotion

= a response of the whole organism, involving (1) physiological arousal, (2) expressive behaviors, and (3) conscious experience.


James-Lange Theory

= the theory that our experience of emotion is our awareness of our physiological responses to emotion-arousing stimuli.


Cannon-Bard Theory

= the theory that an emotion-arousing stimulus simultaneously triggers (1) physiological responses and (2) the subjective experience of emotion.


Two-factor Theory

= the Schachter-Singer theory that to experience emotion one must (1) be physically aroused and (2) cognitively label the arousal.


Polygraph

= a machine, commonly used in attempts to detect lies, that measure several of the physiological responses accompanying emotion (such as perspiration and cardiovascular and breathing changes).


Facial Feedback

= the effect of facial expressions on experienced emotions, as when a facial expression of anger or happiness intensifies feelings of anger or happiness.


Catharsis

= emotional release. The catharsis hypothesis maintains that “releasing’ aggressive energy (through action or fantasy) relieves aggressive urges.


Feel-Good Do-Good Phenomenon

= people’s tendency to be helpful when already in a good mood.


Well-being

= self-perceived happiness or satisfaction with life. Used along with measures of objective well-being (for example, physical and economic indicators) to evaluate people’s quality of life.


Adaptation-level Phenomenon

= our tendency to form judgments (of sounds, of lights, of income) relative to a neutral level defined by our prior experience.


Relative Deprivation

= the perception that we are worse off relative to those with whom we compare ourselves.


Behavioral Medicine

= an interdisciplinary field that integrates behavior and medical knowledge and applies that knowledge to health and disease..


Health Psychology

= a subfield of psychology that provides psychology's contribution to behavioral medicine.


Stress

= the process by which we perceive and respond to certain events, called stressors, that we appraise as threatening or challenging.


General Adaptation Syndrome (GAS)

= Selye’s concept of the body’s adaptive response to stress in three phases – alarm, resistance, exhaustion.


Coronary Heart Disease

= the clogging of the vessels that nourish the heart muscle; the leading cause of death in North America.


Type A

= Friedman and Rosenman’s term for competitive, hard-driving, impatient, verbally aggressive, and anger-prone people.


Type B

= Friedman and Rosenman’s term for easygoing, relaxed people.


Psychophysiological Illness

= literally, “mind-body” illness; any stress-related physical illness, such as hypertension and some headaches.


Psychoneuroimmunology (PNI)

= the study of how psychological, neural, and endocrine processes together affect the immune system and resulting health.


Lymphocytes

= the two types of white blood cells that are part of the body’s immune system; B lymphocytes form in the bone marrow and release antibodies that fight bacterial infections; T lymphocytes form in the thymus and other lymphatic tissue and attack cancer cells, viruses, and foreign substances.


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