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LATIN GRAMMAR NOTEBOOK. Your personal resource to organize all those charts and rules, provided you follow my instructions perfectly. Verb Facts: The single most important word of the sentence . Verb Facts: The Most Important Words in Any Sentence. What is a verb?

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Latin grammar notebook

LATIN GRAMMAR NOTEBOOK

Your personal resource to organize all those charts and rules, provided you follow my instructions perfectly.


Verb facts the single most important word of the sentence

Verb Facts: The single most important word of the sentence


Verb facts the most important words in any sentence

Verb Facts: The Most Important Words in Any Sentence

  • What is a verb?

    • Denotes an action or a state of being

    • Essential to the sentence because it’s what is happening!

      Examples:


Types of verbs

Types of Verbs

  • Helping Verbs:

    • In English, helping verbs tell when a verb is happening ( was, is, had,have et al.)

    • Latin never uses helping verbs; we use endings to show when a verb happens

      • Example

        • Rex was laughing. Rex ridebat.

        • Rex will laugh.Rex ridebit.


Types of verbs1

Types of Verbs

  • Linking verbs: show a state of being and link two ideas

    • Acts like a chain or an equals mark (=)

    • The most common linking verb is sum ,esse, fui, futurus in all its lovely forms

    • Example

      • Rex is a boy. (Rex = boy) Rex estpuer


Types of verbs2

Types of Verbs

  • Transitive verb: action verb which takes a direct object ( a noun that answers who or what after the verb)

    • The action transfers to another word

    • Example

      • Rex hits Claudius. Rex Claudiumpulsat.

  • Intransitive verb: action verb that cannot take an object

    • The action stops at the verb and does not cross over to a noun.

    • Example

      • Rex is sleeping. Rex dormit.


Agreement

Agreement

  • A singular verb must have a singular subject; a plural verb must have a plural subject.

    • Compound subjects are usually treated as plural subjects

    • Examples

      • The girl is running. Puellacurrit

      • The girls are running. Puellaecurrunt.


Principal parts

Principal Parts

  • Most verb have four principal parts, always listed in a specific order. These parts are used to make all the other verb forms.

  • Notice the patterns

    • 1st principal part ends with “o”

      • Used for present tense

    • 2nd ends with “re”

      • Present infinitive; used for present, imperfect, future

    • 3rd end with “I”

      • Perfect active; used for perfect, pluperfect, future perfect active

    • 4th ends with “um” or “us”

      • Perfect participle; used for perfect, pluperfect, future perfect passive


Conjugations

Conjugations

  • The conjugation of a verb is determined by the second principal part (infinitive)

    • ARE = 1st

    • *ERE = 2nd (1st pp. will end with “eo”)

    • ERE = 3rd

    • IO, ERE = 3rd IO

    • IRE = 4th


Qualities of a verb

Qualities of a Verb

  • Number

    • Singular or plural

  • Person

    • 1st = I, we

    • 2nd = you

    • 3rd = he,she, it, they


Qualities of a verb1

Qualities of a verb

  • Voice: active or passive

    • Refers to relationship between subject and verb

    • Active voice : subject performs the verb

      • Aurelia sells the slave. Aurelia venditservum

    • Passive Voice: The subject does not perform the verb but the verb happens to the subject

      • The slave is sold by Aurelia. Servusvenditurab Aurelia

      • The person or thing doing the verb goes into the ablative.

        • No preposition for things (means), “a, ab” for people (personal agent)

        • Miles vulneraturgladio.

        • Miles vulneraturabamico.


Qualities of a verb2

Qualities of a Verb

  • Mood

    • Indicative = states a fact or asks a question

    • Imperative = makes a command

    • Subjunctive = special clauses

  • Tense

    • Shows when the verb happens

    • Present, imperfect, future, perfect, pluperfect, future perfect


Tense continuum

Tense Continuum

  • Pluperfect: in the past before something else in the past (August 24)

  • Perfect : completed in the past (august 25)

  • Present : now (august 26)

  • Future perfect: before something else in the future (august 27)

  • Future : in the future (august 28)

  • Imperfect: in the past over a span of time ( august 24 and August 25)


Tense continuum1

Tense Continuum

  • Pluperfect : He had taken a shower before he ate breakfast

  • Perfect: He ate breakfast

  • Present: He is walking to the car.

  • Future Perfect: He will have driven twenty miles before he returns home.

  • Future: He will return home

  • Imperfect: He was driving to school behind a very slow bus.


Verb bases

Verb Bases

  • Present Tense : Use infinitive

    • Exception : 1st sing passive use 1st pp.

    • Are = remove the “re”

      • Exception : 1st person singular remove the “are” active

    • *ere = remove the “re”

    • Ere = remove “ere” , add “I”

      • Exception : 3rd person pl add “u” instead of “I”

    • Io, -ere = remove “ere” , add “I”

      • Exception: 3rd person pl add “iu”

    • Ire = remove “re”

      • Exception: 3rd person pl. remove “re” , add “u”


Verb bases1

Verb bases

  • Imperfect : use infinitive

    • Are = remove “re”

    • *ere = remove “re”

    • Ere = remove “re”

    • Io, ere = remove “ere” add “ie”

    • Ire = remove “re” add “e”


Verb bases2

Verb bases

  • Future: Use infinitive

    • Are = remove “re”

    • *ere = remove “re”

    • Ere = remove “ere”

    • Io, ere = remove “ere”, add “I”

      • Exception : 2nd person singular don’t add “i”

      • Ire = remove “re”


Perfect pluperfect future perfect active

Perfect, pluperfect, future perfect active

  • 3rd principal part minus “I”

    • Usually leaves one of the following before the ending

    • U

    • V

    • S

    • X


Perfect pluperfect future perfect passive

Perfect, pluperfect, future perfect passive

  • 4th principal part minus “us” or “um”


Present active indicative

Present active Indicative

  • Endings

    • o = I 1st sing

    • s = you 2nd sing

    • t = he, she, it 3rd sing

    • mus = we 1stpl

    • tis = you pl. 2ndpl

    • nt = they 3rdpl

  • Translations

    • Verb __________, is, am, are ____ing, do, does ____


Present passive indicative

Present passive indicative

  • Endings

    • R = I am _____ed

    • Ris = you are ______ed

    • Tur = he, she, it is _______ed

    • Mur = we are _______ed

    • Mini = you pl. are ______ed

    • Ntur = they are _______ed

  • Translations

    • Is, am, are ______ed,

    • Is, am, are being _______ed


Imperfect active indicative

Imperfect active Indicative

  • Endings

    • Bam = I

    • Bas = you

    • Bat = he, she,, it

    • Bamus = we

    • Batis = you pl.

    • Bant = they

    • Translations must show action over a period of time in the past, habitual or continuous

      • Was/were, used to, kept on, began to, past tense


Imperfect passive indicative

Imperfect passive indicative

  • Endings

    • Bar = I

    • Baris = you

    • Batur = he, she, it

    • Bamur = we

    • Bamini = you pl

    • Bantur = they

    • Translations:

      • Was/were being ______ed, kept on being _______ed, used to be _______ed, began to be ______ed


Future active indicative for are ere 1 st and 2 nd conjugations

Future Active Indicative for –are, *ere (1st and 2ndconjugations

  • Endings

    • Bo I will

    • Bisyou will

    • Bithe, she, it will

    • Bimus we will

    • Bitis you pl. will

    • Bunt they will

  • Translations: will, shall

  • Must show action to occur in the future


Future passive indicative for are ere

Future Passive Indicative for –are, -*ere

  • Endings

    • Bor I will be -----ed

    • Berisyou will be ----ed

    • Biturhe, she, it will be-----ed

    • Bimurwe will be-----ed

    • Biminiyou pl. will be ----ed

    • Bunturthey will be-----ed

  • Translations: will be -----ed, shall be ----ed


Future active indicative for ere ire 3 rd 3 rd io 4 th

Future Active Indicative for ere, ire (3rd, 3rdio, 4th)

  • Endings

    • amI will

    • es*you will

    • et*he, she, it will

    • emus*we will

    • etis*you pl. will

    • entthey will

  • Translation : will, shall


Future passive indicative for ere ire 3 rd 3 rd io 4 th

Future Passive Indicative for –ere, -ire(3rd, 3rdio, 4th)

  • Endings

    • ar I will be ----ed

    • erisyou will be ----ed

    • eturhe, she, it will be ----ed

    • emurwe will be -----ed

    • eminiyou pl will be -----ed

    • enturthey will be -----ed

    • Translations: will be _____ed, shall be ____ed


Perfect active indicative

Perfect Active Indicative

  • Endings

    • ii

    • isti`you

    • ithe, she, it

    • imuswe

    • istisyou pl

    • eruntthey

      • Usually preceded by u,v,s,xfrom the 3rd pp.

  • Translations: ----ed, past tense, has/have ---ed, did –

    • Must show action completed in the past


Perfect passive indicative

Perfect Passive Indicative

  • 4th principal part minus “us”

    • Singular

      • -us,-a,-um sum I was _____ed, have been ___ed

      • -us, -a, -um esyou were ____ed, have been __ed

      • -us,-a, -um est he, she, it was ___ed, has been __ed

      • Plural

      • -i, -ae, -a sumuswe were –ed, have been –ed

      • i, -ae, -a estisyou were ---ed, have been –ed

      • i, -ae, -a suntthey were –ed, have been --ed


Latin grammar notebook

  • The 4th principal part must be adjusted so that it agrees with the subject in gender, number, and case.

    • Marcus was wounded

    • Marcus vulneratus est.

    • Silvia was wounded.

    • Silvia vulnerata est.

    • The men were wounded.

    • Virivulneratisunt


Pluperfect active indicative

Pluperfect Active Indicative

  • Endings

    • eramI

    • erasyou

    • erathe, she, it

    • eramuswe

    • eratisyou pl.

    • erantthey

  • Translation: had ----ed

  • Must show action completed in the past before another action

  • The endings must be attached to the 3rdpp minus “I”; cannot be by itself or it’s the imperfect of sum

    • Ambulaveram in silva. I had walked in the woods.

    • Eram in silva. I was in the woods.


Pluperfect passive indicative

Pluperfect passive Indicative

  • 4th principal part minus “us” or “um”

  • Singular

    • -us, a, um eram I

    • -us,-a, -um eras you

    • -us,-a, -um erat he, she, it

  • Plural

    • -i,-ae, -a eramus we

    • -i, -ae, -a eratis you pl.

    • -i, -ae, -a erant they


Latin grammar notebook

  • Translation: had been -----ed

  • Fourth pp. must be adjusted to agree with subject in gender, number, and case

    • Marcus had been seen.

    • Marcus visuserat.

    • Cornelia had been seen.

    • Cornelia visa erat.


Future perfect indicative

Future Perfect Indicative

  • Endings

    • ero I will have

    • erisyou will have

    • erithe,she, it will have

    • erimuswe will have

    • eritisyou pl will have

    • erintthey will have

  • Translations: will have ----ed, shall have ----ed

  • Must show action that occurs in the future before something else in the future

  • Frequently used in conditional (if) clauses


Future perfect passive

Future perfect passive

  • Endings 4th principal part minus “us” plus

    • Singular

    • -us,-a, -um eroI

    • -us,-a, -um erisyou

    • -us, -a, -um erithe,she, it

    • Plural

    • -i, -ae,-a erimuswe

    • -i. –ae, -a eritisyou pl.

    • -i, -ae, -a eruntthey

  • Translations: will have been ---ed, shall have been –ed

  • 4th pp. must be adjusted to agree with subject in gender, number, and case


Pronoun subjects for active

Pronoun Subjects for Active

  • O/M/I = I

  • S/ISTI = you

  • T = he,she, it

  • MUS = we

  • TIS = you pl

  • NT = they


Tense signs and translations for active

Tense signs and translations for active

  • BA = was,were,usedto, kept on, began to

  • BO, BI, BU, A, E = will, shall

  • U,S,V,X, followed by I, ERU = past tense, have, has, did

  • ERA = had

  • ERO,ERI = will have, shall have

  • A,E,I,U = is, am, are, do, does


Pronoun subjects for passive

Pronoun subjects for passive

  • R = I

  • RIS = you

  • TUR = he, she, it

  • MUR = we

  • MINI = you pl

  • NTUR = they


Tense sign and translation for passive

Tense sign and translation for passive

  • BA = was/were being ---ed, kept on being ---ed, used to be –ed, began to be ---ed (imperfect)

  • BI, BE, BU (are, *ere) or A, E (ere, ire) = will be ---ed (future)

  • A, I, E, U = are,is, am ----ed (present)


Passive person

Passive Person

Part One

  • Us = masc sing

  • A = fem sing

  • Um = neuter sing

  • I = masc. Pl.

  • Ae = fem pl

  • A = neutpl


Passive tense sign for two part verbs part two

Passive Tense Sign for Two Part Verbs: Part Two

  • Su or e

    • Was/were -----ed

    • Has/have been -----ed

  • Era

    • Had been ---ed

  • Eri

    • Will have been ----ed


Latin grammar notebook

  • Part three

  • m/o = I

  • S = you

  • T = he,she, it

  • Mus = we

  • Tis = you pl

  • Nt = they


Irregular verbs

Irregular verbs

  • Use the personal endings (o/m,s,t,mus, tis, nt or r,ris,tur,mur,mini, ntur)

    • Base is the irregular part

  • Mainly irregular in the present tense:

    • Sometimes irregular in future and imperfect

    • No irregular verbs in perfect, pluperfect, future perfect


Irregular verbs1

Irregular Verbs

  • Very commonly used verbs

    • Sum, esse, fui, futurus

      • To be: linking verb

    • Possum, posse, potui

      • Be able, can

      • Always used with an infinitive

    • Volo, velle, volui

      • To wish


Latin grammar notebook

  • Fero, ferre, tuli, latum

    • To bring, to carry

  • Malo, malle, malui

    • To prefer

  • Nolo, nolle, nolui

    • Don’t want

  • Eo, ire, ivi, itus

    • go


Irregular verbs sum esse fui futurus

Irregular verbs: Sum, esse, fui, futurus

  • Most common verb in Latin

  • Linking verb

  • Irregular in the present indicative and subjunctive, imperfect indicative, future indicative, and in its principal parts

  • Regular in perfect, pluperfect, future perfect both indicative and subjunctive

    • Base = fu


Irregular verbs sum esse fui futurus1

Irregular verbs: Sum, esse, fui, futurus

  • Present indicativePresent subjunctive

    • sumsumussimsimus

    • esestississitis

    • estsuntsitsint

  • Imperfect Indicative

    • Erameramus

    • Eraseratis

    • Eraterant

  • Future indicative

    • Eroerimus

    • Eriseritis

    • Eriterunt


Irregular verbs possum posse potui

Irregular Verbs: Possum, posse, potui

  • Definition: Be able, can

    • Always used with a complementary infinitive

  • Irregular in the present indicative and subjunctive, imperfect indicative, and future indicative; usually like sum just with pot in front

  • Regular in all other tenses


Irregular verbs possum

Irregular Verbs : possum

  • Present IndicativePresent Subjunctive

    • Possum possumuspossimpossimus

    • Potespotestispossispossitis

    • Potestpossuntpossitpossint

  • Imperfect Indicative

    • Poterampoteramus

    • Poteraspoteratis

    • Poteratpoterant

  • Future Indicative

    • Poteropoterimus

    • Poterispoteritis

    • Poteritpoterunt


Irregular verbs volo nolo malo

Irregular verbs: volo, nolo, malo

  • Present tense indicative active

  • Volonolomalo

  • Visnon vismavis

  • Vultnon vultmavult

  • Volumusnolumusmalumus

  • Vultisnon vultismavultis

  • Voluntnoluntmalunt


Volo nolo malo

Volo, nolo, malo

  • Imperfect bases:

    • Vole

    • Nole

    • male

  • Future Tense bases: treat like 3rd conjugation(ere)

    • Vol

    • Nol

    • Mal


Volo nolo malo1

Volo, nolo, malo

  • Present active subjunctive

  • Velimnolimmalim

  • Velisnolismalis

  • Velitnolitmalit

  • Velimusnolimusmalimus

  • Velitisnolitismalitis

  • Velintnolintmalint


Irregular verbs fero ferre tuli latum

Irregular Verbs: Fero, ferre, tuli, latum

  • Present Active Indicative

    • Feroferimus

    • Fersfertis

    • Fertferunt

  • Imperfect base: fere

  • Future base: fer

    • Use 3rd conjugation

  • Present subjunctive: treat like 3rd conjugation


Irregular verbs eo ire ivi itus

Irregular verbs: eo, ire, ivi, itus

  • Present Indicative Active

    • Eoimus

    • Isit is

    • Iteunt

    • Imperfect base: i

    • Future base: i

      • Use bo, bis, bit, bimus, bitis, bunt


Imperatives

Imperatives

  • States a command

    • Can be negative or positive

    • Always treated like a second person verb

      • Can be singular or plural

    • Frequently used with vocative nouns

  • Formation

    • Singular: Remove “re” from infinitive

      • Exceptions

        • Dicere = dic

        • Ducere = duc

        • Facere = fac

        • Ferre = fer


Imperative

Imperative

  • Examples

    • Vocare = Voca!

    • Sedere* = Sede!

    • Recumbere = recumbe!

    • Venire = veni!

    • Stare = sta!


Imperative plurals

Imperative Plurals

  • Remove “re” from the infinitive and add “te”

    • Exception

      • 3rd conjugation (ere)

      • Remove “ere” add “ite”

    • Examples

      • Dare = date!

      • Sedere* = sedete!

      • Ducere = ducite

      • Facere = facite

      • Audire = audite


Negative imperatives

Negative imperatives

  • Singular

    • Noli with the infinitive

      • Nolidicere! Don’t talk!

  • Plural

    • Nolite with the infinitive

      • Nolitedicere! Don’t talk!


Deponent verbs

Deponent Verbs

  • Deponent verbs are special verbs that have only passive forms but active translations.

    • Example locutus sum I was talking

  • They only have three principal parts and follow the –r, -i, - us/um sum pattern.

    • Example loquor, loqui, locutus sum speak

  • Follow the same rules for bases and endings as for normal verbs, just don’t ever make an active form.

    • For 3rd conjugation you have to remake the present active infinitive. Take the “i” off the 2nd pp. and add “ere”; then just follow the normal rules.


Deponent verbs1

Deponent verbs

What are they? How do they function? What do you need to know about them?


What is a deponent verb

What is a Deponent Verb?

  • Special verbs with passive forms but active meanings

    Secutus est He followed.

    Recognize by having only three forms in the vocabulary listing

    ----r, ---i,----us sum

    conor, conari, conatus sum try deponent

    tempto, temptare, temptavi, temptatus try not deponent


Deponent imperatives

Deponent Imperatives

  • For most deponent verbs, take the second principal part:

    • Remove the “I”

    • Add “e”

    • Will look like an infinitive but translate like a command

      • Conor, conari, conatus sum Conare! Try!


Deponent imperatives for 3 rd conjugation

Deponent imperatives for 3rd conjugation

  • For third conjugation deponents:

    • Recognize by not having “r” before the “i” on the second principal part

    • Remove the “I”

    • Add “ere”

    • Example

      • Sequor, sequi,secutus sum = sequere Follow!


Active forms for deponents

Active forms for deponents

  • Future infinitive

    • Secuturum esse to be about to follow

  • Present participle

    • Sequens, sequentis following

  • Future Participle

    • Secuturus, -a, -um about to follow

  • Gerund

    • Sequendum following

  • Perfect Participle

    • Secutus, -a, -um having followed


First conjugation vocabulary list for deponents

First Conjugation Vocabulary list for deponents

Hortor, hortari, hortatus sum urge, encourage

  • Arbitror, -ari, -atus sum think

  • Conor, -ari, -atus sum try

  • Miror, -ari, -atus sum wonder

  • Moror, -ari, -atus sum delay

  • Recordor, -ari, -atus sum recall

  • Vagor,-ari, -atus sum wander

  • Osculor, -ari, -atus sum kiss


Second conjugation

Second conjugation

  • Fateor, fateri, fassus sum confess

  • Confiteor, confiteri, confessus sum confess

  • Polliceor, polliceri, pollicitus sum promise

  • Vereor, vereri, veritus sum fear


Third conjugation

Third conjugation

  • Loquor, loqui, locutus sum speak

  • Nanciscor, nancisci, nactus sum find, obtain

  • Nascor, nasci, natus sum be born

  • Proficiscor, profisci, profectus sum set out

  • Sequor, sequi, secutus sum follow

  • Utor, uti, usus sum use


Third conjugation1

Third conjugation

  • Collabor, collabi, collapsus sum collapse

  • Consequor, consequi, consecutus sum catch up to, overtake


3 rd io conjugation

3rd io conjugation

  • Gradior, gradi, gressus sumwalk

  • Egredior, egredi, egressus sum go out, leave

  • Morior, mori, mortuus sum die

  • Patior, pati, passus sum endure, suffer

  • Ingredior, ingredi, ingressus sum go in, enter

  • Regredior, regredi, regressus sum go back, return


Fourth conjugation

Fourth conjugation

  • Experior, experiri, expertus sum test, try

  • Orior, oriri, ortus sum rise

  • Potior, potiri, potitus sum get possession of


Deponent verbs2

Deponent verbs

  • You will usually translate it correctly because it won’t make sense otherwise.

  • Will not be used with ablative of personal agent (a,ab plus ablative)

    • Ingredior villam a via. I am entering the housefrom the street.

      • I am being entered the houseby the street. makes no sense.


Semi deponent verbs

Semi-Deponent Verbs

A small group of verbs which are deponent only the the perfect, pluperfect, and future perfect tenses

Three principal parts

-o, -e, -us sum

Most commonly used semi-deponents are

audeo, audere*, ausus sum dare

gaudeo, gaudere*, gavisus sum rejoice

soleo, solere*, solitus sum be accustomed


Deponents 2

Deponents 2

  • They have a perfect active participle which is really useful. Normal verbs don’t have this.


Infinitives

Infinitives

  • Present Active

    • 2nd principal part of the verb

    • Usually ends with “re”

    • Translate as “to + verb”

  • Present Passive

    • Begin with present active infinitive, remove “e” and add “i“

      • E.g. Amare = amari

      • 3rd conjugation (ere) remove “ere” add “i”

        • E.g. Ducere = duci

    • Basic translation: to be _______ed


Possible confusion with re

Possible confusion with “re”

  • “ere” can be substituted for “erunt” in the perfect active tense

    • amaverunt = amavere

    • If the “ere” is attached to the third principal part of a verb, it is not an infinitive.

      • Remember that many third principal parts end with “u” or “v” or “s” or “x”; this will help you recognize this alternate form.


Perfect active infinitives

Perfect active Infinitives

  • Start with the third principal part

  • Remove the “i”

  • Add “isse”

    • amavisse

  • Translation : to have ________

  • most commonly used in indirect statements

    • Scivit se interfecisse suum amicum

    • He knew that he had killed his friend


Perfect active infinitives1

Perfect active Infinitives

  • Start with the third principal part

  • Remove the “i”

  • Add “isse”

    • amavisse

  • Translation : to have ________

  • most commonly used in indirect statements

    • Scivit se interfecisse suum amicum

    • He knew that he had killed his friend


Perfect passive infinitives

Perfect Passive Infinitives

  • Begin with the 4th principal part

  • Remove the “us” or “um” whichever is there.

    • You will have to adjust this part to agree with whoever is receiving the action; most commonly it will be accusative because of the indirect statement

    • UM/OS MASCULINE

    • AM/AS FEMININIE

    • UM/A NEUTER

  • Add “esse” as a separate part

    • amatam esse to have been loved

  • Most commonly used in indirect statement

    • Scivit suum amicum interfectum esse a se.

    • He knew that his friend had been killed by him.


Future active infinitive

Future Active Infinitive

  • Begin with the fourth principal part.

  • Remove the “us” and add”ur”; you will have to adjust this part to agree with whoever is doing the action. It will usually be accusative because of the indirect statement.

    • UM/OS MASCULINE

    • AM/AS FEMININE

    • UM/A NEUTER

  • Add “esse” as a separate part.

    • amaturam esse to be about to love

  • Translation “to be about to_________”


Uses of the infinitive

Uses of the Infinitive

Historical, subjective, objective, complementary, and the indirect statement


Historical infinitives

Historical infinitives

  • usually used for a series of actions

  • translated as an imperfect tense verb to show a continuous series

  • example

    • Femina ambulare de via, viri mirari, omnes viri cadere in fossam.

    • The woman was walking down the street, the men were amazed, all the men fell into the ditch.


Infinitive usage

Infinitive Usage

  • Complementary Infinitives

    • Completes the meaning of an incomplete verb

    • Most commonly used with

      • Possum be able, can

      • Volo, nolo, malo wish, don’t wish, prefer

      • Cupiowish

      • Debeoought, owe

      • Coepibegin

      • Necesseest it is necessary

      • Et al.


Subjective infinitives

Subjective Infinitives

  • functions as the subject of the sentence

  • grammatically treated as a neuter singular noun

  • in English can be translated as a gerund or an infinitive

  • Example

    • Errare est humanum.

    • To err is human.


Objective infinitives

Objective Infinitives

  • functions like a direct object

  • most commonly used with iubeo, iubere, iussi, iussus

  • treated like a neuter noun

  • example

    • Iubeo disciplinos studere.

    • I order the students to study.


Complementary infinitives

Complementary Infinitives

  • complete the meaning of an incomplete verb

  • most commonly used with a form of possum, debeo, paro, coepit, volo, nolo, cupio, incipio, necesse est, prohibeo and many other verbs that leave the reader hanging as to what is happening

  • example

    Plinius poterat videre Montem Vesusium de suam villam.

    Pliny was able to see Mount Vesuvius from his home.


Latin grammar notebook

  • Example

    • Necesseestaudire Roberto.

    • It is necessary for Robert to listen

    • PotestaudireRobertus.

    • Robert is able to listen.


The indirect statement

The Indirect Statement

  • used to report a statement

  • follows a verb of mental action such as saying, thinking, understanding, knowing, perceiving, et al.

  • subject of the indirect statement will used the accusative

  • verb of the indirect statement will be an infinitive

  • example

    • Scio Caesarem mortuus esse.

    • I know that Caesar is dead.


The infinitive of the indirect statement

The Infinitive of the Indirect Statement

  • The choice of the tense of the infinitive is relative to the main verb

    • same time = present

    • before = perfect

    • after = future

    • The first part of the perfect passive and future active infinitive will be in the accusative and will agree with the accusative subject.


Examples

Examples

  • scio eum stare in via.

    • I know he is standing in the road.

      • same time

  • Scio eum stetisse in via.

    • I know that he was standing in the road.

      • before

  • Scio eum staturum esse in via.

    • I know that he will stand in the road.

      • after


Indirect statement issues

Indirect Statement issues

  • The subject cannot be left understood; the accusative noun must be there.

  • If the subject of the indirect statement is the same as the main clause, you will use the reflexive pronoun.

    • example

      • Caesar scivit se debere non ferre Cleopatram Romam.

      • Caesar knew that he ought not to bring Cleopatra to Rome

        • debere is the indirect statemnent; ferre in complmentary, se is the subject accusative reflexive.


Infinitives issue 2

Infinitives Issue #2

  • A LATIN infinitive cannot ever be used to show purpose. To show purpose, you must use a subjunctive or a gerund/gerundive.

    • Example

      • I went to the store to buy shoes.

      • Ivi ad tabernam ut emerem soleas.


Subjunctives

Subjunctives

Special verbs in special clauses


Purpose clauses

PURPOSE CLAUSES

  • POSITIVE PURPOSE ( POSITIVE MEANS IT HAPPENS)

    • INTRODUCED BY UT

    • SHOWS THE PURPOSE OF AN ACTION

      • EXAMPLE

        • Pliniusscripsitutlaudaretsuamuxorem.

        • Pliny wrote so that he might praise his wife.


Purpose clauses1

PURPOSE CLAUSES

  • NEGATIVE PURPOSE ( WON’T HAPPEN)

    • INTRODUCED BY NE

    • SHOWS THE PURPOSE OF NOT DOING AN ACTION

    • EXAMPLE

      • Cicero comprehenditCatilinaemanum ne patriamvastarent.

      • Cicero arrested Catilina’s band of men so that they would not destroy the country.


Adverbial purpose

ADVERBIAL PURPOSE

  • INTRODUCED BY UBI

  • SHOWS WHY THE SUBJECT OF THE SENTENCE AS DONE SOMETHING

  • EXAMPLE

    • Cicero tempus exspectabatubiCatilinamverbisoppugnaret.

    • Cicero was awaiting a time when he might attack Catilina with words.


Relative clause of purpose

Relative clause of purpose

  • Introduced by a form of qui, quae, quod

  • Gives the purpose more closely connected with a noun or pronoun than a verb

  • Example

    • Cicero accepitepistulam quae explicaretCatilinaeconiurationem.

    • Cicero received a letter to explain Catilina’s conspiracy

    • Cicero received a letter which explained Catilina’s conspiracy.


Sequence of tenses

Sequence of tenses

Primary tenses (present, future, future perfect)

If the main verb is a secondary tense, use the following subjunctives to show proper relationship to the main verb:

same time/after: imperfect subjunctive

Before: pluperfect

Secondary Tenses (imperfect, perfect, pluperfect)

If the main verb is a primary tense, use the following subjunctives to show proper relationship to the main verb:

same time/after: present subjunctive

before: perfect subjunctive


Sequence of tenses1

Sequence of tenses

  • Caesar wrote the Gallic Commentaries so that people would not forget him.

  • Sallust wrote so that he might explain the Catiline conspiracy.

  • Brutus was awaiting a time when he might betray Caesar with a knife


Result clauses

Result Clauses

  • Shows the result of the main verb

    • Madge was so angry that she threw a platter at Herb.

  • Introduced by ut for something that did, will, or could happen

  • Introduced by ut plus a negative (ne, non, nullus, et al.) for something that did not, will not, could not happen

  • The main clause will usually contain a word that means “so” such as tam, sic, talis, tantus, tot, adeo;

  • These words should act as signals that a result clause is coming.

    • PompeuisIuliam tam amavitutcivitatemneglegaret.


Cum clauses

Cum Clauses

  • Temporal: establishes the time when something occurs

    • Verb will be indicative

    • Cum translated as when

  • Circumstantial: explain the circumstances under which something occurs

    • Verb will be subjunctive

    • Cum translated as since or when


Cum clauses continued

Cum Clauses continued

  • Causal: explains the reason something happens

    • Verb will be subjunctive

    • cum will translate as since or because

  • Concessive: explains something that may have blocked or hindered the main verb

    • Verb will be subjunctive

    • Cum will translate as although


  • Subjunctives in indirect speech

    Subjunctives in Indirect Speech

    • Indirect questions

      • Whenever a question is reported in a statement, this is an indirect statement.

        • I know what you are planning. Scio quid facias.

      • The main verb wil be a verb or asking or telling such as rogo, peto, quaero

      • The verb of the question portion will be subjunctive.

      • The question portion will be introduced by an interrogative word such as ubi, cur, quare, quo. Quis, quid, quo modo, quantus, qualis et al.


    Subjunctives in indirect speech1

    Subjunctives in Indirect speech

    • Indirect command: reports a direct command

      • Command portion will be subjunctive

      • Main verb will be a verb of commanding or persuading such as mando, impero, persuadeo, suadeo, moneo, oro, et al

      • The command portion will be introduced by ut for positive, ne for negative

        • Caesar imperavitmilitesuthostemoppugnaret.


    Subjunctives in indirect speech2

    Subjunctives in Indirect Speech

    • Clauses of fearing: with verbs or expressions of fear, what is feared will use the subjunctive

      • Use ne if you fear something will happen

        • Calupurniatimet ne Caesar interfectusesset a Bruto.

          Use ut if you fear something will not happen.

          Brutus timetutcivitassupersit.


    Expression of fear

    Expression of Fear

    Words of fear

    timeo, timere, timui

    vereor, vereri, veritus sum

    metus, metus

    pavor, pavoris

    terror, terroris

    extimesco, extimescere, extimui

    pertimesco, pertimescere, pertimui

    formido, formidinis

    formido, formidare

    timor, timoris


    Subordinate clauses in indirect discourse

    Subordinate clauses in indirect discourse

    • If you have a subordinate clause such as a relative clause inside an indirect statement, indirect question, or indirect command, put the verb of the indirect statement in the subjunctive

    • These sentences usually have three verbs.

      • Turducken sentences

        • Caesar ordered the soliders to attack the enemy who was hiding in the ditch.

          • Ordered main clause

          • Attack indirect command

          • Hiding discourse


    Relative clause of characteristic

    Relative Clause of Characteristic

    • Characterizes or describes a general or indefinite antecedent

    • Common after phrases such as est qui, sunt qui, nemoest qui, quisest qui

    • Use a subjunctive verb for the relative clause part

    • Usually translate as

      • Of that sort, the kind that …..

      • Quisestcliens quo interficiatsuumpatronum?


    Anticipation

    Anticipation

    • When an action is anticipated, when dum means until, and antequam or priusquam means before, use the subjuntive.

    • If these words introduce an actual fact, use the indicative.


    Conditionals

    Conditionals

    • Introduced by mostly by si, nisi, an

    • Simple Conditions will probably happen and use indicative verbs regardless of the tense.

      • If Caesar conquers Gaul, he will be powerful

      • Si Caesar vincitGalliam, eritpotens.

  • Future Conditionals can be one of two types: more vivid which will probably happen and uses future perfect and future indicative verbs and less vivid which is not likely to happen and uses the present subjunctive.


  • Conditionals continued

    Conditionals Continued

    • More Vivid

      • If she sees him, she will run.

        • Si videriteum, curret.

    • Less Vivid

      • If she should see him, she would run.

        • Si videateum, currat.

    • The writer uses the grammar to inform the reader of the likelihood of the conditional occurring.


    Conditionals continued1

    Conditionals continued

    • Contrary to Fact

      • Cannot happen or will not happen

      • Use imperfect subjuncive if English present

      • Use pluperfect subjunctive for past

      • If I were you, I would not do that.

        • Si essemte, ego non facerem id.

      • If I had known the facts, I would have acted more quickly.

        • Si cognovissemfacta, egissemcelerius.


    Main verb subjunctive hortatory

    Main Verb Subjunctive: Hortatory

    • Expresses a mild command or exhortation

    • Uses only the present subjuncitves

    • No introductory word for positive; use ne for negative

    • Translate with let or may

      • Ludiincipiant. Let the games begin.

    • Frequently used for blessing and curses


    Main verb subjunctive deliberative questions

    Main Verb Subjunctive: Deliberative Questions

    • Rhetorical questions implying doubt, indignation, surprise or impossibility

    • Usually introduced by an interrogative pronoun, adverb, or adjective

    • The writer is not expecting an answer.

    • Example

      • Why would anyone trust Brutus now?

      • Cur aliquiscredatBrutonunc?


    Main verb subjunctive optative

    Main verb Subjunctive: Optative

    • Expresses a wish

    • If the wish can come true, use the present subjunctive.

    • If the wish cannot come true, use imperfect subjunctive for present, pluperfect for past

    • Frequently introduced by utinam

    • Utinam Caesar non credidissetBruto

    • If only Caesar had not trusted Brutus


    Nouns

    Nouns

    • Definition: a word which shows a person, place, thing, or idea

    • Classification:

      • Number:singular or plural

      • Gender :masculine, feminine, neuter

      • Case:nominative, genitive, dative, accusative, ablative, vocative, locative


    Latin grammar notebook

    • Declension: based on genitive singular (second form of vocabulary listing)

      • ae 1st

      • i2nd

      • is3rd

      • us4th

      • ei5th

    • Base: remove the genitive singular ending

      • Mater, matris = matr


    Latin grammar notebook

    • Vocabulary Listing

      • Nominative singular

      • Genitive singular

      • Gender

      • Definition

      • Example

        • Ursus, ursi m. bear


    First declension

    First declension

    • Singularplual

    • Nomaae

    • Genaearum

    • Dataeis

    • Accamas

    • Abla*is

    • Vocaae


    2 nd masculine

    2nd masculine

    • Singularplural

    • Nomus/eri

    • Geniorum

    • Datois

    • Accumos

    • Ablo*is

    • Voce/er/ii


    2 nd neuter

    2nd Neuter

    • Singularplural

    • Nomuma

    • Geniorum

    • Datois

    • Accuma

    • Ablois

    • Vocuma


    3 rd declension masculine and feminine

    3rd declension masculine and feminine

    • Singularplural

    • Nomvarieses

    • Genisum, ium*

    • Datiibus

    • Accemes

    • Ableibus

    • Vocrepeat nom.es


    I stem rules

    I-stem Rules

    • For masculine and feminine nouns using “ium” for genitive plural

      • Mono syllable nom. Sing with base ending in two consonants

        • Nox, noctis yes

        • Pax, pacis no

      • Nominative singular ends with “is” or “es” and genitive and nominative have same number of sylables (parasyllabic)


    I stem rules1

    I-stem rules

    • Nominative singular ends with “ns” or “rs”

      • Pars, partis yes

  • For Neuter nouns: use “ium” for gen.sing, “ia” for nom. Pl, acc. Pl, voc pl. and “i” for abl. Sing

    • Basically just these nouns

      • Animal, animalis (animal)

      • Mare, maris(sea)

      • Calcar, calcaris(spur)


  • 4 th declension masculine and feminine

    4th declension masculine and feminine

    • Singularplural

    • Nomusus

    • Genusuum

    • Datuiibus

    • Accumus

    • Abluibus

    • Vocusus


    5 th declension masculine and feminine

    5th declension masculine and feminine

    • Singularplural

    • Nomeses

    • Geneierum

    • Dateiebus

    • Accemes

    • Ableebus

    • Voceses


    The neuter rule

    The Neuter Rule

    • All neuter nouns, adjectives, and pronouns repeat their nominative form for their accusative and vocative. You must use subject verb agreement and context clues to determine the noun’s function in these cases.


    2 nd dec neuter

    2nddec neuter

    • Singpl

    • Nomuma

    • Geniorum

    • Datois

    • Accuma

    • Ablois

    • Vocuma


    3 rd declension neuter

    3rd declension neuter

    • Singpl

    • Nomvariesa, ia

    • Genisum, ium

    • Datiibus

    • Accrepeat nom.a, ia

    • Ableibus

    • Vocrepeat nom.a, ia


    4 th dec neuter

    4thdec neuter

    • Singpl

    • Nomuua

    • Genusuum

    • Datuibus

    • Accuua

    • Abluibus

    • Vocuua


    Irregular noun vis vis f force violence

    Irregular Noun: vis, vis f. Force, violence

    • Singpl

    • Nomvisvires

    • Genvisvirium

    • Datviriviribus

    • Accvimvires

    • Ablviviribus

    • Vocvisvires


    Nominative case

    Nominative Case

    • Subject: main noun of the sentence

      • With active verb, person or thing doing the verb

        • Quintillaservatinfantem.

      • With passive verbs, person or thing receiving the verb

        • Infansservatur a Quintilla.

      • Subject verb agreement:

        • A singular verb takes a singular subject.

        • A plural verb takes a plural subject

        • Examples

          • Puellavocat

          • Puellaevocant


    Nominative case1

    Nominative Case

    • Predicate Nominative: renames the subject after a linking verb ( some form of sum, esse, fui, futurus)

      • Quintillaestancilla.


    Vocative case

    Vocative Case

    • Used to call someone or something

      • Frequently used with imperatives and questions

      • Same endings as nominative except second declension masculine which uses an “e”

      • Example:

        • Sylvia, feraquam!


    Genitive case of

    Genitive case “of”

    • Possession

      • Whoever/whatever owns something = genitive

        • Cerberus eratPlutoniscanis.

    • Description

      • With an adjective, the genitive can modify a noun.

      • Caesar erat dux magnaevirtutis.

    • Quantity

      • Used with special adjectives that denote quantity such as satis, nimium, nimis, plus, plenus et al.

      • Whatever you have a quantity of uses the genitive

        • Titus bibitnimiumvini.


    Dative case to for

    Dative Case “to, for”

    • With necesseest

      • The person or things for whom it is necessary will use the dative

      • Necesseestmatriadiuvaresuosliberos.

    • Indirect Object

      • Shows to whom or for whom something is given, shown or told

      • DeditMarco pecuniam.


    Dative

    Dative

    • Special verbs

      • A group of verbs that take their direct object in the dative instead of the accusative

      • Some of these are:

        • Noceo, credo, pareo, placeo, placet, faveo, studeo, persuadeo, respondeo, appropinquo, obsto, prosum, expedio, cedo, licet, fido,opitulor, medeo, parco, resisto, invideo, irascor, minor, studeo, displicet, impero, suadeo, dissuadeo, libet

        • Credo meaematri.


    Dative1

    Dative

    • With compound verbs

      • Many compound verbs will use the dative for their direct object instead of the accusative

      • Verbs compounded with ad, ante, circum, con, in, inter, ob, post, prae, pro, sub, and super are most commonly used this way

      • Example

        • Omnibus eiusconsiliisoccurri.

        • I withstood all his plans

        • Occurri is a compound of ob and curro


    Accusative case

    Accusative Case

    • Direct Object:

      • Follows an action verb and answers who or what after the verb

        • This is noun the verb happens to

        • Caesar amatsuamuxorem et uxoresalterorumquoque.


    Accusative case1

    Accusative Case

    • Object of prepositions

      • Most Latin prepositions use the accusative case for their objects (ask what after the preposition)

      • In(into), ad (to,…) adversus (against), ante (before,…)apud (at,…)circiter (about), circum (around), cis (this side of) contra (against), erga (toward), infra (below), inter (between), intra (within), iuxta (next to), ob (on account of), per (through), post (after, behind), prope (near), praeter (beyond, past…), propter (on account of), secundum (following…), super (over…) supra (above), trans (across), ultra (beyond)

      • Ambulamus trans pontem.


    Ablative

    Ablative

    • Time: shows when

      • No preposition

      • Advenimusnocte.

    • Special prepositions: These prepositions use the ablative for their objects.

      • A, abs, ab (from, by), de (from, down, about), e,ex (from, out of), cum (with), prae (before, in front), pro ( for, in front of), sine (without), in (in), sub (under)

      • Sine aquamortuierunt.


    Ablative1

    Ablative

    • Place where: shows location

      • Use “in” or “sub”

      • In villahabitamus.

    • Place from: shows motion away from

      • Use “a,ab,abs,de,e,ex”

      • E villa ambulavi.

    • Cause : shows reason why without preposition

      • Suisvictoriislaetisunt.


    Ablative2

    Ablative

    • Manner: shows style or manner

      • Can use “cum” or can omit “cum” with an adjective

      • Curritcum celeritate.

      • Curritcum magna celeritate/magna celeritate.

    • Means: shows means or instrument used to accomplish an action

      • No preposition in Latin but translate with “by: or “with” into English

      • Vulneratuseratgladio.


    Ablative3

    Ablative

    • Personal Agent: person who does the action of a passive verb

      • Use preposition “a,ab”

      • A Marco vulneratusest.

    • Price: shows how much something costs

      • No preposition

      • Does not have to be money.

      • Vendamtibiporcumoctodenariis.

      • Vendamtibiporcumduobusamphorisvini.


    Time and space constructions

    Time and Space Constructions

    • Time

      • When = ablative without a preposition

        • At the fourth hour, we will sail.

        • Quartāhorānavigabimus.

      • Within which= Ablative with no preposition

        • Establishes a time frame but not a duration

        • Within this month we will sail.

        • Hācmensenavigabimus.

      • Duration of time = accusative with no preposition

        • Shows how long

        • For three months we will sail.

        • Tres menses navigabimus.


    Latin grammar notebook

    • Place

      • Place from = ablative with a, ab,e, ex, de

        • Shows motion away from

        • With names of cities, towns, and small islands, the preposition can be omitted.

          • Navigabimus e Carthagine. ( optional preposition)

          • NavigabimusCarthagine. ( omitted preposition)

          • Navigabimus e Africā ( required preposition)


    Latin grammar notebook

    • Place to = accusative plus prepositions “ad” ( to, toward, near)in (into), sub( up to, at the foot of)

      • Preposition can be omitted with small islands, cities and towns

      • Navigamus ad insulam. ( required preposition)

      • Navigamus ad Romam. ( optional preposition)

      • NavigamusRomam. (omitted preposition)

      • For domus (home) and rus ( country) use domum (to the house, home) and rus ( to the country)


    Latin grammar notebook

    • Place where

      • For normal nouns, use the ablative and the preposition “in” or “sub”

        • Habitavimus in multisvillis.

      • For cities, towns, small islands use the locative

        • First declension ae or arum

        • 2nd declension o or is

        • 3rd declension singular e or sometimes i

        • 3rd declension plural ibus

        • HabitavimusRomae.

        • For domus (home) or rus (country), domo for home, rure for countryside


    Latin grammar notebook

    • Extent of space: shows how far without a preposition with the accusative

      • Navigabimusvigintimiliapassum.

      • We sailed for 20 miles.


    Adjectives

    Adjectives


    Adjectives1

    Adjectives

    • Definition: describes a noun or pronoun

      • What kind?

      • Which one?

      • How many?

    • Agreement: must agree in gender, number, and case with the modified noun (word being described)

      • Puerterrituscucurrit a cane magna.


    Gender rules

    Gender Rules

    • 1st declension = mostly feminine

    • 2nd declension

      • “Us/er” nominative singular = masculine

      • “Um” nominative singular = neuter

    • 3rd declension: usually what makes sense but not always

      • “tor” = masc

      • “trix” = feminine


    Latin grammar notebook

    • 4th declension

      • “us” nominative singular = masculine

      • “u” nominative singular = neuter

    • 5th declension= mostly feminine


    Substantives

    Substantives

    • Sometimes the modified noun/pronoun is left out of the sentence. When there is no word which agrees in gender, number, and case with the adjective, you must supply in English the understood/implied noun based on the gender, number, and case.

      • Masc sing = man; masc pl. = men

      • Feminine sing= woman; feminine pl = women

      • Neuter sing = thing; neuter pl = things

        • Bonus expectabat bona.

        • The good (man) was expecting good (things).


    First and second declension adjectives

    First and Second Declension Adjectives

    • Nominative patterns: masculine, feminine, neuter

      • “us, a, um”

      • “er, a, um”

    • Base = feminine nominative singular minus “a”

      • Bonus, bona, bonum = bon

      • Sacer, sacra, sacrum = sacr


    Masculine

    Masculine

    • Singularplural

    • Nomus/eri

    • Geniorum

    • Datois

    • Accumos

    • Ablois

    • Voce/i/eri


    Feminine

    Feminine

    • Singularplural

    • Nomaae

    • Genaearum

    • Dataeis

    • Accamas

    • Abla*is

    • Vocaae


    Neuter

    Neuter

    • Singularplural

    • Nomuma

    • Geniorum

    • Datois

    • Accuma

    • Ablois

    • Vocuma


    Third declension adjectives

    Third Declension Adjectives

    • Nominative patterns:

      • “er, is, e” = masc, fem, neut

      • “is, e” = masc and fem, neut

      • “?, is” = masc,fem, neut nom sing; masc, fem, neut gen sing.

    • Base = remove “is”

      • Celer, celeris, celere = celer

      • Fortis, forte = fort

      • Audax, audacis = audac


    Masculine and feminine

    Masculine and Feminine

    • Singularplural

    • Nom ????Es

    • Genisium

    • Datiibus

    • Accemes

    • Abliibus

    • Voc repeat nomes


    Neuter1

    Neuter

    • Singularplural

    • Nom ??????ia

    • Genisium

    • Dat iibus

    • Acc repeat nom.ia

    • Abliibus

    • Voc repeat nom.ia


    Irregular adjectives

    Irregular Adjectives

    • A small group of adjectives that show non-specific quantities are irregular in the genitive singular and dative singular. The plurals are normal

    • Masculinefeminineneuter

    • us/eraum

    • iusiusius

    • iii

    • umamum

    • oao


    Irregular adjectives1

    Irregular Adjectives

    • Listed below are the irregular adjectives:

      • Alius, alia, aliudother

      • Nullus, nulla, nullumnone, not any

      • Ullus, ulla, ullumany, some

      • Solus, sola, solumalone, only

      • Totus, tota, totumtotal, whole, all

      • Unus, una, unumone, only

      • Alter, altera, alterumanother

      • Uter, utra, utrumeach


    Pronouns

    Pronouns

    • Lovely little words that take the place of nouns

    • Pronoun agreement: gender and number come from antecedent(replaced noun) but case comes from use in clause

    • Types of Pronouns

      • Personal pronouns : 1st, 2nd, 3rd. ( I, we, me, us, you, he, she, it, they)


    Latin grammar notebook

    • Demonstrative Pronouns: points out which one

      • This, that, these, those

      • Can also be used as personal pronouns

    • Relative pronouns: introduce relative clauses and give more information about the antecedent

      • Who, which, whom, whose, what

    • Interrogative Pronouns: introduce questions

      • Who, what, which, whose, whom

    • Reflexive: refer to the subject

      • Himself, herself, itself, themselves, myself, yourself


    Latin grammar notebook

    • Possession: special adjectives to show possession (meus, noster, tuus, vester, suus)

    • Intensive pronoun: provides emphasis for a noun

      • -self

    • Indefinite pronoun: vague antecedent; points which one but not specifically


    Personal pronouns

    Personal Pronouns

    • FIRST PERSON I, ME WE, US

    • NOMEGONOS

    • GENMEI**NOSTRUM**

    • DATMIHINOBIS

    • ACCMENOS

    • ABL***MENOBIS

    • **TO SHOW POSSESSION, USE THE ADJECTIVES MEUS, MEA,MEUM OR NOSTER, NOSTRA, NOSTRUM

    • ***mecum, nobiscum = with me/ with us


    Latin grammar notebook

    • 2ND PERSON YOUYOU, Y’ALL

    • NOMTUVOS

    • GENTUI**VESTRUM**

    • DATTIBIVOBIS

    • ACCTEVOS

    • ABL***TEVOBIS

    • **TO SHOW POSSESSION, USE THE ADJECTIVES TUUS, TUA, TUUM OR VESTER, VESTRA, VESTRUM

    • ***TECUM , VOBISCUM = WITH YOU


    Latin grammar notebook

    • 3rd person singular

      • Mascfemneuter

    • ISEAID

    • EIUSEIUSEIUS

    • EIEIEI

    • EUMEAMID

    • EO*EA*EO


    Latin grammar notebook

    • 3RD PERSON PLURAL

      • MASCFEMNEUTER

    • EIEAEEA

    • EORUMEARUMEORUM

    • EISEISEIS

    • EOSEASEA

    • EISEISEIS


    Demonstrative pronouns this these

    Demonstrative Pronouns: this, these

    • Points out which one

    • Can be used as pronoun or adjective

    • Singular

      • Mascufemneuter

      • Hichaechoc

      • Huiushuiushuius

      • Huichuichuic

      • Hunchanchoc

      • Hoc*hac*hoc*


    Latin grammar notebook

    • Plural

      • Mascfemneuter

      • Hihaehaec

      • Horumharumhorum

      • Hishishis

      • Hoshashaec

      • Hishishis


    Demonstrative pronoun that those

    Demonstrative Pronoun: that, those

    • Also points out which one but further away than this, these

    • Singular

      • Mascfemneut

      • illeillaillud

      • illiusilliusillius

      • illiilliilli

      • Illumillamillud

      • illo*illa*illo*


    Latin grammar notebook

    • Plural

      • Mascfemneut

      • illiillaeilla

      • illorumillarumillorum

      • illisillisillis

      • illosillasilla

      • illisillisillis


    Demonstrative pronouns

    Demonstrative Pronouns

    • The pronoun “is, ea, id “ found on page _____ can also be used as a demonstrative pronoun.

      • It can be used to mean “this, that, those, these”

    • All demonstrative pronouns can also be used as third person (he, she, it, they, him, her, them) personal pronouns as long as they are not reflexive to the subject.

      • For reflexive pronouns for third person see page ______


    Emphatic demonstrative

    Emphatic Demonstrative

    • Translates as “the same”

    • Singular

      • Idemeademidem

      • Eiusdemeiusdemeiusdem

      • Eidemeidemeidem

      • Eundemeandemidem

      • Eodemeādemeodem


    Latin grammar notebook

    • Plural

      • Eidemeaedemeadem

      • Eorundemearundemeorundem

      • Eisdemeisdemeisdem

      • Eosdemeasdemeadem

      • Eisdemeisdemeisdem


    Relative pronouns

    Relative Pronouns

    • Function: introduces a relative clause

      • Gives more information about the antecedent

      • Relates back to the antecedent

        • I know that boy who was running down the street.

        • Scio illumpuerum qui currebat de via.

    • Basic translations: who, which, what, whose, whom


    Latin grammar notebook

    • Agreement: must agree with the antecedent in gender and number but gets its case from the use in the relative clause

      • I know the boy who was running down the street.

      • Who refers to boy

        • Therefore it will be masculine and singular

        • It is the subject of its clause

          • Therefore it will be nominative


    Relative singular

    Relative Singular

    • Singular

      • Masculinefeminineneuter

      • QUIQUAEQUOD

      • CUIUSCUIUSCUIUS

      • CUICUICUI

      • QUEMQUAMQUOD

      • QUO*QUA*QUO*


    Relative plural

    Relative Plural

    • Plural

    • Masculinefeminineneuter

    • QUIQUAEQUAE

    • QUORUMQUARUMQUORUM

    • QUIBUSQUIBUSQUIBUS

    • QUOSQUASQUAE

    • QUIBUSQUIBUSQUIBUS


    Interrogative pronouns

    Interrogative Pronouns

    • Introduce a question

    • Follow the rules of agreement

    • Singular

      • Mascfemneuter

      • Quisquisquid

      • Cuiuscuiuscuius

      • Cuicuicui

      • Quemquamquid

      • Quōquāquō


    Latin grammar notebook

    • Plural

    • Mascfemneuter

    • Quiquaequae

    • Quorumquarumquorum

    • Quibusquibusquibus

    • Quosquasquae

    • Quibusquibusquibus


    Latin grammar notebook

    • Examples

      • Quisestu?

      • Who are you?

      • Quid facis?

      • What are you doing?


    Third person reflexive pronoun

    Third Person Reflexive Pronoun

    • Forms

      • NominativeNone

      • Genitive**sui

      • Dativesibi

      • Accusativese or sese

      • Ablativese or sese

      • Vocativenone

      • **use the possessive adjective suus, sua, suum declined in the first and second declension to show possession.


    Usage of reflexive pronouns

    Usage of Reflexive Pronouns

    • Must reflect the subject

    • Usually translated by adding “-self”

    • Must be essential to the sentence; removing the pronoun would change the meaning.

      • Interfecit se. He killed himself. ( “Himself” is essential and reflexive)

      • Interfecitmilitem ipse. He killed the soldier himself. (“Himself” only add emphasis and can be omitted without changing the meaning of the sentence)


    Personal possession

    Personal Possession

    • To show possession with 1st person, 2nd person, and 3rd person reflexive

      • Use possessive adjectives which agree in gender, number, and case with the modified noun.

      • I lost my book. Meumlibrum

      • I lost your book tuumlibrum

      • I lost our book nostrum librum

      • I lost your (pl) book. Vestrumlibrum

        • In spite of the fact that I am feminine, I use the masculine to agree with the book which is masculine.


    Non reflexive possession

    Non-reflexive possession

    • Use the genitive to show non-reflexive possession( meaning doesn’t belong to the subject)

      • Mychal non amatsuumcanem. ( The dog belongs to Mychal)

      • Mychal non amateiuscanem (the dog belongs to someone else)


    Intensive pronouns

    Intensive Pronouns

    • Only provide emphasis; can be removed without changing the meaning

    • Translate with –self

    • Singular

    • Mascfemneut

    • Ipseipsaipsum

    • Ipsiusipsiusipsius

    • Ipsiipsiipsi

    • Ipsumipsamipsum

    • Ipsoipsā ipso


    Latin grammar notebook

    • Plural

    • Ipsiipsaeipsa

    • Ipsorumipsarumipsorum

    • Ipsisipsisipsis

    • Ipsosipsasipsa

    • Ipsisipsisipsis


    Indefinite pronouns

    Indefinite Pronouns

    • Definition: some, certain

    • Forms

      • Quidamquaedamquoddam

      • Cuiusdamcuiusdamcuiusdam

      • Cuidamcuidamcuidam

      • Quendamquandamquoddam

      • Quodamquādamquodam


    Latin grammar notebook

    • Quidamquaedamquaedam

    • Quorundamquarundamquorundam

    • Quibusdamquibusdamquibusdam

    • Quosdamquasdamquaedam

    • Quibusdamquibusdamquibusdam


    Those awful q words

    Those Awful “q” words

    • 1. It’s perfectly okay to hate them.

    • 2. “Qui Quae Quod” are relative pronouns

      • Will give more information about a noun or pronoun

      • Will be in a sentence with at least two verbs

      • Marcus estpuer qui amatFerocem.

  • 3. Interrogative Pronouns “Quis, Quid”

    • Usually asks a direct questions although sometimes asking an indirect question ( will have subjunctive verb)

    • Quid facitillumstrepitum? What is that noise?

    • Rogaviquisfaceretillumstrepitum. I asked who was making that noise.


  • Latin grammar notebook

    • 4. Quod

      • If there’s a neuter noun, it might be a pronoun meaning “which”

        • Faciemusiter quod crasincipiet.

        • We will make a journey which will begin tomorrow.

      • If there is no neuter noun, probably a conjunction meaning “because”

        • Discessimus quod non amavimusillamcenam.

        • We left because we didn’t like that food


    Latin grammar notebook

    • 5. Quam

      • If only one verb, probably not a pronoun. It needs something feminine to refer to.

      • If used with an adverb, it means “how”

        • Quam celeritercurrit!

      • With a comparative it means “than”

        • Sextusestmolestior quam Marcus

      • With a superlative it means “as possible”

        • Sextuscurrit quam celerrime.


    How to translate a latin sentence and remain sane

    How to translate a Latin Sentence and remain sane


    The process

    The Process

    • 1. Read the whole sentence in Latin. If it clicks, consider yourself blessed. If not, start taking it apart like you would a math problem.

    • 2. Always keep your sentence in context of the passage. Reread the previous sentence before you start. IT HAS TO MAKE SENSE! Make predictions in your mind about what that sentence might say.


    Latin grammar notebook

    • 3. Find the verb/verbs. This tells you how many clauses you have.

      • Three basic types of clauses:

        • Subject linking verb predicate nominative

        • Subject action verb direct object

        • Subject passive verbs ablative


    Latin grammar notebook

    • Figure out which kind of verb you have.

      • Linking verb some form of sum

      • Action/active verb

        One form

        Ends with o/m/s/t/mus/tis/nt


    Latin grammar notebook

    Passive Verb

    could be one form or two part verb

    r/ris/tur/mur/mini/ntur

    us,a, um /i,ae,aplus some form ofsum


    Pattern one slvpn

    Pattern One: SLVPN

    • Linking verb:

      • Figure out the subject:

        • o/m I

        • Syou

        • T he, she, it or a nominative singular

        • Mus we

        • Tis you pl

        • Nt they or a plural nominative

      • Find the predicate nominative which will be in the nominative case and will rename the subject; sometimes you will have a predicate adjective to describe your subject.


    Examples1

    Examples

    • Elephantisuntingentes.

      Sunt is a linking verb;

      Ends with nt; therefore the subject must be either THEY or a NOMINATIVE PLURAL

      The elephants are

      Is there a word in the nominative that either renames or describes the subject

      The elephants are huge.

      ElephantierantarmaHannibalis.

      Elephanti subject

      Arma predicate nominative

      Hannibalis genitive modifier


    Pattern two action verb

    Pattern two: action verb

    • Figure out your subject:

      • o/m I

      • S you

      • T he,she, it nominative singular

      • Mus we

      • Tis you pl

      • Nt they nominative plural

      • Then you know who is doing the verb.

      • Then look for the accusative to receive the verb.


    Examples2

    Examples

    • Stultuspuerpuellampulsat.

      • Pulsat action verb

        • Ends with t: nominative singular subject

        • Puerpulsat The boy hits

        • Puellam = accusative

        • The boy hits the girl.

    • Puellastultumpuerumpulsat.

      • Pulsat hits

      • Puella girl nominative singular

      • Puerumacc

      • The girl hits the stupid boy.


    Pattern 3 passive verbs

    Pattern 3: Passive Verbs

    • Passive verb

      • Two part verbs are easier; the endings on the first part tells you the gender of the subject

        • R= I

        • Ris = you

        • Tur = he, she, it or nominative singular

        • Mur = we

        • Mini= you pl

        • Ntur= they or nominative plural

      • Then look for the ablative to show who or what does the verb


    Examples3

    Examples

    • Puellapulsataest a puero.

      • Pulsataest she was hit

      • Puella nominative singular

      • The girl was hit

      • A puero ablative of personal agent

      • The girl was hit by the boy.


    Latin grammar notebook

    • Mea filiaestdisciplinus.

    • My daughter is a student.

    • Mea filiaterramstudet.

    • Me filiaestdisciplinus quae terramstudet.


    What do i do with all those other words

    What do I do with all those other words?

    • Translate using the Socratic method. Ask yourself questions.

      • Whose?Genitive

      • To whom/for whom dative

      • What kind? Genitive, adjective, ablative

      • How?Ablative

      • Why?Ablative, dative

      • When?Ablative

      • Where?Ablative

      • How far?Accusative


    Latin grammar notebook

    • To where? Accusative

    • From where? Ablative

    • How much? Ablative, genitive


    How to translate a latin sentence and remain sane1

    How to translate a Latin Sentence and remain sane


    The process1

    The Process

    • 1. Read the whole sentence in Latin. If it clicks, consider yourself blessed. If not, start taking it apart like you would a math problem.

    • 2. Always keep your sentence in context of the passage. Reread the previous sentence before you start. IT HAS TO MAKE SENSE! Make predictions in your mind about what that sentence might say.


    Latin grammar notebook

    • 3. Find the verb/verbs. This tells you how many clauses you have.

      • Three basic types of clauses:

        • Subject linking verb predicate nominative

        • Subject action verb direct object

        • Subject passive verbs ablative


    Latin grammar notebook

    • Figure out which kind of verb you have.

      • Linking verb some form of sum

      • Action/active verb

        One form

        Ends with o/m/s/t/mus/tis/nt


    Latin grammar notebook

    Passive Verb

    could be one form or two part verb

    r/ris/tur/mur/mini/ntur

    us,a, um /i,ae,aplus some form ofsum


    Pattern one slvpn1

    Pattern One: SLVPN

    • Linking verb:

      • Figure out the subject:

        • o/m I

        • Syou

        • T he, she, it or a nominative singular

        • Mus we

        • Tis you pl

        • Nt they or a plural nominative

      • Find the predicate nominative which will be in the nominative case and will rename the subject; sometimes you will have a predicate adjective to describe your subject.


    Examples4

    Examples

    • Elephantisuntingentes.

      Sunt is a linking verb;

      Ends with nt; therefore the subject must be either THEY or a NOMINATIVE PLURAL

      The elephants are

      Is there a word in the nominative that either renames or describes the subject

      The elephants are huge.

      ElephantierantarmaHannibalis.

      Elephanti subject

      Arma predicate nominative

      Hannibalis genitive modifier


    Pattern two action verb1

    Pattern two: action verb

    • Figure out your subject:

      • o/m I

      • S you

      • T he,she, it nominative singular

      • Mus we

      • Tis you pl

      • Nt they nominative plural

      • Then you know who is doing the verb.

      • Then look for the accusative to receive the verb.


    Examples5

    Examples

    • Stultuspuerpuellampulsat.

      • Pulsat action verb

        • Ends with t: nominative singular subject

        • Puerpulsat The boy hits

        • Puellam = accusative

        • The boy hits the girl.

    • Puellastultumpuerumpulsat.

      • Pulsat hits

      • Puella girl nominative singular

      • Puerumacc

      • The girl hits the stupid boy.


    Pattern 3 passive verbs1

    Pattern 3: Passive Verbs

    • Passive verb

      • Two part verbs are easier; the endings on the first part tells you the gender of the subject

        • R= I

        • Ris = you

        • Tur = he, she, it or nominative singular

        • Mur = we

        • Mini= you pl

        • Ntur= they or nominative plural

      • Then look for the ablative to show who or what does the verb


    Examples6

    Examples

    • Puellapulsataest a puero.

      • Pulsataest she was hit

      • Puella nominative singular

      • The girl was hit

      • A puero ablative of personal agent

      • The girl was hit by the boy.


    Latin grammar notebook

    • Mea filiaestdisciplinus.

    • My daughter is a student.

    • Mea filiaterramstudet.

    • Me filiaestdisciplinus quae terramstudet.


    What do i do with all those other words1

    What do I do with all those other words?

    • Translate using the Socratic method. Ask yourself questions.

      • Whose?Genitive

      • To whom/for whom dative

      • What kind? Genitive, adjective, ablative

      • How?Ablative

      • Why?Ablative, dative

      • When?Ablative

      • Where?Ablative

      • How far?Accusative


    Latin grammar notebook

    • To where? Accusative

    • From where? Ablative

    • How much? Ablative, genitive


    Degree

    DEGREE

    ADJECTIVES AND ADVERBS: positive, comparative, and superlative


    Degree of adjectives

    DEGREE OF ADJECTIVES

    • An adjective has three degrees.

      • Positive is the basic form without any changes for emphasis.

      • Comparative is the next step to show more emphasis. The word will become larger itself by adding ior.

      • Superlative is the top step. The adjective becomes even longer by adding usually issim.


    Degree of adjectives1

    Degree of adjectives

    Miles est altus. The soldier is tall.

    positive

    Hic miles est altior. This soldier is taller.

    comparative.

    Ille miles est altissimus. That soldier is the tallest.

    superlative


    Positive

    POSITIVE

    • The positive form is the most basic. Remember it must always change, based on its declension, to agree with the modified noun in gender, number, and case.

      • Positive adjectives are either classified as

        • First and second declension

        • Third declension

      • Any adjective can be adjusted to modify any noun.


    Comparative

    COMPARATIVE

    • The comparative form is the second degree.

    • Its can be translated by:

      • Adding er to the positive altior taller

      • Using the word morealtior more tall

      • Adding the word ratheraltior rather tall

      • Adding tooaltior too tall


    Forming comparatives

    Forming Comparatives

    • To make a comparative adjective

      • Begin with the base of the adjective

        • For first and second declensions, this will be the feminine nominative singular minus a

        • For third declension, it will be the second form from the vocabulary listing minus is.

      • Add ior for masculine and feminine; add ius for neuter. This will make the two nominativesingular forms.


    Declining comparatives

    DECLINING COMPARATIVES

    • Once you have added ior, ius, the new comparative adjective becomes a third declension adjective regardless of how it started.

      • Altus alta altumpositive 1st and 2nd

      • Altior, altiuscomparative 3rd


    Declining comparatives1

    Declining Comparatives

    • To decline your new comparative, leave the ior on all forms except the neuter nominative singular and the neuter accusative singular for which you will use theius form.

    • The new ior is the new base. This is your sign that the adjective is comparative.

    • Add third declension noun endings to make the comparative agree with its noun in gender, number, and case.


    Comparative endings

    Masculine and feminine

    Nom ior iores

    Gen ioris iorum

    Dat iori ioribus

    Acc iorem iores

    Abl iore ioribus

    Neuter

    Nom iusiora

    Gen ioris iorum

    Dat iori ioribus

    Acc ius iora

    Abl iore ioribus

    Comparative endings


    Examples remember there are alternate translations

    Examples(Remember there are alternate translations)

    • Servus altior vinum bibit. (masc. Nom. sing.)

      • The taller slave drank the wine..

    • Amicus altioris servi quoque vinum bibit.(masc. Gen . Sing.)

      • The friend of the taller slave also drank wine.

    • Amicus altiori servo cibum dedit.(masc dat sing)

      • The friend gave food to the taller slave.


    Examples7

    examples

    • Ancilla altiorem servum maluit. (masc. Acc. Sing.)

      • The slavegirl preferred the taller slave.

    • Ancilla e popina cum altiore servo discessit.(masc. Abl. Sing.)

      • The slavegirl left the bar with the taller slave.

    • (Why don’t the adjective and noun have the same endings if they agree?)


    Superlatives

    Superlatives

    • The superlative is the highest degree. It will be a very long word.

    • It can be translated by:

      • Adding estaltissimustallest

      • Adding veryaltissimusvery tall

      • Adding mostaltissimusmost tall

        Use proper English when translating; goodest is not a word.


    Forming superlatives

    Forming Superlatives

    • For most adjectives, form the superlative by adding issim plus first and seconddeclension endings. All superlative adjectives are now first and second declension.

      • Altissimus,-a, -um tallest

      • Brevissimus,-a, -um shortest


    Declension of superlatives singular

    Declension of superlatives Singular

    • Mascfemneuter

      • issimus issima issimum nom sing

      • issimi issimae issimigen sing

      • issimo issimae issimo dat sing

      • issimum issimam issimum acc sing

      • issimo issima* issimoabl sing


    Declension of superlatives plural

    Declension of Superlatives Plural

    • Masc fem neut

      • issimi issimae issima nom pl

      • issimorum issimarum issimorum gen. Pl

      • issimis issimis issimis dat pl

      • issimos issimas issima acc pl

      • issimis issimis issimis abl pl


    Er superlatives

    Er Superlatives

    • Some adjectives for which either the nominative singular or the base ends with er will not use the issim; instead you will add rim (effectively doubling the r which you should roll when you say it) plus first and second declension endings

      • Pulcherrimus, -a, -um most beautiful

      • Celerrimus, -a, -um fastest


    Examples8

    Examples

    • Olivia est pulcherrima puella.

      • Olivia is the most beautiful girl. Fem. Nom. Sing

    • Pueri pulcherrimas puellas spectare amant.

      • The boys love to watch the most beautiful girls. Fem .acc. Pl.


    Double l superlatives

    Double L superlatives

    • A small group (six) of adjectives whose base endsin il will use limus (effectively doubling the l which you should trill) to form their superlatives. These adjectives are:

      • Facilisfacillimus, -a, -um easiest

      • Difficilisdifficillimus, -a, -um most difficult

      • Similissimillimus, -a, -um most similar

      • Dissimilisdissimillimus, -a,-um most different

      • Gracilisgracillimus, -a, -um most slender

      • Humilishumillimus, -a, -um most humble


    The irregulars

    The Irregulars

    • Changing degree usually follows the patterns described, making the words progressively longer and more impressive as the degree increases. However, just like in English, many words have irregular degree. We don’t say bad, badder, baddest; instead we say bad, worse, worst. Good doesn’t become gooder, then goodest; instead we use good, better, best.


    Irregulars

    Irregulars

    • Memorize the following irregulars:

      • Bonus melior, meliusoptimus

      • Maluspeior, peiuspessimus

      • Magnusmaior, maiusmaximus

      • Parvusminor, minusminimus

      • Multus *plus/ plures, pluraplurimus

        • *neuter substantive


    Special grammar structures with degree

    Special grammar structures with degree

    • The superlative is frequently used with a partitive genitive or genitive of the whole.

      • Olivia est pulcherrima puella omnium.

      • Olivia is the most beautiful girl of all.


    Using quam with comparatives

    Using quam with comparatives

    • When comparing two things with quam:

      • The two objects must be in the same case.

      • Quam means than

      • Flavia est pulchrior quam Cornelia.

        • Both are nominitive.

        • Quam links the two as than


    Ablative of comparison

    Ablative of Comparison

    • When using an ablative of comparison, the first item must be either nominative or accusative.

    • The second item is ablative without a preposition.

      • Flavia est pulchrior Cornelia*.

      • Flavia is prettier than Cornelia.


    Ablative of degree of difference

    Ablative of Degree of Difference

    • Used to show how much of a comparison in reference to the comparative adjective. ( functions somewhat like an adverb)

      • Multo much

      • Paulo a little

    • No preposition is used.

      • Nostri milites sunt multo fortiores illis militibus.

      • Our soldiers are much more brave than those soldiers.


    Adverbs

    ADVERBS

    FRIENDLY, EASIER TO GET ALONG WITH, IMPOSSIBLE TO DECLINE


    Adverbs1

    ADVERBS

    • Adverbs modify verbs, ( adverb = to the verb), adjectives, and other adverbs. They limit these words.

      • When?

      • How?

      • To what extent?

      • He walks quickly. Ambulat celeriter.


    Adverbs2

    Adverbs

    • Adverbs agree automatically. They cannot be declined; just put them in the sentence where you need them. Many adverbs are independently made (not made from another word) such as mox, hodie, cras etc. Others are made from adjectives in their positive form.


    Degree of adverbs positive

    Degree of adverbs : Positive

    • The positive adverb is made one of two ways:

      • 1st and 2nd dec adjectives = remove a from feminine nominative singular and add e

        latus lata, latum wide late widely

        3rd dec usually add er, ter, or iter

        brevis, breve short breviter shortly


    Degree of adverbs comparative

    Degree of adverbs: Comparative

    • The second degree or comparative is formed by using the neuter comparative adjective (ius). Just check to be certain it is not modifying a neuter noun. Translate with more.

      • Pugnavit gravius. He fought more seriously.

        • Adverb in comparative degree

      • Hoc est gravius bellum. This is a more serious war.

        • Adjective modifying the neuter noun bellum


    Superlative adverbs

    Superlative adverbs

    • Change the “us” to an “e” on the superlative adjectives

      • Latissimus = latissime

      • Widest = most widely

    • When used with “quam”, translate “as ______ as possible”

      • Quam latissime as quickly as possible


    Participles

    Participles

    What they are, what they do, and how you make and use them


    What is a participle

    What is a participle?

    • Verbal adjective

      • A hybrid-type adjective built from a verb

      • As an adjective, it describes a noun or pronoun and must agree in gender, number, and case

        • The captured slaves were going to the arena for the lions.

        • Captured tells you which slaves and must agree with slaves in gender, number, and case. In this sentence it would be masculine, nominative plural.

        • Capti servi ad arenam leonibus ibant.


    Participles definition continued

    Participles Definition continued

    • As a verb, a participle retains the idea of an action.

      • Capti servi ad arenam leonibus ibant.

      • Multi servi ad arenam leonibus ibant.

      • Captured is something you can do as opposed to many. You cannot many.


    Verbal qualities of participles tense

    Verbal qualities of Participles: Tense

    • As a verb, a participle has tense.

      • Participles come in three tenses: Perfect, Present, and Future


    Perfect tense

    Perfect tense

    • Perfect happens before the main verb

      • The lions ate the captured slaves.

      • Leones captos servos consumpserunt.

        • The slaves had already been captured before the lions ate them.


    Present tense

    Present tense

    Present happens at the same time as the main verb.

    The lions were chasing the fleeing slaves.

    Leones fugientes servos agitabant.

    The lions were chasing the slaves as they were fleeing


    Future tense

    Future Tense

    • Future happens after the main verb.

      • Intending to escape, the slave pushed his friend toward the lion.

      • Fugiturus servus amicum suum ad leonem propulit.

        • The slave pushed his friend to the lion as a distraction so that he could escape while the lion was munching on his friend.


    Verbal qualities of participles voice

    Verbal Qualities of Participles: Voice

    • As a verb, a participle has voice (active or passive).

    • As a verb, the participle ( present and future) can take an object.

      • Intending to eat the slave, the lion attacked.

      • Consumpturus servum, leo oppugnavit.

        • Servum is the object of consumpturus.


    Present active

    Present active

    • Present participles are active. The modified noun does the participle.

      • The screaming slave ran from the lion.

      • Clamans servus effugit e leone.

        • The slave is being described by clamans and he is the one doing the clamans.


    Perfect passive participles

    Perfect Passive participles

    • Perfect participles are passive. The modified noun receives the participle and is frequently accompanied by an ablative of personal agent or an ablative of means.

      • The slave having been attacked by the lion screamed loudly.

      • Servus oppugnatus a leone vehementer clamavit.

        • The slave is being described by oppugnatus but the lion is actually doing the oppugnatus.


    Future active

    Future active

    • Future participles are active. The modified noun does the participle.

      • The lion intending to eat the slave attacked ferociously.

      • Leo comsumpturus servum ferociter petivit.

        • The lion is being described by consumpturus and in the near future will be doing consumpturus.


    Perfect active participles

    Perfect active participles

    • Only exists for deponent verbs

    • Will look like a perfect passive but will translate actively

      • Will not be used with ablative of personal agent or means

      • Examples

        • Ingressus arenam, leo Christianum consumpsit.

        • Having entered the arena, the lion ate the Christian.


    Voice practice

    Voice practice

    • Choose one of the verbs from the first list and write an English sentence for each participle:

      • Present active

      • Perfect passive

      • Future active


    Verbal qualities of participles objects

    Verbal qualities of participles: objects

    • As a verb, the participle ( present and future) can take an object.

      • Intending to eat the slave, the lion attacked.

      • Consumpturus servum, leo oppugnavit.

        • Servum is the object of consumpturus.

        • Consumpturus modifies leo and agree with leo.


    Forming participles

    Forming participles

    Present active

    Perfect passive

    Perfect active

    Future active


    Present active participles

    Present Active Participles

    • Begin with the infinitive

      • Remove RE for most verbs

      • Add NS, NTIS for the nominative singular and genitive singular

      • Decline as 3rd declension adjective except ablative singular can be I or E

      • Base =genitive singular minus is

    • Translation : ----ing, while ----ling


    Present active participle sample

    Masculine and feminine

    NSNTES

    NTISNTIUM

    NTINTIBUS

    NTEMNTES

    NTINTIBUS

    NTE

    Loving, while loving

    Neuter

    NSNTIA

    NTISNTIUM

    NTINTIBUS

    NSNTIA

    NTINTIBUS

    NTE

    Loving, while loving

    Present active participle sample


    Perfect passive participle

    PERFECT PASSIVE PARTICIPLE

    • Already made for you

    • Fourth principal part of the verb

      • Amo, amare, amavi, amatus

    • Base = fourth principal part minus us

    • Decline using first and second declension endings

      • Masculine second declension

      • Feminine first declension

      • Neuter second declension neuter

  • TRANSLATION: HAVING BEEN ___ED, _____ED, AFTER BEING _____ED


  • Perfect passive participle sample singular

    Perfect passive participle sample singular

    • Masculinefeminineneuter

    • Amatusamataamatum

    • Amatiamataeamati

    • Amatoamataeamato

    • Amatumamatamamatum

    • Amatoamataamato

      • Having been loved, loved, after being loved


    Perfect passive participle sample plural

    Perfect passive participle sample plural

    • Masculinefeminineneuter

    • Amatiamataeamata

    • Amatorumamatarumamatorum

    • Amatisamatisamatis

    • Amatosamatasamatis

    • Amatisamatisamatis


    Perfect active participle formation

    Perfect active participle Formation

    • Already made for you

    • Only for deponent verbs

    • Third principal part of the deponent verbs

    • Base = third principal part minus us

      • Sequor, sequi, secutus sum = secut

      • Decline like perfect passive, just translate actively

        • Having followed secutus

    • TRANSLATION: HAVING -----ED, AFTER _____ING


    Future active participle formation

    Future active participle formation

    • Begin with the perfect passive participle or 4th principal part ( Use the third principal part for a deponent)

    • Remove us

    • Add ur

    • Add first declension for feminine, 2nd masculine for masculine, 2nd neuter for neuter


    Future active participle

    FUTURE ACTIVE PARTICIPLE

    • TRANSLATION: ABOUT TO _____, INTENDING TO ______, GOING TO _____


    Future active participle masculine

    SINGULAR

    AMATURUS

    AMATURI

    AMATURO

    AMATURUM

    AMATURO

    PLURAL

    AMATURI

    AMATURORUM

    AMATURIS

    AMATUROS

    AMATURIS

    FUTURE ACTIVE PARTICIPLE MASCULINE


    Future active participle feminine

    SINGULAR

    AMATURA

    AMATURAE

    AMATURAE

    AMATURAM

    AMATURA

    PLURAL

    AMATURAE

    AMATURARUM

    AMATURIS

    AMATURAS

    AMATURIS

    FUTURE ACTIVE PARTICIPLE FEMININE


    Future active participle neuter

    SINGULAR

    AMATURUM

    AMATURI

    AMATURO

    AMATURUM

    AMATURO

    PLURAL

    AMATURA

    AMATURORUM

    AMATURIS

    AMATURA

    AMATURIS

    FUTURE ACTIVE PARTICIPLE NEUTER


    Using participles tenses

    Using participles: tenses

    • The tense of the participle is relative to the main verb:

      • Same time present

      • After future

      • Before perfect

      • Examples

        • Milites perdentes urbem vincerunt proelium.

        • Milites reliquerunt urbem perditam a militibus.

        • Milites oppugnaverunt perdituri urbem.


    Using participles

    Using participles

    • Participles work like any adjective, just a little bit fancier. However, under all circumstances, they like any adjective must agree with the modified noun in gender, number, and case

    • The endings will not always match because of declensional differences, but the agreement must always be gender, number, and case


    Ablative absolute

    Ablative Absolute

    • Two words in the ablative which establish conditions for the main clause but are not grammatically connected to any word of the main clause.

    • Can be:

      • Noun and participle

      • Two nouns

      • Noun and adjective


    Ablative absolute1

    Ablative Absolute

    • The ablative absolute is a very commonly used construction with a participle. It allows you to combine two thoughts concisely.

      • Urbe perdita, milites iter faciebant ad castra.

      • Discipulo dormiente, magister erat irata.


    Rhetorical techniques

    Rhetorical Techniques

    • Alliteration: repetition of the initial sound of a word for emphasis

      • Porcumparvulumportat.

      • He ports a petite pig.

    • Anaphora: repetition of a word for rhetorical effect

      • Tenet rectumcursumrectagubernaculo

        Asyndeton: omission of conjunctions in a list to emphasis the size of the list

        concursabantservimilitesviripuerimulieres

        Slaves, soldiers, men, boys, women were running around.


    Latin grammar notebook

    • Polysyndeton: inclusion of extra conjunctions to emphasize a list

      • Emi vinum et porcum et mala et piros.

      • I bought wine and pork and apples and pears.

    • Historical present: switch from past tense to present tense to make the reader feel like the action is more immediate and compelling


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