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LATIN GRAMMAR NOTEBOOK. Your personal resource to organize all those charts and rules, provided you follow my instructions perfectly. Verb Facts: The single most important word of the sentence . Verb Facts: The Most Important Words in Any Sentence. What is a verb?

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Latin grammar notebook

LATIN GRAMMAR NOTEBOOK

Your personal resource to organize all those charts and rules, provided you follow my instructions perfectly.



Verb facts the most important words in any sentence
Verb Facts: The Most Important Words in Any Sentence

  • What is a verb?

    • Denotes an action or a state of being

    • Essential to the sentence because it’s what is happening!

      Examples:


Types of verbs
Types of Verbs

  • Helping Verbs:

    • In English, helping verbs tell when a verb is happening ( was, is, had,have et al.)

    • Latin never uses helping verbs; we use endings to show when a verb happens

      • Example

        • Rex was laughing. Rex ridebat.

        • Rex will laugh. Rex ridebit.


Types of verbs1
Types of Verbs

  • Linking verbs: show a state of being and link two ideas

    • Acts like a chain or an equals mark (=)

    • The most common linking verb is sum ,esse, fui, futurus in all its lovely forms

    • Example

      • Rex is a boy. (Rex = boy) Rex estpuer


Types of verbs2
Types of Verbs

  • Transitive verb: action verb which takes a direct object ( a noun that answers who or what after the verb)

    • The action transfers to another word

    • Example

      • Rex hits Claudius. Rex Claudiumpulsat.

  • Intransitive verb: action verb that cannot take an object

    • The action stops at the verb and does not cross over to a noun.

    • Example

      • Rex is sleeping. Rex dormit.


Agreement
Agreement

  • A singular verb must have a singular subject; a plural verb must have a plural subject.

    • Compound subjects are usually treated as plural subjects

    • Examples

      • The girl is running. Puellacurrit

      • The girls are running. Puellaecurrunt.


Principal parts
Principal Parts

  • Most verb have four principal parts, always listed in a specific order. These parts are used to make all the other verb forms.

  • Notice the patterns

    • 1st principal part ends with “o”

      • Used for present tense

    • 2nd ends with “re”

      • Present infinitive; used for present, imperfect, future

    • 3rd end with “I”

      • Perfect active; used for perfect, pluperfect, future perfect active

    • 4th ends with “um” or “us”

      • Perfect participle; used for perfect, pluperfect, future perfect passive


Conjugations
Conjugations

  • The conjugation of a verb is determined by the second principal part (infinitive)

    • ARE = 1st

    • *ERE = 2nd (1st pp. will end with “eo”)

    • ERE = 3rd

    • IO, ERE = 3rd IO

    • IRE = 4th


Qualities of a verb
Qualities of a Verb

  • Number

    • Singular or plural

  • Person

    • 1st = I, we

    • 2nd = you

    • 3rd = he,she, it, they


Qualities of a verb1
Qualities of a verb

  • Voice: active or passive

    • Refers to relationship between subject and verb

    • Active voice : subject performs the verb

      • Aurelia sells the slave. Aurelia venditservum

    • Passive Voice: The subject does not perform the verb but the verb happens to the subject

      • The slave is sold by Aurelia. Servusvenditurab Aurelia

      • The person or thing doing the verb goes into the ablative.

        • No preposition for things (means), “a, ab” for people (personal agent)

        • Miles vulneraturgladio.

        • Miles vulneraturabamico.


Qualities of a verb2
Qualities of a Verb

  • Mood

    • Indicative = states a fact or asks a question

    • Imperative = makes a command

    • Subjunctive = special clauses

  • Tense

    • Shows when the verb happens

    • Present, imperfect, future, perfect, pluperfect, future perfect


Tense continuum
Tense Continuum

  • Pluperfect: in the past before something else in the past (August 24)

  • Perfect : completed in the past (august 25)

  • Present : now (august 26)

  • Future perfect: before something else in the future (august 27)

  • Future : in the future (august 28)

  • Imperfect: in the past over a span of time ( august 24 and August 25)


Tense continuum1
Tense Continuum

  • Pluperfect : He had taken a shower before he ate breakfast

  • Perfect: He ate breakfast

  • Present: He is walking to the car.

  • Future Perfect: He will have driven twenty miles before he returns home.

  • Future: He will return home

  • Imperfect: He was driving to school behind a very slow bus.


Verb bases
Verb Bases

  • Present Tense : Use infinitive

    • Exception : 1st sing passive use 1st pp.

    • Are = remove the “re”

      • Exception : 1st person singular remove the “are” active

    • *ere = remove the “re”

    • Ere = remove “ere” , add “I”

      • Exception : 3rd person pl add “u” instead of “I”

    • Io, -ere = remove “ere” , add “I”

      • Exception: 3rd person pl add “iu”

    • Ire = remove “re”

      • Exception: 3rd person pl. remove “re” , add “u”


Verb bases1
Verb bases

  • Imperfect : use infinitive

    • Are = remove “re”

    • *ere = remove “re”

    • Ere = remove “re”

    • Io, ere = remove “ere” add “ie”

    • Ire = remove “re” add “e”


Verb bases2
Verb bases

  • Future: Use infinitive

    • Are = remove “re”

    • *ere = remove “re”

    • Ere = remove “ere”

    • Io, ere = remove “ere”, add “I”

      • Exception : 2nd person singular don’t add “i”

      • Ire = remove “re”


Perfect pluperfect future perfect active
Perfect, pluperfect, future perfect active

  • 3rd principal part minus “I”

    • Usually leaves one of the following before the ending

    • U

    • V

    • S

    • X


Perfect pluperfect future perfect passive
Perfect, pluperfect, future perfect passive

  • 4th principal part minus “us” or “um”


Present active indicative
Present active Indicative

  • Endings

    • o = I 1st sing

    • s = you 2nd sing

    • t = he, she, it 3rd sing

    • mus = we 1stpl

    • tis = you pl. 2ndpl

    • nt = they 3rdpl

  • Translations

    • Verb __________, is, am, are ____ing, do, does ____


Present passive indicative
Present passive indicative

  • Endings

    • R = I am _____ed

    • Ris = you are ______ed

    • Tur = he, she, it is _______ed

    • Mur = we are _______ed

    • Mini = you pl. are ______ed

    • Ntur = they are _______ed

  • Translations

    • Is, am, are ______ed,

    • Is, am, are being _______ed


Imperfect active indicative
Imperfect active Indicative

  • Endings

    • Bam = I

    • Bas = you

    • Bat = he, she,, it

    • Bamus = we

    • Batis = you pl.

    • Bant = they

    • Translations must show action over a period of time in the past, habitual or continuous

      • Was/were, used to, kept on, began to, past tense


Imperfect passive indicative
Imperfect passive indicative

  • Endings

    • Bar = I

    • Baris = you

    • Batur = he, she, it

    • Bamur = we

    • Bamini = you pl

    • Bantur = they

    • Translations:

      • Was/were being ______ed, kept on being _______ed, used to be _______ed, began to be ______ed


Future active indicative for are ere 1 st and 2 nd conjugations
Future Active Indicative for –are, *ere (1st and 2ndconjugations

  • Endings

    • Bo I will

    • Bis you will

    • Bit he, she, it will

    • Bimus we will

    • Bitis you pl. will

    • Bunt they will

  • Translations: will, shall

  • Must show action to occur in the future


Future passive indicative for are ere
Future Passive Indicative for –are, -*ere

  • Endings

    • Bor I will be -----ed

    • Beris you will be ----ed

    • Bitur he, she, it will be-----ed

    • Bimur we will be-----ed

    • Bimini you pl. will be ----ed

    • Buntur they will be-----ed

  • Translations: will be -----ed, shall be ----ed


Future active indicative for ere ire 3 rd 3 rd io 4 th
Future Active Indicative for ere, ire (3rd, 3rdio, 4th)

  • Endings

    • am I will

    • es* you will

    • et* he, she, it will

    • emus* we will

    • etis* you pl. will

    • ent they will

  • Translation : will, shall


Future passive indicative for ere ire 3 rd 3 rd io 4 th
Future Passive Indicative for –ere, -ire(3rd, 3rdio, 4th)

  • Endings

    • ar I will be ----ed

    • eris you will be ----ed

    • etur he, she, it will be ----ed

    • emur we will be -----ed

    • emini you pl will be -----ed

    • entur they will be -----ed

    • Translations: will be _____ed, shall be ____ed


Perfect active indicative
Perfect Active Indicative

  • Endings

    • i i

    • isti` you

    • it he, she, it

    • imus we

    • istis you pl

    • erunt they

      • Usually preceded by u,v,s,xfrom the 3rd pp.

  • Translations: ----ed, past tense, has/have ---ed, did –

    • Must show action completed in the past


Perfect passive indicative
Perfect Passive Indicative

  • 4th principal part minus “us”

    • Singular

      • -us,-a,-um sum I was _____ed, have been ___ed

      • -us, -a, -um es you were ____ed, have been __ed

      • -us,-a, -um est he, she, it was ___ed, has been __ed

      • Plural

      • -i, -ae, -a sumus we were –ed, have been –ed

      • i, -ae, -a estis you were ---ed, have been –ed

      • i, -ae, -a sunt they were –ed, have been --ed


  • The 4th principal part must be adjusted so that it agrees with the subject in gender, number, and case.

    • Marcus was wounded

    • Marcus vulneratus est.

    • Silvia was wounded.

    • Silvia vulnerata est.

    • The men were wounded.

    • Virivulneratisunt


Pluperfect active indicative
Pluperfect Active Indicative

  • Endings

    • eram I

    • eras you

    • erat he, she, it

    • eramus we

    • eratis you pl.

    • erant they

  • Translation: had ----ed

  • Must show action completed in the past before another action

  • The endings must be attached to the 3rdpp minus “I”; cannot be by itself or it’s the imperfect of sum

    • Ambulaveram in silva. I had walked in the woods.

    • Eram in silva. I was in the woods.


Pluperfect passive indicative
Pluperfect passive Indicative

  • 4th principal part minus “us” or “um”

  • Singular

    • -us, a, um eram I

    • -us,-a, -um eras you

    • -us,-a, -um erat he, she, it

  • Plural

    • -i,-ae, -a eramus we

    • -i, -ae, -a eratis you pl.

    • -i, -ae, -a erant they


  • Translation: had been -----ed

  • Fourth pp. must be adjusted to agree with subject in gender, number, and case

    • Marcus had been seen.

    • Marcus visuserat.

    • Cornelia had been seen.

    • Cornelia visa erat.


Future perfect indicative
Future Perfect Indicative

  • Endings

    • ero I will have

    • eris you will have

    • erithe,she, it will have

    • erimus we will have

    • eritis you pl will have

    • erint they will have

  • Translations: will have ----ed, shall have ----ed

  • Must show action that occurs in the future before something else in the future

  • Frequently used in conditional (if) clauses


Future perfect passive
Future perfect passive

  • Endings 4th principal part minus “us” plus

    • Singular

    • -us,-a, -um ero I

    • -us,-a, -um eris you

    • -us, -a, -um erithe,she, it

    • Plural

    • -i, -ae,-a erimus we

    • -i. –ae, -a eritis you pl.

    • -i, -ae, -a erunt they

  • Translations: will have been ---ed, shall have been –ed

  • 4th pp. must be adjusted to agree with subject in gender, number, and case


Pronoun subjects for active
Pronoun Subjects for Active

  • O/M/I = I

  • S/ISTI = you

  • T = he,she, it

  • MUS = we

  • TIS = you pl

  • NT = they


Tense signs and translations for active
Tense signs and translations for active

  • BA = was,were,usedto, kept on, began to

  • BO, BI, BU, A, E = will, shall

  • U,S,V,X, followed by I, ERU = past tense, have, has, did

  • ERA = had

  • ERO,ERI = will have, shall have

  • A,E,I,U = is, am, are, do, does


Pronoun subjects for passive
Pronoun subjects for passive

  • R = I

  • RIS = you

  • TUR = he, she, it

  • MUR = we

  • MINI = you pl

  • NTUR = they


Tense sign and translation for passive
Tense sign and translation for passive

  • BA = was/were being ---ed, kept on being ---ed, used to be –ed, began to be ---ed (imperfect)

  • BI, BE, BU (are, *ere) or A, E (ere, ire) = will be ---ed (future)

  • A, I, E, U = are,is, am ----ed (present)


Passive person
Passive Person

Part One

  • Us = masc sing

  • A = fem sing

  • Um = neuter sing

  • I = masc. Pl.

  • Ae = fem pl

  • A = neutpl


Passive tense sign for two part verbs part two
Passive Tense Sign for Two Part Verbs: Part Two

  • Su or e

    • Was/were -----ed

    • Has/have been -----ed

  • Era

    • Had been ---ed

  • Eri

    • Will have been ----ed


  • Part three

  • m/o = I

  • S = you

  • T = he,she, it

  • Mus = we

  • Tis = you pl

  • Nt = they


Irregular verbs
Irregular verbs

  • Use the personal endings (o/m,s,t,mus, tis, nt or r,ris,tur,mur,mini, ntur)

    • Base is the irregular part

  • Mainly irregular in the present tense:

    • Sometimes irregular in future and imperfect

    • No irregular verbs in perfect, pluperfect, future perfect


Irregular verbs1
Irregular Verbs

  • Very commonly used verbs

    • Sum, esse, fui, futurus

      • To be: linking verb

    • Possum, posse, potui

      • Be able, can

      • Always used with an infinitive

    • Volo, velle, volui

      • To wish


  • Fero, ferre, tuli, latum

    • To bring, to carry

  • Malo, malle, malui

    • To prefer

  • Nolo, nolle, nolui

    • Don’t want

  • Eo, ire, ivi, itus

    • go


Irregular verbs sum esse fui futurus
Irregular verbs: Sum, esse, fui, futurus

  • Most common verb in Latin

  • Linking verb

  • Irregular in the present indicative and subjunctive, imperfect indicative, future indicative, and in its principal parts

  • Regular in perfect, pluperfect, future perfect both indicative and subjunctive

    • Base = fu


Irregular verbs sum esse fui futurus1
Irregular verbs: Sum, esse, fui, futurus

  • Present indicative Present subjunctive

    • sum sumussimsimus

    • esestis sis sitis

    • estsunt sit sint

  • Imperfect Indicative

    • Erameramus

    • Eras eratis

    • Eraterant

  • Future indicative

    • Eroerimus

    • Eris eritis

    • Eriterunt


Irregular verbs possum posse potui
Irregular Verbs: Possum, posse, potui

  • Definition: Be able, can

    • Always used with a complementary infinitive

  • Irregular in the present indicative and subjunctive, imperfect indicative, and future indicative; usually like sum just with pot in front

  • Regular in all other tenses


Irregular verbs possum
Irregular Verbs : possum

  • Present Indicative Present Subjunctive

    • Possum possumuspossimpossimus

    • Potespotestispossispossitis

    • Potestpossuntpossitpossint

  • Imperfect Indicative

    • Poterampoteramus

    • Poteraspoteratis

    • Poteratpoterant

  • Future Indicative

    • Poteropoterimus

    • Poterispoteritis

    • Poteritpoterunt


Irregular verbs volo nolo malo
Irregular verbs: volo, nolo, malo

  • Present tense indicative active

  • Volo nolo malo

  • Vis non vismavis

  • Vult non vultmavult

  • Volumusnolumusmalumus

  • Vultis non vultismavultis

  • Voluntnoluntmalunt


Volo nolo malo
Volo, nolo, malo

  • Imperfect bases:

    • Vole

    • Nole

    • male

  • Future Tense bases: treat like 3rd conjugation(ere)

    • Vol

    • Nol

    • Mal


Volo nolo malo1
Volo, nolo, malo

  • Present active subjunctive

  • Velimnolimmalim

  • Velisnolismalis

  • Velitnolitmalit

  • Velimusnolimusmalimus

  • Velitisnolitismalitis

  • Velintnolintmalint


Irregular verbs fero ferre tuli latum
Irregular Verbs: Fero, ferre, tuli, latum

  • Present Active Indicative

    • Feroferimus

    • Fersfertis

    • Fertferunt

  • Imperfect base: fere

  • Future base: fer

    • Use 3rd conjugation

  • Present subjunctive: treat like 3rd conjugation


Irregular verbs eo ire ivi itus
Irregular verbs: eo, ire, ivi, itus

  • Present Indicative Active

    • Eoimus

    • Is it is

    • It eunt

    • Imperfect base: i

    • Future base: i

      • Use bo, bis, bit, bimus, bitis, bunt


Imperatives
Imperatives

  • States a command

    • Can be negative or positive

    • Always treated like a second person verb

      • Can be singular or plural

    • Frequently used with vocative nouns

  • Formation

    • Singular: Remove “re” from infinitive

      • Exceptions

        • Dicere = dic

        • Ducere = duc

        • Facere = fac

        • Ferre = fer


Imperative
Imperative

  • Examples

    • Vocare = Voca!

    • Sedere* = Sede!

    • Recumbere = recumbe!

    • Venire = veni!

    • Stare = sta!


Imperative plurals
Imperative Plurals

  • Remove “re” from the infinitive and add “te”

    • Exception

      • 3rd conjugation (ere)

      • Remove “ere” add “ite”

    • Examples

      • Dare = date!

      • Sedere* = sedete!

      • Ducere = ducite

      • Facere = facite

      • Audire = audite


Negative imperatives
Negative imperatives

  • Singular

    • Noli with the infinitive

      • Nolidicere! Don’t talk!

  • Plural

    • Nolite with the infinitive

      • Nolitedicere! Don’t talk!


Deponent verbs
Deponent Verbs

  • Deponent verbs are special verbs that have only passive forms but active translations.

    • Example locutus sum I was talking

  • They only have three principal parts and follow the –r, -i, - us/um sum pattern.

    • Example loquor, loqui, locutus sum speak

  • Follow the same rules for bases and endings as for normal verbs, just don’t ever make an active form.

    • For 3rd conjugation you have to remake the present active infinitive. Take the “i” off the 2nd pp. and add “ere”; then just follow the normal rules.


Deponent verbs1

Deponent verbs

What are they? How do they function? What do you need to know about them?


What is a deponent verb
What is a Deponent Verb?

  • Special verbs with passive forms but active meanings

    Secutus est He followed.

    Recognize by having only three forms in the vocabulary listing

    ----r, ---i,----us sum

    conor, conari, conatus sum try deponent

    tempto, temptare, temptavi, temptatus try not deponent


Deponent imperatives
Deponent Imperatives

  • For most deponent verbs, take the second principal part:

    • Remove the “I”

    • Add “e”

    • Will look like an infinitive but translate like a command

      • Conor, conari, conatus sum Conare! Try!


Deponent imperatives for 3 rd conjugation
Deponent imperatives for 3rd conjugation

  • For third conjugation deponents:

    • Recognize by not having “r” before the “i” on the second principal part

    • Remove the “I”

    • Add “ere”

    • Example

      • Sequor, sequi,secutus sum = sequere Follow!


Active forms for deponents
Active forms for deponents

  • Future infinitive

    • Secuturum esse to be about to follow

  • Present participle

    • Sequens, sequentis following

  • Future Participle

    • Secuturus, -a, -um about to follow

  • Gerund

    • Sequendum following

  • Perfect Participle

    • Secutus, -a, -um having followed


First conjugation vocabulary list for deponents
First Conjugation Vocabulary list for deponents

Hortor, hortari, hortatus sum urge, encourage

  • Arbitror, -ari, -atus sum think

  • Conor, -ari, -atus sum try

  • Miror, -ari, -atus sum wonder

  • Moror, -ari, -atus sum delay

  • Recordor, -ari, -atus sum recall

  • Vagor,-ari, -atus sum wander

  • Osculor, -ari, -atus sum kiss


Second conjugation
Second conjugation

  • Fateor, fateri, fassus sum confess

  • Confiteor, confiteri, confessus sum confess

  • Polliceor, polliceri, pollicitus sum promise

  • Vereor, vereri, veritus sum fear


Third conjugation
Third conjugation

  • Loquor, loqui, locutus sum speak

  • Nanciscor, nancisci, nactus sum find, obtain

  • Nascor, nasci, natus sum be born

  • Proficiscor, profisci, profectus sum set out

  • Sequor, sequi, secutus sum follow

  • Utor, uti, usus sum use


Third conjugation1
Third conjugation

  • Collabor, collabi, collapsus sum collapse

  • Consequor, consequi, consecutus sum catch up to, overtake


3 rd io conjugation
3rd io conjugation

  • Gradior, gradi, gressus sum walk

  • Egredior, egredi, egressus sum go out, leave

  • Morior, mori, mortuus sum die

  • Patior, pati, passus sum endure, suffer

  • Ingredior, ingredi, ingressus sum go in, enter

  • Regredior, regredi, regressus sum go back, return


Fourth conjugation
Fourth conjugation

  • Experior, experiri, expertus sum test, try

  • Orior, oriri, ortus sum rise

  • Potior, potiri, potitus sum get possession of


Deponent verbs2
Deponent verbs

  • You will usually translate it correctly because it won’t make sense otherwise.

  • Will not be used with ablative of personal agent (a,ab plus ablative)

    • Ingredior villam a via. I am entering the housefrom the street.

      • I am being entered the houseby the street. makes no sense.


Semi deponent verbs
Semi-Deponent Verbs

A small group of verbs which are deponent only the the perfect, pluperfect, and future perfect tenses

Three principal parts

-o, -e, -us sum

Most commonly used semi-deponents are

audeo, audere*, ausus sum dare

gaudeo, gaudere*, gavisus sum rejoice

soleo, solere*, solitus sum be accustomed


Deponents 2
Deponents 2

  • They have a perfect active participle which is really useful. Normal verbs don’t have this.


Infinitives
Infinitives

  • Present Active

    • 2nd principal part of the verb

    • Usually ends with “re”

    • Translate as “to + verb”

  • Present Passive

    • Begin with present active infinitive, remove “e” and add “i“

      • E.g. Amare = amari

      • 3rd conjugation (ere) remove “ere” add “i”

        • E.g. Ducere = duci

    • Basic translation: to be _______ed


Possible confusion with re
Possible confusion with “re”

  • “ere” can be substituted for “erunt” in the perfect active tense

    • amaverunt = amavere

    • If the “ere” is attached to the third principal part of a verb, it is not an infinitive.

      • Remember that many third principal parts end with “u” or “v” or “s” or “x”; this will help you recognize this alternate form.


Perfect active infinitives
Perfect active Infinitives

  • Start with the third principal part

  • Remove the “i”

  • Add “isse”

    • amavisse

  • Translation : to have ________

  • most commonly used in indirect statements

    • Scivit se interfecisse suum amicum

    • He knew that he had killed his friend


Perfect active infinitives1
Perfect active Infinitives

  • Start with the third principal part

  • Remove the “i”

  • Add “isse”

    • amavisse

  • Translation : to have ________

  • most commonly used in indirect statements

    • Scivit se interfecisse suum amicum

    • He knew that he had killed his friend


Perfect passive infinitives
Perfect Passive Infinitives

  • Begin with the 4th principal part

  • Remove the “us” or “um” whichever is there.

    • You will have to adjust this part to agree with whoever is receiving the action; most commonly it will be accusative because of the indirect statement

    • UM/OS MASCULINE

    • AM/AS FEMININIE

    • UM/A NEUTER

  • Add “esse” as a separate part

    • amatam esse to have been loved

  • Most commonly used in indirect statement

    • Scivit suum amicum interfectum esse a se.

    • He knew that his friend had been killed by him.


Future active infinitive
Future Active Infinitive

  • Begin with the fourth principal part.

  • Remove the “us” and add”ur”; you will have to adjust this part to agree with whoever is doing the action. It will usually be accusative because of the indirect statement.

    • UM/OS MASCULINE

    • AM/AS FEMININE

    • UM/A NEUTER

  • Add “esse” as a separate part.

    • amaturam esse to be about to love

  • Translation “to be about to_________”


Uses of the infinitive

Uses of the Infinitive

Historical, subjective, objective, complementary, and the indirect statement


Historical infinitives
Historical infinitives

  • usually used for a series of actions

  • translated as an imperfect tense verb to show a continuous series

  • example

    • Femina ambulare de via, viri mirari, omnes viri cadere in fossam.

    • The woman was walking down the street, the men were amazed, all the men fell into the ditch.


Infinitive usage
Infinitive Usage

  • Complementary Infinitives

    • Completes the meaning of an incomplete verb

    • Most commonly used with

      • Possum be able, can

      • Volo, nolo, malo wish, don’t wish, prefer

      • Cupio wish

      • Debeo ought, owe

      • Coepi begin

      • Necesseest it is necessary

      • Et al.


Subjective infinitives
Subjective Infinitives

  • functions as the subject of the sentence

  • grammatically treated as a neuter singular noun

  • in English can be translated as a gerund or an infinitive

  • Example

    • Errare est humanum.

    • To err is human.


Objective infinitives
Objective Infinitives

  • functions like a direct object

  • most commonly used with iubeo, iubere, iussi, iussus

  • treated like a neuter noun

  • example

    • Iubeo disciplinos studere.

    • I order the students to study.


Complementary infinitives
Complementary Infinitives

  • complete the meaning of an incomplete verb

  • most commonly used with a form of possum, debeo, paro, coepit, volo, nolo, cupio, incipio, necesse est, prohibeo and many other verbs that leave the reader hanging as to what is happening

  • example

    Plinius poterat videre Montem Vesusium de suam villam.

    Pliny was able to see Mount Vesuvius from his home.


  • Example

    • Necesseestaudire Roberto.

    • It is necessary for Robert to listen

    • PotestaudireRobertus.

    • Robert is able to listen.


The indirect statement
The Indirect Statement

  • used to report a statement

  • follows a verb of mental action such as saying, thinking, understanding, knowing, perceiving, et al.

  • subject of the indirect statement will used the accusative

  • verb of the indirect statement will be an infinitive

  • example

    • Scio Caesarem mortuus esse.

    • I know that Caesar is dead.


The infinitive of the indirect statement
The Infinitive of the Indirect Statement

  • The choice of the tense of the infinitive is relative to the main verb

    • same time = present

    • before = perfect

    • after = future

    • The first part of the perfect passive and future active infinitive will be in the accusative and will agree with the accusative subject.


Examples
Examples

  • scio eum stare in via.

    • I know he is standing in the road.

      • same time

  • Scio eum stetisse in via.

    • I know that he was standing in the road.

      • before

  • Scio eum staturum esse in via.

    • I know that he will stand in the road.

      • after


Indirect statement issues
Indirect Statement issues

  • The subject cannot be left understood; the accusative noun must be there.

  • If the subject of the indirect statement is the same as the main clause, you will use the reflexive pronoun.

    • example

      • Caesar scivit se debere non ferre Cleopatram Romam.

      • Caesar knew that he ought not to bring Cleopatra to Rome

        • debere is the indirect statemnent; ferre in complmentary, se is the subject accusative reflexive.


Infinitives issue 2
Infinitives Issue #2

  • A LATIN infinitive cannot ever be used to show purpose. To show purpose, you must use a subjunctive or a gerund/gerundive.

    • Example

      • I went to the store to buy shoes.

      • Ivi ad tabernam ut emerem soleas.


Subjunctives

Subjunctives

Special verbs in special clauses


Purpose clauses
PURPOSE CLAUSES

  • POSITIVE PURPOSE ( POSITIVE MEANS IT HAPPENS)

    • INTRODUCED BY UT

    • SHOWS THE PURPOSE OF AN ACTION

      • EXAMPLE

        • Pliniusscripsitutlaudaretsuamuxorem.

        • Pliny wrote so that he might praise his wife.


Purpose clauses1
PURPOSE CLAUSES

  • NEGATIVE PURPOSE ( WON’T HAPPEN)

    • INTRODUCED BY NE

    • SHOWS THE PURPOSE OF NOT DOING AN ACTION

    • EXAMPLE

      • Cicero comprehenditCatilinaemanum ne patriamvastarent.

      • Cicero arrested Catilina’s band of men so that they would not destroy the country.


Adverbial purpose
ADVERBIAL PURPOSE

  • INTRODUCED BY UBI

  • SHOWS WHY THE SUBJECT OF THE SENTENCE AS DONE SOMETHING

  • EXAMPLE

    • Cicero tempus exspectabatubiCatilinamverbisoppugnaret.

    • Cicero was awaiting a time when he might attack Catilina with words.


Relative clause of purpose
Relative clause of purpose

  • Introduced by a form of qui, quae, quod

  • Gives the purpose more closely connected with a noun or pronoun than a verb

  • Example

    • Cicero accepitepistulam quae explicaretCatilinaeconiurationem.

    • Cicero received a letter to explain Catilina’s conspiracy

    • Cicero received a letter which explained Catilina’s conspiracy.


Sequence of tenses
Sequence of tenses

Primary tenses (present, future, future perfect)

If the main verb is a secondary tense, use the following subjunctives to show proper relationship to the main verb:

same time/after: imperfect subjunctive

Before: pluperfect

Secondary Tenses (imperfect, perfect, pluperfect)

If the main verb is a primary tense, use the following subjunctives to show proper relationship to the main verb:

same time/after: present subjunctive

before: perfect subjunctive


Sequence of tenses1
Sequence of tenses

  • Caesar wrote the Gallic Commentaries so that people would not forget him.

  • Sallust wrote so that he might explain the Catiline conspiracy.

  • Brutus was awaiting a time when he might betray Caesar with a knife


Result clauses
Result Clauses

  • Shows the result of the main verb

    • Madge was so angry that she threw a platter at Herb.

  • Introduced by ut for something that did, will, or could happen

  • Introduced by ut plus a negative (ne, non, nullus, et al.) for something that did not, will not, could not happen

  • The main clause will usually contain a word that means “so” such as tam, sic, talis, tantus, tot, adeo;

  • These words should act as signals that a result clause is coming.

    • PompeuisIuliam tam amavitutcivitatemneglegaret.


Cum clauses
Cum Clauses

  • Temporal: establishes the time when something occurs

    • Verb will be indicative

    • Cum translated as when

  • Circumstantial: explain the circumstances under which something occurs

    • Verb will be subjunctive

    • Cum translated as since or when


Cum clauses continued
Cum Clauses continued

  • Causal: explains the reason something happens

    • Verb will be subjunctive

    • cum will translate as since or because

  • Concessive: explains something that may have blocked or hindered the main verb

    • Verb will be subjunctive

    • Cum will translate as although


  • Subjunctives in indirect speech
    Subjunctives in Indirect Speech

    • Indirect questions

      • Whenever a question is reported in a statement, this is an indirect statement.

        • I know what you are planning. Scio quid facias.

      • The main verb wil be a verb or asking or telling such as rogo, peto, quaero

      • The verb of the question portion will be subjunctive.

      • The question portion will be introduced by an interrogative word such as ubi, cur, quare, quo. Quis, quid, quo modo, quantus, qualis et al.


    Subjunctives in indirect speech1
    Subjunctives in Indirect speech

    • Indirect command: reports a direct command

      • Command portion will be subjunctive

      • Main verb will be a verb of commanding or persuading such as mando, impero, persuadeo, suadeo, moneo, oro, et al

      • The command portion will be introduced by ut for positive, ne for negative

        • Caesar imperavitmilitesuthostemoppugnaret.


    Subjunctives in indirect speech2
    Subjunctives in Indirect Speech

    • Clauses of fearing: with verbs or expressions of fear, what is feared will use the subjunctive

      • Use ne if you fear something will happen

        • Calupurniatimet ne Caesar interfectusesset a Bruto.

          Use ut if you fear something will not happen.

          Brutus timetutcivitassupersit.


    Expression of fear
    Expression of Fear

    Words of fear

    timeo, timere, timui

    vereor, vereri, veritus sum

    metus, metus

    pavor, pavoris

    terror, terroris

    extimesco, extimescere, extimui

    pertimesco, pertimescere, pertimui

    formido, formidinis

    formido, formidare

    timor, timoris


    Subordinate clauses in indirect discourse
    Subordinate clauses in indirect discourse

    • If you have a subordinate clause such as a relative clause inside an indirect statement, indirect question, or indirect command, put the verb of the indirect statement in the subjunctive

    • These sentences usually have three verbs.

      • Turducken sentences

        • Caesar ordered the soliders to attack the enemy who was hiding in the ditch.

          • Ordered main clause

          • Attack indirect command

          • Hiding discourse


    Relative clause of characteristic
    Relative Clause of Characteristic

    • Characterizes or describes a general or indefinite antecedent

    • Common after phrases such as est qui, sunt qui, nemoest qui, quisest qui

    • Use a subjunctive verb for the relative clause part

    • Usually translate as

      • Of that sort, the kind that …..

      • Quisestcliens quo interficiatsuumpatronum?


    Anticipation
    Anticipation

    • When an action is anticipated, when dum means until, and antequam or priusquam means before, use the subjuntive.

    • If these words introduce an actual fact, use the indicative.


    Conditionals
    Conditionals

    • Introduced by mostly by si, nisi, an

    • Simple Conditions will probably happen and use indicative verbs regardless of the tense.

      • If Caesar conquers Gaul, he will be powerful

      • Si Caesar vincitGalliam, eritpotens.

  • Future Conditionals can be one of two types: more vivid which will probably happen and uses future perfect and future indicative verbs and less vivid which is not likely to happen and uses the present subjunctive.


  • Conditionals continued
    Conditionals Continued

    • More Vivid

      • If she sees him, she will run.

        • Si videriteum, curret.

    • Less Vivid

      • If she should see him, she would run.

        • Si videateum, currat.

    • The writer uses the grammar to inform the reader of the likelihood of the conditional occurring.


    Conditionals continued1
    Conditionals continued

    • Contrary to Fact

      • Cannot happen or will not happen

      • Use imperfect subjuncive if English present

      • Use pluperfect subjunctive for past

      • If I were you, I would not do that.

        • Si essemte, ego non facerem id.

      • If I had known the facts, I would have acted more quickly.

        • Si cognovissemfacta, egissemcelerius.


    Main verb subjunctive hortatory
    Main Verb Subjunctive: Hortatory

    • Expresses a mild command or exhortation

    • Uses only the present subjuncitves

    • No introductory word for positive; use ne for negative

    • Translate with let or may

      • Ludiincipiant. Let the games begin.

    • Frequently used for blessing and curses


    Main verb subjunctive deliberative questions
    Main Verb Subjunctive: Deliberative Questions

    • Rhetorical questions implying doubt, indignation, surprise or impossibility

    • Usually introduced by an interrogative pronoun, adverb, or adjective

    • The writer is not expecting an answer.

    • Example

      • Why would anyone trust Brutus now?

      • Cur aliquiscredatBrutonunc?


    Main verb subjunctive optative
    Main verb Subjunctive: Optative

    • Expresses a wish

    • If the wish can come true, use the present subjunctive.

    • If the wish cannot come true, use imperfect subjunctive for present, pluperfect for past

    • Frequently introduced by utinam

    • Utinam Caesar non credidissetBruto

    • If only Caesar had not trusted Brutus


    Nouns
    Nouns

    • Definition: a word which shows a person, place, thing, or idea

    • Classification:

      • Number: singular or plural

      • Gender : masculine, feminine, neuter

      • Case: nominative, genitive, dative, accusative, ablative, vocative, locative



    • Vocabulary Listing vocabulary listing)

      • Nominative singular

      • Genitive singular

      • Gender

      • Definition

      • Example

        • Ursus, ursi m. bear


    First declension
    First declension vocabulary listing)

    • Singular plual

    • Nom a ae

    • Gen ae arum

    • Datae is

    • Acc am as

    • Abl a* is

    • Voc a ae


    2 nd masculine
    2 vocabulary listing)nd masculine

    • Singular plural

    • Nom us/er i

    • Gen i orum

    • Dat o is

    • Acc um os

    • Abl o* is

    • Voc e/er/i i


    2 nd neuter
    2 vocabulary listing)nd Neuter

    • Singular plural

    • Nom um a

    • Gen i orum

    • Dat o is

    • Acc um a

    • Abl o is

    • Voc um a


    3 rd declension masculine and feminine
    3 vocabulary listing)rd declension masculine and feminine

    • Singular plural

    • Nom varies es

    • Gen is um, ium*

    • Dat i ibus

    • Accemes

    • Abl e ibus

    • Voc repeat nom. es


    I stem rules
    I-stem Rules vocabulary listing)

    • For masculine and feminine nouns using “ium” for genitive plural

      • Mono syllable nom. Sing with base ending in two consonants

        • Nox, noctis yes

        • Pax, pacis no

      • Nominative singular ends with “is” or “es” and genitive and nominative have same number of sylables (parasyllabic)


    I stem rules1
    I-stem rules vocabulary listing)

    • Nominative singular ends with “ns” or “rs”

      • Pars, partis yes

  • For Neuter nouns: use “ium” for gen.sing, “ia” for nom. Pl, acc. Pl, voc pl. and “i” for abl. Sing

    • Basically just these nouns

      • Animal, animalis (animal)

      • Mare, maris(sea)

      • Calcar, calcaris(spur)


  • 4 th declension masculine and feminine
    4 vocabulary listing)th declension masculine and feminine

    • Singular plural

    • Nom us us

    • Gen us uum

    • Datuiibus

    • Acc um us

    • Abl u ibus

    • Voc us us


    5 th declension masculine and feminine
    5 vocabulary listing)th declension masculine and feminine

    • Singular plural

    • Nom eses

    • Gen eierum

    • Dateiebus

    • Accemes

    • Abl e ebus

    • Voceses


    The neuter rule
    The Neuter Rule vocabulary listing)

    • All neuter nouns, adjectives, and pronouns repeat their nominative form for their accusative and vocative. You must use subject verb agreement and context clues to determine the noun’s function in these cases.


    2 nd dec neuter
    2 vocabulary listing)nddec neuter

    • Sing pl

    • Nom um a

    • Gen i orum

    • Dat o is

    • Acc um a

    • Abl o is

    • Voc um a


    3 rd declension neuter
    3 vocabulary listing)rd declension neuter

    • Sing pl

    • Nom varies a, ia

    • Gen is um, ium

    • Dat i ibus

    • Acc repeat nom. a, ia

    • Abl e ibus

    • Voc repeat nom. a, ia


    4 th dec neuter
    4 vocabulary listing)thdec neuter

    • Sing pl

    • Nom u ua

    • Gen us uum

    • Dat u ibus

    • Acc u ua

    • Abl u ibus

    • Voc u ua


    Irregular noun vis vis f force violence
    Irregular Noun: vocabulary listing)vis, vis f. Force, violence

    • Sing pl

    • Nom vis vires

    • Gen visvirium

    • Datviriviribus

    • Acc vim vires

    • Abl vi viribus

    • Vocvis vires


    Nominative case
    Nominative Case vocabulary listing)

    • Subject: main noun of the sentence

      • With active verb, person or thing doing the verb

        • Quintillaservatinfantem.

      • With passive verbs, person or thing receiving the verb

        • Infansservatur a Quintilla.

      • Subject verb agreement:

        • A singular verb takes a singular subject.

        • A plural verb takes a plural subject

        • Examples

          • Puellavocat

          • Puellaevocant


    Nominative case1
    Nominative Case vocabulary listing)

    • Predicate Nominative: renames the subject after a linking verb ( some form of sum, esse, fui, futurus)

      • Quintillaestancilla.


    Vocative case
    Vocative Case vocabulary listing)

    • Used to call someone or something

      • Frequently used with imperatives and questions

      • Same endings as nominative except second declension masculine which uses an “e”

      • Example:

        • Sylvia, feraquam!


    Genitive case of
    Genitive case “of” vocabulary listing)

    • Possession

      • Whoever/whatever owns something = genitive

        • Cerberus eratPlutoniscanis.

    • Description

      • With an adjective, the genitive can modify a noun.

      • Caesar erat dux magnaevirtutis.

    • Quantity

      • Used with special adjectives that denote quantity such as satis, nimium, nimis, plus, plenus et al.

      • Whatever you have a quantity of uses the genitive

        • Titus bibitnimiumvini.


    Dative case to for
    Dative Case “to, for” vocabulary listing)

    • With necesseest

      • The person or things for whom it is necessary will use the dative

      • Necesseestmatriadiuvaresuosliberos.

    • Indirect Object

      • Shows to whom or for whom something is given, shown or told

      • DeditMarco pecuniam.


    Dative
    Dative vocabulary listing)

    • Special verbs

      • A group of verbs that take their direct object in the dative instead of the accusative

      • Some of these are:

        • Noceo, credo, pareo, placeo, placet, faveo, studeo, persuadeo, respondeo, appropinquo, obsto, prosum, expedio, cedo, licet, fido,opitulor, medeo, parco, resisto, invideo, irascor, minor, studeo, displicet, impero, suadeo, dissuadeo, libet

        • Credo meaematri.


    Dative1
    Dative vocabulary listing)

    • With compound verbs

      • Many compound verbs will use the dative for their direct object instead of the accusative

      • Verbs compounded with ad, ante, circum, con, in, inter, ob, post, prae, pro, sub, and super are most commonly used this way

      • Example

        • Omnibus eiusconsiliisoccurri.

        • I withstood all his plans

        • Occurri is a compound of ob and curro


    Accusative case
    Accusative Case vocabulary listing)

    • Direct Object:

      • Follows an action verb and answers who or what after the verb

        • This is noun the verb happens to

        • Caesar amatsuamuxorem et uxoresalterorumquoque.


    Accusative case1
    Accusative Case vocabulary listing)

    • Object of prepositions

      • Most Latin prepositions use the accusative case for their objects (ask what after the preposition)

      • In(into), ad (to,…) adversus (against), ante (before,…)apud (at,…)circiter (about), circum (around), cis (this side of) contra (against), erga (toward), infra (below), inter (between), intra (within), iuxta (next to), ob (on account of), per (through), post (after, behind), prope (near), praeter (beyond, past…), propter (on account of), secundum (following…), super (over…) supra (above), trans (across), ultra (beyond)

      • Ambulamus trans pontem.


    Ablative
    Ablative vocabulary listing)

    • Time: shows when

      • No preposition

      • Advenimusnocte.

    • Special prepositions: These prepositions use the ablative for their objects.

      • A, abs, ab (from, by), de (from, down, about), e,ex (from, out of), cum (with), prae (before, in front), pro ( for, in front of), sine (without), in (in), sub (under)

      • Sine aquamortuierunt.


    Ablative1
    Ablative vocabulary listing)

    • Place where: shows location

      • Use “in” or “sub”

      • In villahabitamus.

    • Place from: shows motion away from

      • Use “a,ab,abs,de,e,ex”

      • E villa ambulavi.

    • Cause : shows reason why without preposition

      • Suisvictoriislaetisunt.


    Ablative2
    Ablative vocabulary listing)

    • Manner: shows style or manner

      • Can use “cum” or can omit “cum” with an adjective

      • Curritcum celeritate.

      • Curritcum magna celeritate/magna celeritate.

    • Means: shows means or instrument used to accomplish an action

      • No preposition in Latin but translate with “by: or “with” into English

      • Vulneratuseratgladio.


    Ablative3
    Ablative vocabulary listing)

    • Personal Agent: person who does the action of a passive verb

      • Use preposition “a,ab”

      • A Marco vulneratusest.

    • Price: shows how much something costs

      • No preposition

      • Does not have to be money.

      • Vendamtibiporcumoctodenariis.

      • Vendamtibiporcumduobusamphorisvini.


    Time and space constructions
    Time and Space Constructions vocabulary listing)

    • Time

      • When = ablative without a preposition

        • At the fourth hour, we will sail.

        • Quartāhorānavigabimus.

      • Within which= Ablative with no preposition

        • Establishes a time frame but not a duration

        • Within this month we will sail.

        • Hācmensenavigabimus.

      • Duration of time = accusative with no preposition

        • Shows how long

        • For three months we will sail.

        • Tres menses navigabimus.


    • Place vocabulary listing)

      • Place from = ablative with a, ab,e, ex, de

        • Shows motion away from

        • With names of cities, towns, and small islands, the preposition can be omitted.

          • Navigabimus e Carthagine. ( optional preposition)

          • NavigabimusCarthagine. ( omitted preposition)

          • Navigabimus e Africā ( required preposition)


    • Place to = accusative plus prepositions “ad” ( to, toward, near)in (into), sub( up to, at the foot of)

      • Preposition can be omitted with small islands, cities and towns

      • Navigamus ad insulam. ( required preposition)

      • Navigamus ad Romam. ( optional preposition)

      • NavigamusRomam. (omitted preposition)

      • For domus (home) and rus ( country) use domum (to the house, home) and rus ( to the country)


    • Place where toward, near)in (into), sub( up to, at the foot of)

      • For normal nouns, use the ablative and the preposition “in” or “sub”

        • Habitavimus in multisvillis.

      • For cities, towns, small islands use the locative

        • First declension ae or arum

        • 2nd declension o or is

        • 3rd declension singular e or sometimes i

        • 3rd declension plural ibus

        • HabitavimusRomae.

        • For domus (home) or rus (country), domo for home, rure for countryside



    Adjectives

    Adjectives the accusative


    Adjectives1
    Adjectives the accusative

    • Definition: describes a noun or pronoun

      • What kind?

      • Which one?

      • How many?

    • Agreement: must agree in gender, number, and case with the modified noun (word being described)

      • Puerterrituscucurrit a cane magna.


    Gender rules
    Gender Rules the accusative

    • 1st declension = mostly feminine

    • 2nd declension

      • “Us/er” nominative singular = masculine

      • “Um” nominative singular = neuter

    • 3rd declension: usually what makes sense but not always

      • “tor” = masc

      • “trix” = feminine


    • 4 the accusativeth declension

      • “us” nominative singular = masculine

      • “u” nominative singular = neuter

    • 5th declension= mostly feminine


    Substantives
    Substantives the accusative

    • Sometimes the modified noun/pronoun is left out of the sentence. When there is no word which agrees in gender, number, and case with the adjective, you must supply in English the understood/implied noun based on the gender, number, and case.

      • Masc sing = man; masc pl. = men

      • Feminine sing= woman; feminine pl = women

      • Neuter sing = thing; neuter pl = things

        • Bonus expectabat bona.

        • The good (man) was expecting good (things).


    First and second declension adjectives
    First and Second Declension Adjectives the accusative

    • Nominative patterns: masculine, feminine, neuter

      • “us, a, um”

      • “er, a, um”

    • Base = feminine nominative singular minus “a”

      • Bonus, bona, bonum = bon

      • Sacer, sacra, sacrum = sacr


    Masculine
    Masculine the accusative

    • Singular plural

    • Nom us/er i

    • Gen i orum

    • Dat o is

    • Acc um os

    • Abl o is

    • Voc e/i/er i


    Feminine
    Feminine the accusative

    • Singular plural

    • Nom a ae

    • Gen ae arum

    • Datae is

    • Acc am as

    • Abl a* is

    • Voc a ae


    Neuter
    Neuter the accusative

    • Singular plural

    • Nom um a

    • Gen i orum

    • Dat o is

    • Acc um a

    • Abl o is

    • Voc um a


    Third declension adjectives
    Third Declension Adjectives the accusative

    • Nominative patterns:

      • “er, is, e” = masc, fem, neut

      • “is, e” = masc and fem, neut

      • “?, is” = masc,fem, neut nom sing; masc, fem, neut gen sing.

    • Base = remove “is”

      • Celer, celeris, celere = celer

      • Fortis, forte = fort

      • Audax, audacis = audac


    Masculine and feminine
    Masculine and Feminine the accusative

    • Singular plural

    • Nom ???? Es

    • Gen is ium

    • Dat i ibus

    • Accemes

    • Abl i ibus

    • Voc repeat nom es


    Neuter1
    Neuter the accusative

    • Singular plural

    • Nom ?????? ia

    • Gen is ium

    • Dat i ibus

    • Acc repeat nom. ia

    • Abl i ibus

    • Voc repeat nom. ia


    Irregular adjectives
    Irregular Adjectives the accusative

    • A small group of adjectives that show non-specific quantities are irregular in the genitive singular and dative singular. The plurals are normal

    • Masculine feminine neuter

    • us/er a um

    • iusiusius

    • i i i

    • um am um

    • o a o


    Irregular adjectives1
    Irregular Adjectives the accusative

    • Listed below are the irregular adjectives:

      • Alius, alia, aliud other

      • Nullus, nulla, nullum none, not any

      • Ullus, ulla, ullum any, some

      • Solus, sola, solum alone, only

      • Totus, tota, totum total, whole, all

      • Unus, una, unum one, only

      • Alter, altera, alterum another

      • Uter, utra, utrum each


    Pronouns
    Pronouns the accusative

    • Lovely little words that take the place of nouns

    • Pronoun agreement: gender and number come from antecedent(replaced noun) but case comes from use in clause

    • Types of Pronouns

      • Personal pronouns : 1st, 2nd, 3rd. ( I, we, me, us, you, he, she, it, they)


    • Demonstrative Pronouns: points out which one the accusative

      • This, that, these, those

      • Can also be used as personal pronouns

    • Relative pronouns: introduce relative clauses and give more information about the antecedent

      • Who, which, whom, whose, what

    • Interrogative Pronouns: introduce questions

      • Who, what, which, whose, whom

    • Reflexive: refer to the subject

      • Himself, herself, itself, themselves, myself, yourself



    Personal pronouns
    Personal Pronouns the accusative

    • FIRST PERSON I, ME WE, US

    • NOM EGO NOS

    • GEN MEI** NOSTRUM**

    • DAT MIHI NOBIS

    • ACC ME NOS

    • ABL*** ME NOBIS

    • **TO SHOW POSSESSION, USE THE ADJECTIVES MEUS, MEA,MEUM OR NOSTER, NOSTRA, NOSTRUM

    • ***mecum, nobiscum = with me/ with us


    • 2 the accusativeND PERSON YOU YOU, Y’ALL

    • NOM TU VOS

    • GEN TUI** VESTRUM**

    • DAT TIBI VOBIS

    • ACC TE VOS

    • ABL *** TE VOBIS

    • **TO SHOW POSSESSION, USE THE ADJECTIVES TUUS, TUA, TUUM OR VESTER, VESTRA, VESTRUM

    • ***TECUM , VOBISCUM = WITH YOU


    • 3 the accusativerd person singular

      • Masc fem neuter

    • IS EA ID

    • EIUS EIUS EIUS

    • EI EI EI

    • EUM EAM ID

    • EO* EA* EO


    • 3 the accusativeRD PERSON PLURAL

      • MASC FEM NEUTER

    • EI EAE EA

    • EORUM EARUM EORUM

    • EIS EIS EIS

    • EOS EAS EA

    • EIS EIS EIS


    Demonstrative pronouns this these
    Demonstrative Pronouns: this, these the accusative

    • Points out which one

    • Can be used as pronoun or adjective

    • Singular

      • Mascu fem neuter

      • Hic haec hoc

      • Huiushuiushuius

      • Huichuichuic

      • Hunchanc hoc

      • Hoc* hac* hoc*


    • Plural the accusative

      • Masc fem neuter

      • Hi haehaec

      • Horumharumhorum

      • His his his

      • Hos has haec

      • His his his


    Demonstrative pronoun that those
    Demonstrative Pronoun: that, those the accusative

    • Also points out which one but further away than this, these

    • Singular

      • Masc fem neut

      • illeillaillud

      • illiusilliusillius

      • illiilliilli

      • Illumillamillud

      • illo* illa* illo*


    • Plural the accusative

      • Masc fem neut

      • illiillaeilla

      • illorumillarumillorum

      • illisillisillis

      • illosillasilla

      • illisillisillis


    Demonstrative pronouns
    Demonstrative Pronouns the accusative

    • The pronoun “is, ea, id “ found on page _____ can also be used as a demonstrative pronoun.

      • It can be used to mean “this, that, those, these”

    • All demonstrative pronouns can also be used as third person (he, she, it, they, him, her, them) personal pronouns as long as they are not reflexive to the subject.

      • For reflexive pronouns for third person see page ______


    Emphatic demonstrative
    Emphatic Demonstrative the accusative

    • Translates as “the same”

    • Singular

      • Idem eadem idem

      • Eiusdemeiusdemeiusdem

      • Eidemeidemeidem

      • Eundemeandem idem

      • Eodemeādemeodem


    • Plural the accusative

      • Eidemeaedemeadem

      • Eorundemearundemeorundem

      • Eisdemeisdemeisdem

      • Eosdemeasdemeadem

      • Eisdemeisdemeisdem


    Relative pronouns
    Relative Pronouns the accusative

    • Function: introduces a relative clause

      • Gives more information about the antecedent

      • Relates back to the antecedent

        • I know that boy who was running down the street.

        • Scio illumpuerum qui currebat de via.

    • Basic translations: who, which, what, whose, whom


    • Agreement: must agree with the antecedent in gender and number but gets its case from the use in the relative clause

      • I know the boy who was running down the street.

      • Who refers to boy

        • Therefore it will be masculine and singular

        • It is the subject of its clause

          • Therefore it will be nominative


    Relative singular
    Relative Singular number but gets its case from the use in the relative

    • Singular

      • Masculine feminine neuter

      • QUI QUAE QUOD

      • CUIUS CUIUS CUIUS

      • CUI CUI CUI

      • QUEM QUAM QUOD

      • QUO* QUA* QUO*


    Relative plural
    Relative Plural number but gets its case from the use in the relative

    • Plural

    • Masculine feminine neuter

    • QUI QUAE QUAE

    • QUORUM QUARUM QUORUM

    • QUIBUS QUIBUS QUIBUS

    • QUOS QUAS QUAE

    • QUIBUS QUIBUS QUIBUS


    Interrogative pronouns
    Interrogative Pronouns number but gets its case from the use in the relative

    • Introduce a question

    • Follow the rules of agreement

    • Singular

      • Masc fem neuter

      • Quisquis quid

      • Cuiuscuiuscuius

      • Cui cui cui

      • Quem quam quid

      • Quōquāquō


    • Plural number but gets its case from the use in the relative

    • Masc fem neuter

    • Qui quae quae

    • Quorum quarum quorum

    • Quibusquibusquibus

    • Quos quas quae

    • Quibusquibusquibus


    • Examples number but gets its case from the use in the relative

      • Quisestu?

      • Who are you?

      • Quid facis?

      • What are you doing?


    Third person reflexive pronoun
    Third Person Reflexive Pronoun number but gets its case from the use in the relative

    • Forms

      • Nominative None

      • Genitive **sui

      • Dative sibi

      • Accusative se or sese

      • Ablative se or sese

      • Vocative none

      • **use the possessive adjective suus, sua, suum declined in the first and second declension to show possession.


    Usage of reflexive pronouns
    Usage of Reflexive Pronouns number but gets its case from the use in the relative

    • Must reflect the subject

    • Usually translated by adding “-self”

    • Must be essential to the sentence; removing the pronoun would change the meaning.

      • Interfecit se. He killed himself. ( “Himself” is essential and reflexive)

      • Interfecitmilitem ipse. He killed the soldier himself. (“Himself” only add emphasis and can be omitted without changing the meaning of the sentence)


    Personal possession
    Personal Possession number but gets its case from the use in the relative

    • To show possession with 1st person, 2nd person, and 3rd person reflexive

      • Use possessive adjectives which agree in gender, number, and case with the modified noun.

      • I lost my book. Meumlibrum

      • I lost your book tuumlibrum

      • I lost our book nostrum librum

      • I lost your (pl) book. Vestrumlibrum

        • In spite of the fact that I am feminine, I use the masculine to agree with the book which is masculine.


    Non reflexive possession
    Non-reflexive possession number but gets its case from the use in the relative

    • Use the genitive to show non-reflexive possession( meaning doesn’t belong to the subject)

      • Mychal non amatsuumcanem. ( The dog belongs to Mychal)

      • Mychal non amateiuscanem (the dog belongs to someone else)


    Intensive pronouns
    Intensive Pronouns number but gets its case from the use in the relative

    • Only provide emphasis; can be removed without changing the meaning

    • Translate with –self

    • Singular

    • Masc fem neut

    • Ipse ipsaipsum

    • Ipsiusipsiusipsius

    • Ipsiipsiipsi

    • Ipsumipsamipsum

    • Ipso ipsā ipso


    • Plural number but gets its case from the use in the relative

    • Ipsiipsaeipsa

    • Ipsorumipsarumipsorum

    • Ipsisipsisipsis

    • Ipsosipsasipsa

    • Ipsisipsisipsis


    Indefinite pronouns
    Indefinite Pronouns number but gets its case from the use in the relative

    • Definition: some, certain

    • Forms

      • Quidamquaedamquoddam

      • Cuiusdamcuiusdamcuiusdam

      • Cuidamcuidamcuidam

      • Quendamquandamquoddam

      • Quodamquādamquodam


    • Quidam number but gets its case from the use in the relative quaedamquaedam

    • Quorundamquarundamquorundam

    • Quibusdamquibusdamquibusdam

    • Quosdamquasdamquaedam

    • Quibusdamquibusdamquibusdam


    Those awful q words
    Those Awful “q” words number but gets its case from the use in the relative

    • 1. It’s perfectly okay to hate them.

    • 2. “Qui Quae Quod” are relative pronouns

      • Will give more information about a noun or pronoun

      • Will be in a sentence with at least two verbs

      • Marcus estpuer qui amatFerocem.

  • 3. Interrogative Pronouns “Quis, Quid”

    • Usually asks a direct questions although sometimes asking an indirect question ( will have subjunctive verb)

    • Quid facitillumstrepitum? What is that noise?

    • Rogaviquisfaceretillumstrepitum. I asked who was making that noise.


    • 4. Quod number but gets its case from the use in the relative

      • If there’s a neuter noun, it might be a pronoun meaning “which”

        • Faciemusiter quod crasincipiet.

        • We will make a journey which will begin tomorrow.

      • If there is no neuter noun, probably a conjunction meaning “because”

        • Discessimus quod non amavimusillamcenam.

        • We left because we didn’t like that food


    • 5. Quam number but gets its case from the use in the relative

      • If only one verb, probably not a pronoun. It needs something feminine to refer to.

      • If used with an adverb, it means “how”

        • Quam celeritercurrit!

      • With a comparative it means “than”

        • Sextusestmolestior quam Marcus

      • With a superlative it means “as possible”

        • Sextuscurrit quam celerrime.


    How to translate a latin sentence and remain sane

    How to translate a Latin Sentence and remain sane number but gets its case from the use in the relative


    The process
    The Process number but gets its case from the use in the relative

    • 1. Read the whole sentence in Latin. If it clicks, consider yourself blessed. If not, start taking it apart like you would a math problem.

    • 2. Always keep your sentence in context of the passage. Reread the previous sentence before you start. IT HAS TO MAKE SENSE! Make predictions in your mind about what that sentence might say.




    Passive Verb you have.

    could be one form or two part verb

    r/ris/tur/mur/mini/ntur

    us,a, um /i,ae,aplus some form of sum


    Pattern one slvpn
    Pattern One: SLVPN you have.

    • Linking verb:

      • Figure out the subject:

        • o/m I

        • S you

        • T he, she, it or a nominative singular

        • Mus we

        • Tis you pl

        • Nt they or a plural nominative

      • Find the predicate nominative which will be in the nominative case and will rename the subject; sometimes you will have a predicate adjective to describe your subject.


    Examples1
    Examples you have.

    • Elephantisuntingentes.

      Sunt is a linking verb;

      Ends with nt; therefore the subject must be either THEY or a NOMINATIVE PLURAL

      The elephants are

      Is there a word in the nominative that either renames or describes the subject

      The elephants are huge.

      ElephantierantarmaHannibalis.

      Elephanti subject

      Arma predicate nominative

      Hannibalis genitive modifier


    Pattern two action verb
    Pattern two: action verb you have.

    • Figure out your subject:

      • o/m I

      • S you

      • T he,she, it nominative singular

      • Mus we

      • Tis you pl

      • Nt they nominative plural

      • Then you know who is doing the verb.

      • Then look for the accusative to receive the verb.


    Examples2
    Examples you have.

    • Stultuspuerpuellampulsat.

      • Pulsat action verb

        • Ends with t: nominative singular subject

        • Puerpulsat The boy hits

        • Puellam = accusative

        • The boy hits the girl.

    • Puellastultumpuerumpulsat.

      • Pulsat hits

      • Puella girl nominative singular

      • Puerumacc

      • The girl hits the stupid boy.


    Pattern 3 passive verbs
    Pattern 3: Passive Verbs you have.

    • Passive verb

      • Two part verbs are easier; the endings on the first part tells you the gender of the subject

        • R= I

        • Ris = you

        • Tur = he, she, it or nominative singular

        • Mur = we

        • Mini= you pl

        • Ntur= they or nominative plural

      • Then look for the ablative to show who or what does the verb


    Examples3
    Examples you have.

    • Puellapulsataest a puero.

      • Pulsataest she was hit

      • Puella nominative singular

      • The girl was hit

      • A puero ablative of personal agent

      • The girl was hit by the boy.


    • Mea you have.filiaestdisciplinus.

    • My daughter is a student.

    • Mea filiaterramstudet.

    • Me filiaestdisciplinus quae terramstudet.


    What do i do with all those other words
    What do I do with all those other words? you have.

    • Translate using the Socratic method. Ask yourself questions.

      • Whose? Genitive

      • To whom/for whom dative

      • What kind? Genitive, adjective, ablative

      • How? Ablative

      • Why? Ablative, dative

      • When? Ablative

      • Where? Ablative

      • How far? Accusative




    The process1
    The Process you have.

    • 1. Read the whole sentence in Latin. If it clicks, consider yourself blessed. If not, start taking it apart like you would a math problem.

    • 2. Always keep your sentence in context of the passage. Reread the previous sentence before you start. IT HAS TO MAKE SENSE! Make predictions in your mind about what that sentence might say.




    Passive Verb you have.

    could be one form or two part verb

    r/ris/tur/mur/mini/ntur

    us,a, um /i,ae,aplus some form of sum


    Pattern one slvpn1
    Pattern One: SLVPN you have.

    • Linking verb:

      • Figure out the subject:

        • o/m I

        • S you

        • T he, she, it or a nominative singular

        • Mus we

        • Tis you pl

        • Nt they or a plural nominative

      • Find the predicate nominative which will be in the nominative case and will rename the subject; sometimes you will have a predicate adjective to describe your subject.


    Examples4
    Examples you have.

    • Elephantisuntingentes.

      Sunt is a linking verb;

      Ends with nt; therefore the subject must be either THEY or a NOMINATIVE PLURAL

      The elephants are

      Is there a word in the nominative that either renames or describes the subject

      The elephants are huge.

      ElephantierantarmaHannibalis.

      Elephanti subject

      Arma predicate nominative

      Hannibalis genitive modifier


    Pattern two action verb1
    Pattern two: action verb you have.

    • Figure out your subject:

      • o/m I

      • S you

      • T he,she, it nominative singular

      • Mus we

      • Tis you pl

      • Nt they nominative plural

      • Then you know who is doing the verb.

      • Then look for the accusative to receive the verb.


    Examples5
    Examples you have.

    • Stultuspuerpuellampulsat.

      • Pulsat action verb

        • Ends with t: nominative singular subject

        • Puerpulsat The boy hits

        • Puellam = accusative

        • The boy hits the girl.

    • Puellastultumpuerumpulsat.

      • Pulsat hits

      • Puella girl nominative singular

      • Puerumacc

      • The girl hits the stupid boy.


    Pattern 3 passive verbs1
    Pattern 3: Passive Verbs you have.

    • Passive verb

      • Two part verbs are easier; the endings on the first part tells you the gender of the subject

        • R= I

        • Ris = you

        • Tur = he, she, it or nominative singular

        • Mur = we

        • Mini= you pl

        • Ntur= they or nominative plural

      • Then look for the ablative to show who or what does the verb


    Examples6
    Examples you have.

    • Puellapulsataest a puero.

      • Pulsataest she was hit

      • Puella nominative singular

      • The girl was hit

      • A puero ablative of personal agent

      • The girl was hit by the boy.


    • Mea you have.filiaestdisciplinus.

    • My daughter is a student.

    • Mea filiaterramstudet.

    • Me filiaestdisciplinus quae terramstudet.


    What do i do with all those other words1
    What do I do with all those other words? you have.

    • Translate using the Socratic method. Ask yourself questions.

      • Whose? Genitive

      • To whom/for whom dative

      • What kind? Genitive, adjective, ablative

      • How? Ablative

      • Why? Ablative, dative

      • When? Ablative

      • Where? Ablative

      • How far? Accusative



    Degree

    DEGREE you have.

    ADJECTIVES AND ADVERBS: positive, comparative, and superlative


    Degree of adjectives
    DEGREE OF ADJECTIVES you have.

    • An adjective has three degrees.

      • Positive is the basic form without any changes for emphasis.

      • Comparative is the next step to show more emphasis. The word will become larger itself by adding ior.

      • Superlative is the top step. The adjective becomes even longer by adding usually issim.


    Degree of adjectives1
    Degree of adjectives you have.

    Miles est altus. The soldier is tall.

    positive

    Hic miles est altior. This soldier is taller.

    comparative.

    Ille miles est altissimus. That soldier is the tallest.

    superlative


    Positive
    POSITIVE you have.

    • The positive form is the most basic. Remember it must always change, based on its declension, to agree with the modified noun in gender, number, and case.

      • Positive adjectives are either classified as

        • First and second declension

        • Third declension

      • Any adjective can be adjusted to modify any noun.


    Comparative
    COMPARATIVE you have.

    • The comparative form is the second degree.

    • Its can be translated by:

      • Adding er to the positive altior taller

      • Using the word morealtior more tall

      • Adding the word ratheraltior rather tall

      • Adding tooaltior too tall


    Forming comparatives
    Forming Comparatives you have.

    • To make a comparative adjective

      • Begin with the base of the adjective

        • For first and second declensions, this will be the feminine nominative singular minus a

        • For third declension, it will be the second form from the vocabulary listing minus is.

      • Add ior for masculine and feminine; add ius for neuter. This will make the two nominativesingular forms.


    Declining comparatives
    DECLINING COMPARATIVES you have.

    • Once you have added ior, ius, the new comparative adjective becomes a third declension adjective regardless of how it started.

      • Altus alta altum positive 1st and 2nd

      • Altior, altius comparative 3rd


    Declining comparatives1
    Declining Comparatives you have.

    • To decline your new comparative, leave the ior on all forms except the neuter nominative singular and the neuter accusative singular for which you will use theius form.

    • The new ior is the new base. This is your sign that the adjective is comparative.

    • Add third declension noun endings to make the comparative agree with its noun in gender, number, and case.


    Comparative endings

    Masculine and feminine you have.

    Nom ior iores

    Gen ioris iorum

    Dat iori ioribus

    Acc iorem iores

    Abl iore ioribus

    Neuter

    Nom iusiora

    Gen ioris iorum

    Dat iori ioribus

    Acc ius iora

    Abl iore ioribus

    Comparative endings


    Examples remember there are alternate translations
    Examples you have.(Remember there are alternate translations)

    • Servus altior vinum bibit. (masc. Nom. sing.)

      • The taller slave drank the wine..

    • Amicus altioris servi quoque vinum bibit.(masc. Gen . Sing.)

      • The friend of the taller slave also drank wine.

    • Amicus altiori servo cibum dedit.(masc dat sing)

      • The friend gave food to the taller slave.


    Examples7
    examples you have.

    • Ancilla altiorem servum maluit. (masc. Acc. Sing.)

      • The slavegirl preferred the taller slave.

    • Ancilla e popina cum altiore servo discessit.(masc. Abl. Sing.)

      • The slavegirl left the bar with the taller slave.

    • (Why don’t the adjective and noun have the same endings if they agree?)


    Superlatives
    Superlatives you have.

    • The superlative is the highest degree. It will be a very long word.

    • It can be translated by:

      • Adding estaltissimustallest

      • Adding very altissimusvery tall

      • Adding mostaltissimusmost tall

        Use proper English when translating; goodest is not a word.


    Forming superlatives
    Forming Superlatives you have.

    • For most adjectives, form the superlative by adding issim plus first and seconddeclension endings. All superlative adjectives are now first and second declension.

      • Altissimus,-a, -um tallest

      • Brevissimus,-a, -um shortest


    Declension of superlatives singular
    Declension of superlatives Singular you have.

    • Masc fem neuter

      • issimus issima issimum nom sing

      • issimi issimae issimi gen sing

      • issimo issimae issimo dat sing

      • issimum issimam issimum acc sing

      • issimo issima* issimo abl sing


    Declension of superlatives plural
    Declension of Superlatives Plural you have.

    • Masc fem neut

      • issimi issimae issima nom pl

      • issimorum issimarum issimorum gen. Pl

      • issimis issimis issimis dat pl

      • issimos issimas issima acc pl

      • issimis issimis issimis abl pl


    Er superlatives
    Er you have. Superlatives

    • Some adjectives for which either the nominative singular or the base ends with er will not use the issim; instead you will add rim (effectively doubling the r which you should roll when you say it) plus first and second declension endings

      • Pulcherrimus, -a, -um most beautiful

      • Celerrimus, -a, -um fastest


    Examples8
    Examples you have.

    • Olivia est pulcherrima puella.

      • Olivia is the most beautiful girl. Fem. Nom. Sing

    • Pueri pulcherrimas puellas spectare amant.

      • The boys love to watch the most beautiful girls. Fem .acc. Pl.


    Double l superlatives
    Double you have.L superlatives

    • A small group (six) of adjectives whose base endsin il will use limus (effectively doubling the l which you should trill) to form their superlatives. These adjectives are:

      • Facilisfacillimus, -a, -um easiest

      • Difficilisdifficillimus, -a, -um most difficult

      • Similissimillimus, -a, -um most similar

      • Dissimilisdissimillimus, -a,-um most different

      • Gracilisgracillimus, -a, -um most slender

      • Humilishumillimus, -a, -um most humble


    The irregulars
    The Irregulars you have.

    • Changing degree usually follows the patterns described, making the words progressively longer and more impressive as the degree increases. However, just like in English, many words have irregular degree. We don’t say bad, badder, baddest; instead we say bad, worse, worst. Good doesn’t become gooder, then goodest; instead we use good, better, best.


    Irregulars
    Irregulars you have.

    • Memorize the following irregulars:

      • Bonus melior, meliusoptimus

      • Maluspeior, peiuspessimus

      • Magnusmaior, maiusmaximus

      • Parvus minor, minusminimus

      • Multus *plus/ plures, pluraplurimus

        • *neuter substantive


    Special grammar structures with degree
    Special grammar structures with degree you have.

    • The superlative is frequently used with a partitive genitive or genitive of the whole.

      • Olivia est pulcherrima puella omnium.

      • Olivia is the most beautiful girl of all.


    Using quam with comparatives
    Using quam with comparatives you have.

    • When comparing two things with quam:

      • The two objects must be in the same case.

      • Quam means than

      • Flavia est pulchrior quam Cornelia.

        • Both are nominitive.

        • Quam links the two as than


    Ablative of comparison
    Ablative of Comparison you have.

    • When using an ablative of comparison, the first item must be either nominative or accusative.

    • The second item is ablative without a preposition.

      • Flavia est pulchrior Cornelia*.

      • Flavia is prettier than Cornelia.


    Ablative of degree of difference
    Ablative of Degree of Difference you have.

    • Used to show how much of a comparison in reference to the comparative adjective. ( functions somewhat like an adverb)

      • Multo much

      • Paulo a little

    • No preposition is used.

      • Nostri milites sunt multo fortiores illis militibus.

      • Our soldiers are much more brave than those soldiers.


    Adverbs

    ADVERBS you have.

    FRIENDLY, EASIER TO GET ALONG WITH, IMPOSSIBLE TO DECLINE


    Adverbs1
    ADVERBS you have.

    • Adverbs modify verbs, ( adverb = to the verb), adjectives, and other adverbs. They limit these words.

      • When?

      • How?

      • To what extent?

      • He walks quickly. Ambulat celeriter.


    Adverbs2
    Adverbs you have.

    • Adverbs agree automatically. They cannot be declined; just put them in the sentence where you need them. Many adverbs are independently made (not made from another word) such as mox, hodie, cras etc. Others are made from adjectives in their positive form.


    Degree of adverbs positive
    Degree of adverbs : Positive you have.

    • The positive adverb is made one of two ways:

      • 1st and 2nd dec adjectives = remove a from feminine nominative singular and add e

        latus lata, latum wide late widely

        3rd dec usually add er, ter, or iter

        brevis, breve short breviter shortly


    Degree of adverbs comparative
    Degree of adverbs: Comparative you have.

    • The second degree or comparative is formed by using the neuter comparative adjective (ius). Just check to be certain it is not modifying a neuter noun. Translate with more.

      • Pugnavit gravius. He fought more seriously.

        • Adverb in comparative degree

      • Hoc est gravius bellum. This is a more serious war.

        • Adjective modifying the neuter noun bellum


    Superlative adverbs
    Superlative adverbs you have.

    • Change the “us” to an “e” on the superlative adjectives

      • Latissimus = latissime

      • Widest = most widely

    • When used with “quam”, translate “as ______ as possible”

      • Quam latissime as quickly as possible


    Participles

    Participles you have.

    What they are, what they do, and how you make and use them


    What is a participle
    What is a participle? you have.

    • Verbal adjective

      • A hybrid-type adjective built from a verb

      • As an adjective, it describes a noun or pronoun and must agree in gender, number, and case

        • The captured slaves were going to the arena for the lions.

        • Captured tells you which slaves and must agree with slaves in gender, number, and case. In this sentence it would be masculine, nominative plural.

        • Capti servi ad arenam leonibus ibant.


    Participles definition continued
    Participles Definition continued you have.

    • As a verb, a participle retains the idea of an action.

      • Capti servi ad arenam leonibus ibant.

      • Multi servi ad arenam leonibus ibant.

      • Captured is something you can do as opposed to many. You cannot many.


    Verbal qualities of participles tense
    Verbal qualities of Participles: Tense you have.

    • As a verb, a participle has tense.

      • Participles come in three tenses: Perfect, Present, and Future


    Perfect tense
    Perfect tense you have.

    • Perfect happens before the main verb

      • The lions ate the captured slaves.

      • Leones captos servos consumpserunt.

        • The slaves had already been captured before the lions ate them.


    Present tense

    Present tense you have.

    Present happens at the same time as the main verb.

    The lions were chasing the fleeing slaves.

    Leones fugientes servos agitabant.

    The lions were chasing the slaves as they were fleeing


    Future tense
    Future Tense you have.

    • Future happens after the main verb.

      • Intending to escape, the slave pushed his friend toward the lion.

      • Fugiturus servus amicum suum ad leonem propulit.

        • The slave pushed his friend to the lion as a distraction so that he could escape while the lion was munching on his friend.


    Verbal qualities of participles voice
    Verbal Qualities of Participles: Voice you have.

    • As a verb, a participle has voice (active or passive).

    • As a verb, the participle ( present and future) can take an object.

      • Intending to eat the slave, the lion attacked.

      • Consumpturus servum, leo oppugnavit.

        • Servum is the object of consumpturus.


    Present active
    Present active you have.

    • Present participles are active. The modified noun does the participle.

      • The screaming slave ran from the lion.

      • Clamans servus effugit e leone.

        • The slave is being described by clamans and he is the one doing the clamans.


    Perfect passive participles
    Perfect Passive participles you have.

    • Perfect participles are passive. The modified noun receives the participle and is frequently accompanied by an ablative of personal agent or an ablative of means.

      • The slave having been attacked by the lion screamed loudly.

      • Servus oppugnatus a leone vehementer clamavit.

        • The slave is being described by oppugnatus but the lion is actually doing the oppugnatus.


    Future active
    Future active you have.

    • Future participles are active. The modified noun does the participle.

      • The lion intending to eat the slave attacked ferociously.

      • Leo comsumpturus servum ferociter petivit.

        • The lion is being described by consumpturus and in the near future will be doing consumpturus.


    Perfect active participles
    Perfect active participles you have.

    • Only exists for deponent verbs

    • Will look like a perfect passive but will translate actively

      • Will not be used with ablative of personal agent or means

      • Examples

        • Ingressus arenam, leo Christianum consumpsit.

        • Having entered the arena, the lion ate the Christian.


    Voice practice
    Voice practice you have.

    • Choose one of the verbs from the first list and write an English sentence for each participle:

      • Present active

      • Perfect passive

      • Future active


    Verbal qualities of participles objects
    Verbal qualities of participles: objects you have.

    • As a verb, the participle ( present and future) can take an object.

      • Intending to eat the slave, the lion attacked.

      • Consumpturus servum, leo oppugnavit.

        • Servum is the object of consumpturus.

        • Consumpturus modifies leo and agree with leo.


    Forming participles

    Forming participles you have.

    Present active

    Perfect passive

    Perfect active

    Future active


    Present active participles
    Present Active Participles you have.

    • Begin with the infinitive

      • Remove RE for most verbs

      • Add NS, NTIS for the nominative singular and genitive singular

      • Decline as 3rd declension adjective except ablative singular can be I or E

      • Base =genitive singular minus is

    • Translation : ----ing, while ----ling


    Present active participle sample

    Masculine and feminine you have.

    NS NTES

    NTIS NTIUM

    NTI NTIBUS

    NTEM NTES

    NTI NTIBUS

    NTE

    Loving, while loving

    Neuter

    NS NTIA

    NTIS NTIUM

    NTI NTIBUS

    NS NTIA

    NTI NTIBUS

    NTE

    Loving, while loving

    Present active participle sample


    Perfect passive participle
    PERFECT PASSIVE PARTICIPLE you have.

    • Already made for you

    • Fourth principal part of the verb

      • Amo, amare, amavi, amatus

    • Base = fourth principal part minus us

    • Decline using first and second declension endings

      • Masculine second declension

      • Feminine first declension

      • Neuter second declension neuter

  • TRANSLATION: HAVING BEEN ___ED, _____ED, AFTER BEING _____ED


  • Perfect passive participle sample singular
    Perfect passive participle sample singular you have.

    • Masculine feminine neuter

    • Amatus amata amatum

    • Amati amatae amati

    • Amato amatae amato

    • Amatum amatam amatum

    • Amato amata amato

      • Having been loved, loved, after being loved


    Perfect passive participle sample plural
    Perfect passive participle sample plural you have.

    • Masculine feminine neuter

    • Amati amatae amata

    • Amatorum amatarum amatorum

    • Amatis amatis amatis

    • Amatos amatas amatis

    • Amatis amatis amatis


    Perfect active participle formation
    Perfect active participle Formation you have.

    • Already made for you

    • Only for deponent verbs

    • Third principal part of the deponent verbs

    • Base = third principal part minus us

      • Sequor, sequi, secutus sum = secut

      • Decline like perfect passive, just translate actively

        • Having followed secutus

    • TRANSLATION: HAVING -----ED, AFTER _____ING


    Future active participle formation
    Future active participle formation you have.

    • Begin with the perfect passive participle or 4th principal part ( Use the third principal part for a deponent)

    • Remove us

    • Add ur

    • Add first declension for feminine, 2nd masculine for masculine, 2nd neuter for neuter


    Future active participle
    FUTURE ACTIVE PARTICIPLE you have.

    • TRANSLATION: ABOUT TO _____, INTENDING TO ______, GOING TO _____


    Future active participle masculine

    SINGULAR you have.

    AMATURUS

    AMATURI

    AMATURO

    AMATURUM

    AMATURO

    PLURAL

    AMATURI

    AMATURORUM

    AMATURIS

    AMATUROS

    AMATURIS

    FUTURE ACTIVE PARTICIPLE MASCULINE


    Future active participle feminine

    SINGULAR you have.

    AMATURA

    AMATURAE

    AMATURAE

    AMATURAM

    AMATURA

    PLURAL

    AMATURAE

    AMATURARUM

    AMATURIS

    AMATURAS

    AMATURIS

    FUTURE ACTIVE PARTICIPLE FEMININE


    Future active participle neuter

    SINGULAR you have.

    AMATURUM

    AMATURI

    AMATURO

    AMATURUM

    AMATURO

    PLURAL

    AMATURA

    AMATURORUM

    AMATURIS

    AMATURA

    AMATURIS

    FUTURE ACTIVE PARTICIPLE NEUTER


    Using participles tenses
    Using participles: tenses you have.

    • The tense of the participle is relative to the main verb:

      • Same time present

      • After future

      • Before perfect

      • Examples

        • Milites perdentes urbem vincerunt proelium.

        • Milites reliquerunt urbem perditam a militibus.

        • Milites oppugnaverunt perdituri urbem.


    Using participles
    Using participles you have.

    • Participles work like any adjective, just a little bit fancier. However, under all circumstances, they like any adjective must agree with the modified noun in gender, number, and case

    • The endings will not always match because of declensional differences, but the agreement must always be gender, number, and case


    Ablative absolute
    Ablative Absolute you have.

    • Two words in the ablative which establish conditions for the main clause but are not grammatically connected to any word of the main clause.

    • Can be:

      • Noun and participle

      • Two nouns

      • Noun and adjective


    Ablative absolute1
    Ablative Absolute you have.

    • The ablative absolute is a very commonly used construction with a participle. It allows you to combine two thoughts concisely.

      • Urbe perdita, milites iter faciebant ad castra.

      • Discipulo dormiente, magister erat irata.


    Rhetorical techniques
    Rhetorical Techniques you have.

    • Alliteration: repetition of the initial sound of a word for emphasis

      • Porcumparvulumportat.

      • He ports a petite pig.

    • Anaphora: repetition of a word for rhetorical effect

      • Tenet rectumcursumrectagubernaculo

        Asyndeton: omission of conjunctions in a list to emphasis the size of the list

        concursabantservimilitesviripuerimulieres

        Slaves, soldiers, men, boys, women were running around.


    • Polysyndeton you have.: inclusion of extra conjunctions to emphasize a list

      • Emi vinum et porcum et mala et piros.

      • I bought wine and pork and apples and pears.

    • Historical present: switch from past tense to present tense to make the reader feel like the action is more immediate and compelling


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