Post classical western europe from 476 to 1453 c e
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POST CLASSICAL WESTERN EUROPE FROM 476 TO 1453 C.E. FROM PERIPHERAL REGION TO NASCENT GREAT POWER. QUEST FOR POLITICAL ORDER AFTER 476 CE. Germanic kingdoms Visigoths dominated Spain, from 470's to early 8th century Ostrogoths dominated Italy, the 5th century to 530's

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POST CLASSICAL WESTERN EUROPE FROM 476 TO 1453 C.E.

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Post classical western europe from 476 to 1453 c e

POST CLASSICAL WESTERN EUROPE FROM 476 TO 1453 C.E.

FROM PERIPHERAL REGION TO NASCENT GREAT POWER


Quest for political order after 476 ce

QUEST FOR POLITICAL ORDER AFTER 476 CE

  • Germanic kingdoms

    • Visigoths dominated Spain, from 470's to early 8th century

    • Ostrogoths dominated Italy, the 5th century to 530's

    • Lombards invaded, ruled Italy, 550's to the mid-8th century

    • Franks, Burgundians controlled Gaul, Netherlands

    • Angles, Saxons, Jutes established kingdoms in Britain

  • Political Culture

    • Germans organized around tribes, families

    • Personal loyalty to king, local noble not state

    • Warrior aristocracy assisted royalty

    • Masses of Germans were free peasants with duties to king

  • Center of Europe shifted from Italy to northern area

    • Area in Northern France, Western Germany, Netherlands

    • Towns declined, only non-German structure was the church

    • Most Germans were Arian Christians but tolerated Catholics


Europe c 526 600 c e

EUROPE c. 526 – 600 C.E.


Rise of the franks

RISE OF THE FRANKS

  • The Franks

    • Settled in Belgium, Northern France, Western Germany

    • Developed group identity during the 3rd century C.E.

    • Politically inexperienced, little exposure to Roman society

  • Clovis

    • A strong military and political leader

    • Eliminated last vestiges of Roman authority in Gaul

    • Launched military campaigns against other Germanic peoples

    • Built the most powerful and dynamic state in western Europe

  • Clovis's conversion

    • Most Germans were Arian Christians

      • Converted to Arianism by St. Ulfias before migration

      • Hostile to Catholics but generally tolerant if taxes paid

  • The Franks converted to Roman Christianity

    • “In Hoc Signet Vince” – in this sign conquer

    • Alliance with Catholics greatly strengthened the Franks


Charlemagne

CHARLEMAGNE

  • The Carolingians

    • Merovingian leaders lost control after Clovis's death

    • Carolingians asserted authority, the early 8th century

    • Charles Martel

      • Mayor of the Palace, chief official under Merovingian kings

      • Stops Muslim invasion of Europe, 732 at Battle of Tours

    • Pepin becomes king, 751

      • Pope appointed Pepin as King of the Franks

      • Invaded Italy to save Pope from the Lombards

      • Pope allows Franks to reign as King of Italy

      • Pepin grants the area in Italy around Rome to Pope

  • Charlemagne (reigned 768-814 C.E.)

    • Charles Martel's grandson, founder of Carolingian empire

    • Control extended to northeast Spain, Bavaria, north Italy

    • Rulers of eastern Europe, southern Italy paid tribute

  • Administration

    • Capital city at Aachen (in modern Germany)

    • Relied on aristocratic deputies, known as counts

    • Used missi dominici to oversee local authorities

  • Charlemagne as emperor

    • Pope Leo III proclaimed Charlemagne emperor, 800

    • Coronation strained relations with Byzantine emperors


The rise of the frankish empire

THE RISE OF THE FRANKISH EMPIRE


Breakup of the frankish empire

BREAKUP OF THE FRANKISH EMPIRE

  • Louis the Pious (re. 814-840)

    • Charlemagne's only surviving son, lost control of the counts

    • His three sons divided the empire into three kingdoms, 843

  • Invasions

    • Muslims raided Mediterranean coasts

      • Conquered Spain, Sicily, Sardinia

      • Raided coasts of S. France, S. Italy

    • Magyars invaded from the east

    • Vikings invaded from the north

  • The Vikings

    • Scandinavian homelands - Norway, Denmark, and Sweden

    • Raided regions from Russia to Spain

    • Established colonies in Iceland, Greenland, Canada

    • Conquered parts of England, Ireland, Scotland, France

  • Outstanding seafarers

    • Fleets could go to interior regions via rivers

    • Attacked towns and villages; favorite targets were Christian


Vikings magyars and arabs

VIKINGS, MAGYARS, AND ARABS


New regional states

NEW REGIONAL STATES

  • England

    • Small Keltic, German kingdoms merged into larger realm

    • Fought Scandinavian raids

    • King Alfred (reigned 871-899) expanded to the north

    • Alfred's successors controlled England c. mid-10th century

  • Germany and Italy

    • After Carolingian empire, local lords took control

    • King Otto I (reigned 936-73) defeated Magyars in 955

    • Imposed authority in Central Europe

      • Ruled Germany, Netherlands, Burgundy, Austria, Switzerland

      • Suzerain lords over Northern Italy, Slovenia, Czech lands

    • Led armies to support the papacy in Italy

      • Otto's crowned emperor by pope in 962

  • France

    • Counts and other local authorities became local lords

    • Vikings settled in northern France

    • Nobles elect Counts of Paris as King to replace Carolingians

  • Spain and Southern Italy

    • Spanish Christian states in North warred against Muslim caliphs

    • Southern Italy patchwork of loyalties; eventually overrun by Normans

  • East Central and Northern Europe

    • Vikings establish three kingdoms: Denmark, Norway, Sweden

    • Poland and Hungary are large border states in east


Europe c 1000 c e

EUROPE c. 1000 C.E.


Feudal system

FEUDAL SYSTEM

  • Lords and vassals

    • Lord owned land, needs soldiers

      • Trades land for service

      • Grants of land called fiefs

        • Vassal provided defense

        • Received livelihood from land

        • Vassals provided military equipment

    • Vassals owed lord:

      • Loyalty, obedience, respect, counsel

      • Military service when called into service

    • Lords often made smaller grant to others

      • Called sub-division of fief

      • Lowest, service owning noble was a knight

    • Church often made vassals of soldiers for defense

      • Church could hold land as a vassal to a lord

      • Church often held land in own right

    • Women could be vassals, own fiefs but not fight

  • Feudal politics

    • Multi-layered network of lord-vassal relationships

    • Political stability depended on discipline, control

    • Lords, knights often had conflicting loyalties


Two feudal states

TWO FEUDAL STATES

FRANCE

HOLY ROMANEMPIRE


Manoralism economic feudalism

MANORALISM: ECONOMIC FEUDALISM

  • Serfdom

    • Difference between peasants, serfs

      • Peasants were free, owned their own land

      • Serfs not free, could not own land

      • Serfs, peasants lived similar lives

    • Serfs as an intermediate category

      • Began under Romans

      • Diocletian bound people to occupations

      • Serfdom arose during invasions, marauders

    • Slaves, peasants frequently intermarried

    • Free peasants became serfs for protection

  • Serfs' obligations

    • Labor service and rents in kind

    • Could not move without permission

    • Serfs had right to work on land, pass job to heirs

    • Serfs often drafted as foot soldiers in feudal armies

  • Manors

    • Principal form of agricultural organization

    • Manor was a large estate controlled by lord

    • Many lords could execute serfs for serious misconduct

    • Manors were largely self-sufficient communities

      • Trade: luxuries, manufactured products, finished goods

      • Serfs had to work lord’s land first, before their own plots


Economy of medieval europe

ECONOMY OF MEDIEVAL EUROPE

  • Agriculture

    • Agricultural production suffered from repeated invasions

    • Small wooden plows of Mediterranean farmers did not work well in the north

  • Heavy plows

    • Heavy plows appeared in 6th century, could turn soils

    • Common from 8th century, production increased

    • Cultivation of new lands, watermills, and rotating crops

  • A rural society

    • Agricultural surplus not enough to support large cities

    • Towns were few and sparsely populated

  • Trade

    • Trade, urban centers began to develop, 10th century

    • Trade arose in Mediterranean, North Sea, Black Sea

  • Population

    • In 200 C.E., European population stood at 36 million

    • In 400 C.E., 31 million

    • In 600 C.E., 26 million

    • In 800 C.E., edged up to 29 million

    • In 900 C.E., 30 million

    • By 1000 C.E., back to 36 mil


The age of faith

THE AGE OF FAITH

  • Post-Classical Western Europe as An Age of Faith

    • Every aspect of life was dominated by the Church

      • Rulers were crowned by the “Grace of God”

      • Political rule viewed as divinely sanctioned

      • All Christians were expected to tithe to the church

      • Education, art dictated by Church ideals

      • Calendar organized by faith holidays

      • Fair prices, economic practices dictated by church

    • All answers to questions were dictated largely by faith

      • Law was largely dictated by religion

      • Serious matters submitted to Church for arbitration, resolution

    • Popes, clergy held enormous power

      • Church held lands independent of many rulers

      • Church lands could not be taxed

      • Church lands were often enormously wealthy

      • Bishops could not be installed by secular rulers

      • Secular rulers appealed to Rome for mediation

      • Clergy could not be tried in secular courts

      • Popes could deprive kings of their thrones

      • Separate canon law for church

    • Social Hierarchy of the Church

      • Commoners could rise to leading positions

      • Social background often unimportant in church

      • Women in church had enormous influence

  • Symbols of the Post-Classical Age of Faith

    • The Cathedral

    • The Crusades

    • The Pilgrimage

    • The Monastery


Conversion to christianity

CONVERSION TO CHRISTIANITY

  • The Franks and the Church

    • Franks viewed as protectors of the papacy

    • Charlemagne worked to spread Christianity

      • Reconquered parts of Spain from Muslims

      • Charlemagne forced Saxons to convert

      • Built churches, schools, monasteries

  • The spread of Christianity

    • Popes took an active roll in sending out missionaries

    • Pagan ways did not disappear immediately

      • Scandinavia, Baltic lands were last to convert

      • Pagan rituals often blended into Christianity

      • Cities, towns largely Christian but countryside weakly so

    • By 1000 C.E., western Europe was Roman Christianity

      • Irish, Mozarabic rites of Christianity accepted by Pope

      • Arian Christianity eliminated by Franks


The papacy

THE PAPACY

  • Pope Gregory I (590-604 C.E.)

    • Organized defense of Rome against Lombards' menace

    • Reasserted papal primacy over other bishops

    • Strongly emphasized the sacrament of penance

  • The conversion of England

    • Gregory's missionary campaigns in western Europe

    • First converted English kings

    • By 800 C.E., England securely in the Roman church

  • Rise of Church as a Temporal Power

    • Popes claimed that the spiritual powers were superior to temporal

      • Italy lacked any great power; city-states constantly quarreled

      • German emperors at war with nobles; French kings too weak

      • Pope played one side off another, acquired lands in Italy

    • Many European bishops acquired lands, became part of feudalism

      • In Germany, owned 10% of the best lands

      • In Spain, Baltic spiritual military orders led wars on pagans

  • Papal Powers

    • Spiritual head of all Christians including aristocrats, royalty

      • Weapons included excommunication, interdict, canon law

      • Economically received tithe, freedom from taxation, owned great economic wealth

      • Popes became head of reform movements

        • Abolished simony, insisted on celibacy of priests, reformed monasteries

        • Established College of Cardinals to elect popes not kings, mobs

    • Popes Gregory VIII and Innocent III defied, deposed kings

    • Popes launched crusades against Muslims, heretic Christians, some Italians


Monasticism

MONASTICISM

  • Origin

    • Christians practiced asceticism in deserts of Egypt, 2nd and 3rd century

    • Monastic lifestyle became popular when Christianity became legal

  • Monastic rules

    • St. Benedict (480-547 C.E.) provided a set of regulations

    • Virtues of Benedictine monks: poverty, chastity, and obedience

    • Western monastic rites differed from Eastern rites

      • Western rites emphasized work, prayer, service to the poor

      • Eastern rites were relatively isolated, dedicated to prayer but not outside contacts

    • St. Scholastica (482-543 C.E.)

      • St. Benedict's sister, a nun

      • Adapted the Rule, and provided guidance for religious life of women

  • The roles of monasteries

    • Became dominant feature in social and cultural life of western Europe

    • Accumulated large landholdings but spread knowledge

      • Wealthy patrons donated land to monks for monasteries

      • Taught peasants, serfs techniques of farming

      • Cleared forested lands, planted them

      • Organized much of rural labor for agriculture

    • Provided a variety of social services

      • Inns and shelters for travelers and refugees

      • Orphanages, medical centers

      • Schools, libraries and scriptoria

    • Monks served needs of rural population


Rise of regional states

RISE OF REGIONAL STATES

  • The Holy Roman Empire

    • New Emperors

      • Otto of Saxony rose in northern Germany by the mid-10th century; Pope John XII proclaimed him emperor in 962

      • Later emperors warred alternately with powerful dukes, popes for influence in empire

      • Eventually emperorship becomes elected by seven most powerful imperial dukes, bishops

      • Smaller territorial states emerged, weakened centralizing efforts of the emperors

    • Investiture Contest

      • Formerly, important church officials were appointed by imperial authorities

      • Pope Gregory VII ordered an end to the practice

      • Emperor Henry IV was excommunicated because of his disobedience

  • France

    • The Capetians

      • Hugh Capet, a minor and weak noble, was elected king in 987

      • In the next three centuries, Capetian kings gained power and wealth gradually

      • Spend most of energy asserting their power over regional powerful nobles

    • The Normans

      • Descendants of Vikings who carved out a state in Normandy of France

      • Nominally subject to Carolingian and Capetian rulers, but acted independently

  • The British Isles

    • England: Normans to Plantagenets

      • Duke William of Normandy invaded England

      • Introduced Norman style of feudalism to England

      • Warred constantly with France for control of territory

    • Ireland and Scotland too disunited due to clan warfare – at mercy of England

  • Italy

    • Northern Italy nominally part of the Holy Roman Empire

    • Church influence in Italy

      • The popes ruled a good-sized territory in central Italy

      • The church also influenced politics of northern Italy

    • Italian states

      • A series of prosperous city-states emerged by the 12th century

      • Normans conquered southern Italy, brought it to Roman Catholic Christianity

  • Christian and Muslim states in Iberia

    • Muslim conquerors ruled most of the peninsula, 8th-11th centuries

    • Christian kingdoms took the peninsula except Granada by late 13th cent


Europe c early 13 th century

EUROPE, C. EARLY 13TH CENTURY


Growth of the agricultural economy

GROWTH OF THE AGRICULTURAL ECONOMY

  • Expansion of arable land

    • Population rises

    • Cleared forests, swamps

    • Lords encouraged such efforts

  • Improved farming techniques

    • Crop rotation methods

    • Use of fertilizer

    • Cultivation of beans increased

    • More domestic animals

    • Books on economy, agriculture

  • New tools and technology

    • Extensive use of watermills and heavy plows

    • Use of horseshoe and horse collar, increased land under cultivation

    • 3-plot rotation of planted land

  • New food supplies

    • Before 1000, European diet - grains

    • After 1000, more meat, dairy products, fish, vegetables, legumes

  • Population growth

    • From 29 to 79 million between 800 C.E. and 1300 C.E.


Revival of towns and trade

REVIVAL OF TOWNS AND TRADE

  • Urbanization

    • Peasants, serfs, tradesmen flocked to cities and towns

      • Towns allowed serfs to acquire freedom if they stayed 1 year, 1 day

      • Local nobles allowed towns charters, rights for direct taxes

      • Towns ruled by urban elite usually from guilds, wealthy

    • Textile production

      • Northern Italian cities and Flanders became centers of wool textiles

      • Trade in wool products fueled economic development of Europe

  • Mediterranean trade

    • Trading City-States

      • Venice, Genoa were the most prominent but others such as Pisa, Amalfi

      • Wealth based on sea-power, luxury trade

    • Italians established colonies in Mediterranean, Black Sea

      • Conquered, settled cities, built factories and trade centers

      • Established trading alliances, signed treaties with many including Muslims

  • The Hanseatic League

    • Hansa - association of trading cities, controlled trade of N. Europe

      • German trading city-states made alliance; established factories in North, Baltic Seas

      • Concluded treaties with many states; admitted key foreign cities to alliance

      • So powerful could resist kingdoms, made war on opponents

      • Trade is fish, grains, iron, cloth

    • Major European rivers, entrepots linked Hansa to the Mediterranean

  • Improved business techniques

    • Bankers issued letters of credit to merchants

    • Commercial partnerships for limiting risks of commercial investment


European cities

EUROPEAN CITIES


Medieval trade routes

MEDIEVAL TRADE ROUTES


Trading cities

TRADING CITIES


Social changes

SOCIAL CHANGES

  • The three estates

    • "Those who pray" – clergy, spiritual estate

      • Ruling hierarchy: Popes, bishops, abbots

      • Common clergy: Monks, priests

    • "Those who fight" - feudal nobles, military estate

      • Royalty who ran a state

      • Land owning lords such as dukes, counts, princes

      • Lowest nobility with no land were knights

    • "Those who work" - mostly peasants and serfs

      • Peasants and Serfs

      • Those who lived in Towns (Burg = Burghers)

        • Not an estate in most countries

        • Grew to become middle class

  • Guilds

    • Established standards of quality for manufactured goods

    • Determined prices and regulated entry of new workers

    • Ran free cities as urban aristocracy

  • Independent cities

    • Expansion of cities did not fit into feudal framework

    • Urban populations were increasingly able to resist feudal nobles

  • Chivalry

    • Code of ethics and behavior for feudal nobles

    • Church directed chivalry toward Christian faith, piety

  • Rise of Estates General, Parliaments, and Assemblies

    • Kings had to govern with the consent of the nobles, clergy

    • Could not tax without their approval for which demanded rights

    • Eventually most rulers granted nobles, clergy rights to assemble, to debate

    • Also granted right to free peasants, citizens of towns who formed the “commons”

    • Many assemblies limited rights of rulers, became permanent bodies


Gender roles in medieval europe

GENDER ROLES IN MEDIEVAL EUROPE

  • Feminine Roles of the Day

    • The Virgin Mary was the ideal

      • Mother to children

      • Supports husband quietly, diligently

      • A patriarchal society but strong feminine roles

    • Public Role

      • Very limited as it was a “male’s world”

        • Women could own property in own right

        • Feudalism did not prohibit women from fighting but often they named a champion

      • Female rulers were not unknown

        • Generally seen as regents for son, grandson

        • If widowed, lost rights if remarried or when male came of age

        • Frequently seen in Spain, Scandinavia, England, Italy

        • Laws would not permit women to rule in France, Germany, Eastern Europe

    • Private Role

      • ALWAYS differentiate between aristocracy, poor

      • Aristocratic Women

        • Women were the womb to breed the heir; marriage politics taken very seriously

        • Roles public and private limited by convention and wealth to social roles and little else

      • Poor women

        • Equally a man’s world but women had to work next to males for family to survive

        • Most women married due to pregnancy, married early in life, died young

    • Middle Class (Urban) women

      • Towns and cities offered fresh opportunities for women

      • Women worked in a wide range of occupations

      • Most guilds admitted women, and women also had their own guilds

    • The Church Women

      • As nuns women acquired social equality with men by renouncing sexuality

      • Abbesses, nuns could run monasteries, were educated, had great influence

  • Women of the Day

    • Eleanor, Countess Aquitaine, Duchess of Normandy, Queen of England

      • Most celebrated woman of her day

      • Inherited richest lands in Europe; married King of England

      • Supported troubadours, promoted good manners, refinement, arts, and romantic love

    • Blessed Hildegard von Bingen

      • Leading mystic, intellectual, advisors to bishops, popes

      • Revolutionized techniques in music


The church and learning

THE CHURCH AND LEARNING

  • Cathedral schools

    • Bishops, archbishops in France, Italy organized schools

    • Cathedral schools concentrated on liberal arts

    • Some offered instruction in law, medicine, and theology

  • Universities

    • Large cathedral schools developed into universities

    • Most students trained for church, bureaucratic jobs

    • Most students were from middle classes and not nobility

    • Student guilds and faculty guilds

    • Chief degree was theology

  • The influence of Aristotle

    • Increased contacts led to rediscovery of Aristotle

    • Obtained works from Byzantines, Muslims

  • Scholasticism: St. Thomas Aquinas

    • Scholasticism

      • System learning applied to Christianity

      • Intellectual and rational

    • St. Thomas Aquinas

      • Dominican scholar

      • Famous scholastic theologian

      • Wrote Summa Theologica

    • Sought to harmonize

      • Greek rationality

      • Aristotelian learning

      • Christianity


The religion of the masses

THE RELIGION OF THE MASSES

  • Popular Religion

    • Sacraments and Devotions

      • The most popular was the Eucharist

      • Devotion to saints for help

      • The Virgin Mary: the most popular saint

      • Saints' relics were esteemed

      • Pilgrimage: to Rome, Compostela, Jerusalem

    • People were superstitious

      • Devoted to many pagan rituals

      • Believed in witches

  • Reform Movements and Popular Heresies

    • Dominicans and Franciscans

      • Organized movements of non-cloistered religious

        • Dominicans worked primarily as teachers

        • Franciscans were primarily social workers

      • Worked directly with populace, needy, sick

      • Championed spiritual over materialistic values

      • Zealously combated heterodox movements

    • Popular heresy

      • Dominicans became the Church’s police or Inquisition

      • Movements of Waldensians and Cathars (Albigensians)


Colonization and crusades

COLONIZATION AND CRUSADES

  • Atlantic and Baltic Colonization

    • The Vikings

      • Scandinavians turned to Atlantic, 9th/10th centuries

      • Colonized Iceland and Greenland

      • Leif Ericsson settled in Canada (Vinland)

      • Established Dynasty of the Rus in Russia (Kiev)

      • Established states in Normandy, S. Italy, Holy Land

    • Christianity in Scandinavia

      • Kings of Denmark, Norway converted, 10th c.

        • St. Olaf convinced the king, nobles to convert

        • Colonies in Iceland, Sweden, Finland also converted

  • Crusading Orders and Baltic Expansion

    • Germans launched mass settlement of Eastern lands

      • Allowed nobles to conquer, settle lands in east

      • Formed military-religious orders to assist

      • Launched crusades against pagan Baltic and Slavic peoples

      • Settled German peasants, serfs in lands

    • The Teutonic Knights were most active in the Baltic region

      • Baltic region was absorbed into Christian Europe by late 13th century

      • Settled German settlers in Estonia, Latvia, Prussia

      • Allied with the Hansa

  • The Reconquest (for Christianity) of Sicily and Spain

    • The conquest of Southern Italy, Sicily by Normans, 1040 – 1090

      • Seized lands from the Byzantines, Lombards, Muslims to create a powerful, modern state

      • Became ally, protector of the Popes; bitter enemies of the Byzantines

    • The reconquista of Spain

      • The reconquista began in 11th century after collapse of strong Muslim state

      • By 1150, conquered half peninsula: leading states were Leon-Castile, Aragon, Catalonia, Portugal

      • By the 13th century, took almost all the peninsula except Granada


The crusades

THE CRUSADES

  • The Turks

    • Arrived in Middle East in early 11th century; defeated Abbassids and Byzantines

    • Seized much of Byzantine holdings in Anatolia, Muslim Holy Land

  • Pope Urban II

    • Byzantines asked West for help; Pope called for knights to seize Holy Land, 1095

    • Peter the Hermit traveled in Europe and organized a ragtag army

    • The campaign was a disaster for the crusaders

  • The first crusade

    • French, Normans organized a respectable military expedition, 1096

    • Jerusalem fell to the crusaders, 1099

    • Muslims recaptured Jerusalem, 1187

  • Later crusades

    • By the mid-13th century, launched five major crusades which all failed

    • 4th crusade (1202-1204) conquered Constantinople, made Schism final

  • Consequences of the crusades

    • Facilitated exchange of goods between Muslims, Europe

      • Demands for silk, cotton textiles, and spices increased; spread sugar, citrus plants

      • Italian merchants sought opportunities for direct trade in Asian markets

    • European borrowed heavily from Muslim intellectual knowledge

      • Reacquired Aristotle, lost Greek classics

      • Borrowed Muslim science, mathematics, technology, paper skills

      • Borrowed Muslim architectural techniques

      • Helped produce a 12th century European intellectual Renaissance


Map of the crusades

MAP OF THE CRUSADES


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