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4 0 3 . 0 5. Winds. H. Winds within a high. Winds blow clockwise and outwards. Area of Divergence. A flow of air outwards from a region and is associated with highs. Sinking air compensates for the flow of air outwards. L. Winds within a low.

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4 0 3 0 5

4

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3

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Winds


Winds within a high

H

Winds within a high

Winds blow clockwise and outwards.


Area of divergence

Area of Divergence

A flow of air outwards from a region and is associated with highs. Sinking air compensates for the flow of air outwards.


Winds within a low

L

Winds within a low

Winds blow counter-clockwise and inwards.


Area of convergence

Area of Convergence

The flow of air into an area of low pressure is accompanied by rising air allowing the excess accumulation to escape.


Land breeze

Land Breeze

  • Blows at night

  • Land becomes cooler faster than water causing a high over the land

  • Wind blows from the land (high pressure area) towards the water (low pressure area)


Land breeze1

H

L

Land Breeze

Warm Sea causes Low Pressure over the sea.

Cool land causes High Pressure over the land

Wind blows from high to a low


Sea breeze

Sea Breeze

  • Occurs during the day

  • Land heats faster than water causing a low over the land

  • Wind blows from the sea (high pressure area) towards the land (low pressure area)


Sea breeze1

H

L

Sea Breeze

Warm Land causes Low Pressure over the land

Cool Sea causes High Pressure over the sea

Wind blows from high to a low


Confirmation stage

Confirmation Stage

NOTE: You must use the buttons in the Confirmation Stage


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Meteorology

Winds

Let's try a few review questions on Meteorology:

Question #1 - Match

A flow of air outwards from a region and is associated with highs. Sinking air compensates for the flow of air outwards.

The flow of air into an area and is

accompanied by rising air to permit

the excess accumulation to escape.

Area of divergence

A

Area of convergence

B

Area of divergence

A

Area of convergence

B


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Try other match


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4 0 3 0 5

Meteorology

Winds

Let's try a few review questions on Meteorology:

Question #2 - At night land cools faster then water forming a higher pressure area. The result is wind blowing from the land to the sea. This is known as .

A

Land breeze

B

Sea breeze

C

Wind shear

Jet stream

D


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Diurnal variations

Diurnal Variations

  • Daily variation of the wind

  • Caused by surface heating during the day

  • Causes turbulence in lower levels which transfers the stronger upper level winds to the surface

  • This causes surface winds to veer an increase during the day

  • Surface winds back and decrease during the evening when daytime heating stops.


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GUSTS

A rapid and brief increase in the wind speed. It is often associated with rapid fluctuations in the wind direction.


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GUSTS

Rapid peaks and lulls in

the wind speed

30

25

20

SPEED (KNOTS)

15

10

5

TIME


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SQUALLS

Similar to a gust but of longer duration. Caused by the passage of a fast moving cold front or a thunderstorm.


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SQUALLS

30

25

20

15

10

5

AT LEAST TWO MINUTES

SPEED (KNOTS)

SUDDEN INCREASE LASTING

FOR AT LEAST TWO MINUTES

TIME


Mechanical turbulence

Mechanical Turbulence

Friction between the air and surface features of the earth is responsible for the swirling vortices of air called “eddies”.


Tornadoes

Tornadoes

Violent, circular whirlpools of air associated with severe thunderstorms and are very deep concentrated lows.


Veering and backing

Veering and Backing

  • Veer

    • the wind changes direction clockwise

    • wind veers and increase as altitude increases

      • e.g.270° to 300 °

    • wind veers and increases during the day

  • Back

    • the wind changes direction counter-clockwise

    • wind backs and decreases as altitude decreases

      • e.g.90° to 60°

    • wind backs and decreases at night


Wind shear

Wind Shear

Sudden “tearing” or “shearing” change in wind speed or direction. Can be very violent.

Jet Stream

Narrow bands of exceeding high speed winds known to exist in higher levels of the troposphere at altitudes ranging from 20,000-40,000 feet. Wind speed is usually 100-125 knots but may get as high as 250 knots.


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Confirmation Stage

NOTE: You must use the buttons in the Confirmation Stage


4 0 3 0 5

Meteorology

Winds

Let's try a few review questions on Meteorology:

Question #3 - What is a rapid and brief increase in the wind speed?

A

Squall

B

Gust

C

Wind shear

Jet stream

D


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4 0 3 0 5

Meteorology

Winds

Let's try a few review questions on Meteorology:

Question #4 - When happens to the wind as an aircraft ascends?

A

Veer and increase

B

Veer and decrease

C

Back and increase

Back and decrease

D


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4 0 3 0 5

Meteorology

Winds

Congratulations!!

You have now completed the Winds lesson of the Meteorology Module. Of course, this lesson is always available to you for future reference if required.

You are now ready to move along to the next Meteorology lesson you have not completed or to any other module you wish. You can advance to the Self Test Module if you feel ready to challenge the final exam.

Good Luck!


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