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The History of GIS. FIVE PHASES OF DEVELOPMENT. Research Frontier (Late 50’s to Mid 70’s). Research Frontier. Individual-led developments Limited international collaboration Lack of data in machine-readable form Lack of computing resources. 1968. 1958. Roger Tomlinson The “father” of GIS.

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Five phases of development
FIVE PHASES OF DEVELOPMENT

  • Research Frontier (Late 50’s to Mid 70’s)


Research frontier
Research Frontier

  • Individual-led developments

  • Limited international collaboration

  • Lack of data in machine-readable form

  • Lack of computing resources

1968

1958

Roger TomlinsonThe “father” of GIS


Research frontier1
Research Frontier

  • Jack Dangermond

  • Founded ESRI in 1969

Environmental

Systems

Research

Institute


Five phases of development1
FIVE PHASES OF DEVELOPMENT

  • Research Frontier (Late 50’s to Mid 70’s)

  • Experimentation and Practice

    (Early 70’s to Early 80’s)


Experimentation and practice
Experimentation and Practice

  • National agencies drive development

  • Government-funded research

  • Formal scientific experiments

  • Role of the individual diminished

1970

1972

Landsat

SPOT - 1986


Five phases of development2
FIVE PHASES OF DEVELOPMENT

  • Research Frontier (Late 50’s to Mid 70’s)

  • Experimentation and Practice

    (Early 70’s to Early 80’s)

  • Commercial Phase (The 80’s)


Commercial phase
Commercial Phase

  • Corporate software development

  • Isolated systems and datasets


Five phases of development3
FIVE PHASES OF DEVELOPMENT

  • Research Frontier (Late 50’s to Mid 70’s)

  • Experimentation and Practice

    (Early 70’s to Early 80’s)

  • Commercial Phase (The 80’s)

  • User Dominance (The 90’s)


User dominance
User Dominance

  • Strong competition among vendors

  • Distributed databases

  • Network Accessibility


Five phases of development4
FIVE PHASES OF DEVELOPMENT

  • Research Frontier (Late 50’s to Mid 70’s)

  • Experimentation and Practice

    (Early 70’s to Early 80’s)

  • Commercial Phase (The 80’s)

  • User Dominance (The 90’s)

  • Web-Based Internet GIS and GIScience

    (The 00’s)


Web based internet gis giscience
Web-Based Internet GIS & GIScience

  • Fully-distributed architecture

  • Focus on interoperability

  • Mobile GIS

  • Research on best practices for GIS

  • VGI – Volunteer Geographic Information

    • Ex: Wikimapia


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