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Animal Evolution. Precambrium Sea Multicellular Competition. Characteristics of animals. Animals are multicellular heterotrophic eukaryotes Ingestion to make inorganic chemicals Animal cells lack cell walls and are held together by proteins (collagen) Nervous Tissue and Muscle Tissue

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animal evolution

Animal Evolution

  • Precambrium Sea
  • Multicellular
  • Competition
slide2

Characteristics of animals

  • Animals are multicellular heterotrophic eukaryotes
  • Ingestion to make inorganic chemicals
  • Animal cells lack cell walls and are held together by proteins (collagen)
  • Nervous Tissue and Muscle Tissue
  • Reproduce sexually with the diploid stage being dominant
early embryonic development
Early Embryonic Development

Cleavage: mitotic division

Multiple cells combine

Blastula: hollow ball of cells

Hollow portion called Blastocoel

Embyronic Layers

Form.

Endoderm and Ectoderm

traditional body plans
Traditional “Body Plans”
  • Major characteristics, embryonic development
  • Major branches called Grade

1. Parazoa-Eumetazoa: Formation of Tissues

2. Radiata-Bilateria:

3. Acoelomate-Pseudocoelomate-Coelomate

4. Protostome-Deuterostome:

radiata bilateria dichotomy
Radiata-Bilateria Dichotomy
  • Bilateralism forms: Dorsal, Ventral, Anterior, Posterior
  • Cephalization: adaptation for movement.
  • Germ Layers: various layers of cells in development.
  • Ectoderm: gives rise to outer covering, CNS
  • Endoderm: innermost layer, digestive tube
  • Mesoderm: b/w other two layers, muscle and other organs
  • Diploblastic: two germ layers (radiata)
  • Triploblastic: Three germ layers (bilateria)
protostome deuterostome dichotomy
Protostome-Deuterostome Dichotomy

Protostome: mollusks, annelida, arthropoda

Deuterostomes: Echinodermata, Chordata

  • Cleavage: division of cells,
    • Spiral Cleavage: Protostomes, Early developmental fate,
    • Radial Cleavage: Deuterostomes, indeterminate cleavage
  • Coelom Formation:

Blastophore Fate:

Protostome: blastophore forms mouth

Deuterostome: blastophore forms anus

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