The industrial age
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The Industrial Age. From Industrial Age to Imperialism. Various advances that assist trade. All weather roads (improve transportation) Improved farm tools (iron plows) Improved farming techniques (crop rotation) Increased food production = increase in population

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The Industrial Age

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The industrial age

The Industrial Age

From Industrial Age to Imperialism


Various advances that assist trade

Various advances that assist trade

  • All weather roads (improve transportation)

  • Improved farm tools (iron plows)

  • Improved farming techniques (crop rotation)

  • Increased food production = increase in population

  • Improved ship design improves sea transportation and lowers cost of trade


Industrial revolution 1750 1850

Industrial Revolution (1750-1850)

  • CONDITIONS in England favor Industrial growth

    • Natural resources (coal, iron)

    • Human resources

    • Favorable economic conditions (available capital, stable economy)

    • Favorable political conditions

    • Favorable social/cultural conditions

    • New technology and inventive minds


Technological advancements that helped produce the industrial revolution

Technological Advancements that helped produce the Industrial Revolution

  • Spinning jenny: James Hargreaves

  • Steam engine: James Watt

  • Cotton gin: Eli Whitney

  • Process for making steel: Henry Bessemer (Bessemer process)


Industrial development concepts

Industrial development: Concepts

  • Places that are quick to industrialize will get ahead of those that do not

  • First places to industrialize will be the first to experience the NEGATIVE effects* of Industrialization

  • MISERY FESTERS

  • Benefits of industrial life will lead people to COMPROMISE to improve conditions

  • RISE of a new middle class, change, etc.

  • Do the benefits outweigh the negatives of Industrialization?


Negative effects of industrialization

Negative Effects of Industrialization

  • Rapid urbanization (too fast for city infrastructure to handle)

  • Miserable living conditions (slums)

  • Miserable working conditions (factories)

  • Child Labor and Women (CHEAP)

  • *Emergence of radical ideas (utilitarianism, socialism, communism)

  • Imperialism, Westernization, ethnocentrism, racism, greed, and …WARS….to be continued!


Nature of work in the factory system

Nature of work in the factory system

  • Family-based cottage industries displaced by the factory system

  • Harsh working conditions with men competing with women and children for wages

  • Child labor that kept costs of production low and profits high

  • Owners of mines and factories who exercised considerable control over the lives of their laborers


Positive effects of industrialization

Positive Effects of Industrialization

  • Urbanization in general (can be good too)

  • Population Increase (fewer people die as medicine gets better)

  • Standard of living increases (for many)

  • Improved transportation

  • Improved education (access and equity)

  • “Rise of the Middle Class” and …

  • ….”PROGRESS” as a result of compromises between business owners and workers


Impact of industrial revolution on slavery

Impact of Industrial Revolution on slavery

  • The cotton gin increased demand for slave labor on American plantations.

  • The United States and Britain outlawed the slave trade and then slavery.


Social effects of the industrial revolution

Social effects of the Industrial Revolution

  • Women and children entering the workplace as cheap labor

  • Introduction of reforms to end child labor

  • Expansion of education

  • Women’s increased demands for suffrage


Rise of labor unions

Rise of labor unions

  • Encouraged worker-organized strikes to demand increased wages and improved working conditions

  • Lobbied for laws to improve the lives of workers, including women and children

  • Wanted workers’ rights and collective bargaining between labor and management


Advancements in science and medicine

Advancements in science and medicine

  • Discovery of bacteria: Louis Pasteur

  • Development of smallpox vaccination: Edward Jenner


Industrial revolution spreads

Industrial revolution spreads….

  • Rising Economic Powers are all industrial

  • Each will want access and control over RAW MATERIALS and MARKETS

    • raw materials:

    • Markets:

      Q: What might happen when industrial nations want what NON-industrial nations have? What effect will the “industrial vs. NON-industrial tension” have on the world?


Imperialism

IMPERIALISM

  • Definition: The domination of the political, economic or cultural life of another country

    • “A stronger, more powerful country takes over a weaker one”

    • Colonies

    • Protectorates

    • Spheres of influence


Imperialism1

Imperialism

  • Justified as the “White Man’s Burden” (Rudyard Kipling)

    • Idea that technologically advanced Europeans were morally and socially superior to natives of Asia, Africa, and the Americas

    • Colonies, Protectorates, and Spheres of Influence


Causes of imperialism

Causes of Imperialism

  • Economic causes:

    • Need for RESOURCES (coal, iron, cash crops, various other “RAW MATERIALS”)

    • Need for MARKETS

    • Remember Age of Exploration?

    • Remember Mercantilism?

      • Gold/Silver

      • Favorable balance of trade

      • Colonies for raw materials AND markets

      • Tariffs on imports from other countries


Causes of imperialism1

Causes of Imperialism

  • Technological: technology and scientific advances made it possible for “developed countries” to take over non-developed

  • “Developed” means:

    • Industrial

    • Modern

    • …aggressive


Causes of imperialism2

Causes of Imperialism

  • Political/Military: need for military bases to protect financial investments and to establish political influence (international)

    • Military might follows the MONEY


Causes of imperialism3

Causes of Imperialism

  • Social/Cultural:

    • Western arrogance and ideas of “saving” the world while profiting in the process

    • Social Darwinism

    • Racism

    • Christian Missionary zeal

    • Greed??


Imperialism2

Imperialism

  • Imperialism spread economic, political, and social philosophies of Europe throughout the world.

  • Resistance to imperialism took many forms, including armed conflict and intellectual movements.


Colonies

Colonies

  • This is an expensive form of imperialism in which a mother country sets up a bureaucracy to govern the locals. Under this form, rule can be either direct or indirect


Protectorates

Protectorates

  • In this form of imperialism, local rulers are left in place with the understanding that they would accept advice of rulers from abroad, especially on trade, military or cultural issues.


Spheres of influence

Spheres of influence

  • This is a form of imperialism in which an outside power claims exclusive trading or investment privileges in an area.


Imperialism in asia

Imperialism in ASIA:


The industrial age

JAPANESE Imperialism


China opium war 1839 1842

CHINA: Opium War 1839-1842

  • Economics of trade balance

  • Britain spent too much silver on Chinese imports

  • British East India Co. sold Opium to Chinese

  • Chinese lost the war and Hong Kong


China taiping rebellion

China: Taiping Rebellion

  • Taiping Rebellion: led by Christian convert who thought he was Jesus’ little brother

    • Means “Heavenly Kingdom of Great Peace”

      • 14 year civil war with 20 million killed

      • Foreign powers came together to crush it


China western spheres of influence

CHINA: Western spheres of influence

  • Extraterritoriality: Europeans living in China did not have to live by Chinese laws, but by their own nation’s laws

  • USA’s “Open Door Policy” declares equal access to China to all European nations…(AND the USA!)


China boxer rebellion

CHINA: Boxer Rebellion

  • Shadow-boxing and the name “Society of the Harmonious Fists”

  • Another attempt to get foreigners OUT of China

  • Failed after allied foreign armies crushed them and demanded payment for damages


Imperialism in africa

Imperialism in AFRICA


Imperialism in africa and asia

Imperialism in Africa and Asia

  • European domination

  • European conflicts carried to the colonies

  • Christian missionary efforts

  • Spheres of influence in China

  • Suez Canal – shortened the trip to India

  • East India Company’s domination of Indian states

  • American opening of Japan to trade


The industrial age

Famine in British India


Unit concepts review

Unit Concepts Review

  • Enlightenment inspired revolutions

  • Conservative vs. Liberal Ideology

  • NATIONALISM

  • Industrial Revolution

  • Unification Movements

  • Capitalism, Socialism, Communism

  • Imperialism……pending world war

  • DO YOUR MAPS!!!!


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