An introduction to marine viruses
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An Introduction to Marine Viruses. What Is a Virus?. Virus Size & Structure. 1 Micron. Chlamydia. Pox virus. Herpes virus. Influenza Virus. Bacterium ( Staphyllococcus aureus ). Picornavirus (polio). Relative size of viruses and bacteria. Microbial Loop. CO2. DOC.

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An Introduction to Marine Viruses

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An introduction to marine viruses

An Introduction to Marine Viruses


What is a virus

What Is a Virus?


Virus size structure

Virus Size & Structure

1 Micron

Chlamydia

Pox virus

Herpes virus

Influenza Virus

Bacterium (Staphyllococcusaureus)

Picornavirus (polio)

Relative size of viruses and bacteria


Microbial loop

Microbial Loop

CO2

DOC

Higher Trophic Levels

Bacteria

Lysis

Viruses

Decay

Figure Adapted from Sawstrom, Viral Dynamics in the Microbial Loop


Viruses in the marine environment

Viruses in the Marine Environment

The estimated 1030 viruses in the ocean, if stretched end to end, would span farther than the nearest 60 galaxies.


Characteristics of aquatic viruses

Characteristics of Aquatic Viruses

  • Most diverse and abundant component of the plankton community

  • Only a small portion of marine virus diversity has been isolated and described

  • Composition and structure are dependant on seasonality, the degree of stratification of the water column, and other factors related to geographic location.


Why are they important

  • Marine Health – positive and negative influences

  • Global Carbon Cycle

Why Are They Important?


Influence on marine health

Influence on Marine Health

  • Control of bacterial and algal populations

  • Microbial Food Web & Nutrient cycling

  • CO2 cycle

  • Microbial Diversity


Role in microbial food webs

Role in Microbial Food Webs

Products of cell lysis:

  • Macromolecules

  • Cell organelles

  • Virus particles


Influence on structure and diversity of aquatic microbial communities

Influence on Structure and Diversity of Aquatic Microbial Communities

  • Cell Predation Limiting Specific Bacteria and Phytoplankton Populations

  • Lateral and Horizontal Gene Transfer


An important role in the deep sea biogeochemical cycles

An Important Role in the Deep-Sea biogeochemical cycles

  • Viral production in deep-sea benthic ecosystems worldwide is extremely high

  • Viral infections are responsible for the abatement of 80% of prokaryotic heterotrophic production


Viruses on the sea floor

Viruses on the Sea Floor

Photo from Monterey Bay Aquarium Research Institute (MBARI)


Increasing marine stresses

Increasing Marine Stresses

  • Transfer of invasive, non-native, microbial constituents from one region to another

  • Pollution

  • Outbreak of waterborne disease

  • Loss of habitat

  • Overharvesting


Implications for future research

Implications for Future Research

  • The processes involved with with viruses and nutrient cycling need to be examined

  • The effects of global warming have placed special emphasis on understanding the biogeochemical cycling of carbon and nitrogen

  • Determination of how the physiology and ecology of planktonic organisms affects global carbon and nitrogen cycling may improve our ability to predict and perhaps remediate the ecological impacts of human related carbon and nitrogen release


The potential for new discoveries

The Potential for New Discoveries

  • A marine virus has been found with a gigantic genome that contains compounds that might be used in anti-ageing and cancer-inhibiting therapies

  • This virus is known to infect a marine algae species that is important in taking billions of tonnes of carbon dioxide from the atmosphere and is thought to control climate through the production of a gas (dimethyl sulfide) that helps form clouds


Implications for marine management

Implications for Marine Management

  • Through cycles of infection, replication and host cell lysis, phages impact multiple pathways and processes involved in the population ecology and functioning of marine environments as a whole

  • Scientists need to better understand the function of marine viruses in order to model the future effects of climate change and other global changes as well as to find new discoveries in medicine and microbiolog


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