LECTURES IN MICROBIOLOGY. Chemistry of Microbes. LESSON 2. Sofronio Agustin Professor. Topics. Fundamental Building Blocks Macromolecules The Cell. Fundamental Building Blocks. Atoms Elements Molecules and compounds. Atoms. Subatomic Particles Proton = positive charge
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Proton = positive charge
Neutron = neutral
Electron = negative charge
Models of Atomic Structure
Chemical bonds involve atoms sharing, donating or accepting electrons
Examples of covalent bonding
Sodium chloride (table salt) is an example of ionic bonding, that is, electron transfer among atoms or redox reaction.
The pH of an environment (exterior or interior of a cell) is important for living systems.
Molecules important to life consist of inorganic and organic substances.
Major sugars (monosaccharides) in the cell are glucose, galactose and fructose. Several sugars bonded together are called polysaccharides.
Peptidoglycan in bacteria is an example of a polysaccharide.
Synthesis and structure of a triglyceride (fat), a storage molecule.
Cholesterols are associated with cell membranes of some cells such as those of eukaryotes.
A peptide bond (covalent) forms between the amino group on one amino acid and the carboxyl group on another amino acid with the accompanying loss of water.
Proteins take on a variety of shapes due to extensive folding of the molecule. This enable them to perform specific functions and interactions with other molecules.
Nucleic acids are polymers of repeating units called nucleotides.
The pentose sugars and nitrogen bases determine whether a molecule will be DNA or RNA.
The DNA Molecule
Fundamental characteristics shared by all living organisms: