An overview of management
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An Overview of Management. Wisynu Ari Gutama Jurusan Sosial Ekonomi Fakultas Pertanian Universitas Brawijaya Malang 2009. Definition:. Stoner (1982) in Handoko (2003):

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An overview of management

An Overview of Management

Wisynu Ari Gutama

JurusanSosialEkonomi

FakultasPertanianUniversitasBrawijaya

Malang 2009


Definition

Definition:

  • Stoner (1982) in Handoko (2003):

    “proses perencanaan, pengorganisasian, pengarahan & pengawasan atas penggunaan sumberdaya organisasi dan usaha anggota organisasi demi mencapai tujuan organisasi yang telah ditetapkan”.

  • Hasibuan (2001) :

    “ilmu & seni mengatur proses pemanfaatan SDM dan sumberdaya lainnya secara efektif & efisien untuk mencapai tujuan tertentu”.

  • Koontz & O’Donnel (2001):

    “getting things done through people, in bringing up the coordination of group activity, the manager, as manager plans, organises, staffs, direct, and control activities of other people”.


Management

Management :

  • It has purposes that they want to achieve

  • A combination of a knowledge and art.

  • It is a systematic process, there is coordination, cooperative & integrity within them.

  • It can be applied if there are two or more people working together within an organisation.

  • It has to be based on the division of works, duties, and responsibilities.

  • It is a tool to reach a goal.


An overview of management

Manajemen adalah suatu RANGKAIAN PROSES yang meliputi kegiatan perencanaan, pengorganisasian, pelaksanaan, pengawasan, evaluasi dan pengendalian dalam rangka MEMBERDAYAKAN seluruh sumber daya organisasi (SDM, MODAL, MATERIAL, DAN TEKNOLOGI) secara OPTIMAL untuk MENCAPAI TUJUAN ORGANISASI.


A good management can be applied if

A good management can be applied if....

  • There are same purposes and goals

  • There is a formal bond and rules

  • There is a division in works, duties & responsibilities

  • There are more than 2 people

  • There is an authority & delegation of authority

  • There is a coordination & integrity in the process of management

  • There is a ruler & those who are being ruled


Teori m anajemen

Teori Manajemen:

  • Manajemen ilmiah by Frederick Taylor

  • Teori organisasi klasik by Henri Fayol

  • Hubungan manusiawi by Hawthorne Studies

  • Manajemen modern by Abraham Maslow


Manajemen ilmiah 1

Manajemen ilmiah :1

  • Staff selection

  • Staff education & development

  • Good cooperation between management and workers

    Application :

  • Time & movement studies

  • Functional foremanship

  • Exceptancy principles

  • Instruction cards

  • Ceritication of standard for works, equipments & workers


Manajemen ilmiah 2

Manajemen ilmiah 2

Disadvantages :

  • The increase in productivity not the salary as well

  • The approach system to workers is economically & physically not socially

  • Ignores the willingness of the workers


Organisasi ilmiah

Organisasi ilmiah :

planning

operational

organisational

tech. act.

comm.

act.

finance

act.

security

act.

account

act.

managerial

giving orders

coordination

supervision


Hubungan m anusiawi

Hubungan Manusiawi :

  • Best possible person

  • Best possible work

  • Best possible effect

    Advantage : manager always remember on how to treat his/her staff well.

    Disadvantages : in further, this theory didn’t give a maximum outcome


Manajemen modern 1

Manajemen modern :1

  • Perilaku organisasi :

    • Management isn’t a strict technique

    • Management has to be systemised

    • Organisation is a whole & the supervision to workers by manager has to be suitable with the current situation

    • Motivasional approach for workers is very much needed


Manajemen modern 2

Manajemen modern :2

  • Aliran kuantitatif : / management science

    • Perumusan masalah

    • Penyusunan model matematis

    • Penyelesaian dari model

    • Uji model & hasil uji

    • Pengawasan atas hasil uji model

    • Implementasi hasil uji


Approaches in management 1

Approaches in management : 1

  • Systematic approach :

    • Organisation as a whole

    • Parts that are link together

    • Every element depends to each other

    • The approach : general & specific systems, close & open analysis


Approaches in management 2

Approaches in management : 2

  • Contingency approach :

    • The manager should identify which technique he/she would be used to obtain the management’s goal, in a specific situation, specific condition & specific time.

    • Pendekatan klasik + hubungan manusiawi = contingency approach

    • Contents :

      • Organisation planning

      • Leadership

      • Strategic planning

      • Dynamic groups


Theories in the future

Theories in the future:

  • Dominan

  • Divergence (penyimpangan)

  • Convergence (pemusatan)

  • Sintesa


Fungsi perencanaan

Fungsi Perencanaan

Mencakup semua kegiatan yg ditujukan untuk menyusun program kerja selama periode tertentu pada masa yang akan datang berdasarkan visi, misi, tujuan, serta sasaran organisasi. Perencanaan dilakukan pd bdg keuangan, pemasaran, produksi, persediaan, dll.


4 langkah kunci

4 langkah kunci

  • Pemikiran ke masa depan

  • Serangkaian tindakan

  • Pemahaman penuh terhadap semua faktor yang terlibat

  • Pengarahan kepada sasaran khusus

    (Downey dan Erickson, 1992)


Peran tingkatan manajemen dalam perencanaan

Peran Tingkatan Manajemen dalam Perencanaan

Pernc/

Kbjk Stratg

Perncn Opersnl/

Prosedur2

Perncnaan Praktis/

Kertas Kerja


6 langkah penting dlm proses perencanaan

6 Langkah Penting dlm Proses Perencanaan

  • Mengumpulkan fakta2 dan informasi

  • Menganalisis fakta2 dan informasi

  • Memprediksi perkembangan pd ms dpn

  • Menetapkan tujuan

  • Mengembangkan alternatif2 tindakan

  • Mengembangkan sistem evaluasi

    (Downey dan Erickson, 1992)


Fungsi pengorganisasian

Fungsi Pengorganisasian

  • Menyusun struktur organisasi

  • Menentukan pekerjaan yg hrs dikerjakan

  • Memilih, menempatkan dan mengembangkan karyawan

  • Merumuskan garis kegiatan perusahaan

  • Membentuk sejumlah hubungan dalam organisasi dan kemudian menunjuk stafnya

    (Downey dan Erickson, 1992)


Fungsi pelaksanaan pengarahan

Fungsi Pelaksanaan/Pengarahan

Meliputi usaha untuk memimpin, menyelia, atau mengawasi, memotivasi, mendelegasikan, dan menilai karyawan yang ada dalam organisasi.


Fungsi pengawasan

Fungsi Pengawasan

Bagaimana membangun sistem pengawasan dan melaksanakan pengawasan terhadap pelaksanaan rencana yang telah dibuat agar tetap berjalan pada jalur yang telah ditetapkan.


Fungsi evaluasi

Fungsi Evaluasi

Menekankan upaya untuk menilai proses pelaksanaan rencana, mengenai ada tidaknya penyimpangan, dan tercapai tidaknya sasaran yang telah ditetapkan berdasarkan rencana yang telah dibuat.


Fungsi pengendalian

Fungsi Pengendalian

Suatu upaya manajerial untuk mengembalikan semua kegiatan pada jalur yang telah ditentukan.

Jika ada penyimpangan dari prosedur kerja dapat segera dilakukan pengendalian


The four functions of management

The Four Functions of Management

Planning

Dynamic

Continuous

Process

Directing

Organizing

Controlling


Planning functions

Planning Functions

  • The objective of planning: Put the firm in the best possible position relative to future business conditions and customer demands

  • Planning begins with the organization developing its marketing plan

    • Define the firm’s purpose

    • State the firm’s objective


The organizing function

The Organizing Function

  • Development of an organizational scheme that can accomplish the firm’s purpose and objective efficiently and effectively

  • The selection of a legal structure

    • Partnership

    • Cooperative

    • Corporation


The controlling function

The Controlling Function

  • Concerned with giving management feedback on the firm’s progress toward the goals set in planning

  • Include measures of an individual’s progress as well as the progress of entire departments and business

  • Production rates per hour, cost per unit, or annual dollar sales will determine the success or failure of the business


The directing function

The Directing Function

  • Implementation of the other three management functions (planning, organizing, and controlling)

  • Successful directing relies strongly on good leadership skills to accomplish its mission

  • The success of the directing function depends on the managers’ ability to motivate their employees


What decisions need to be made

What decisions need to be made?

  • What to produce?

  • How much to produce?

  • What kinds and amounts of resources to use?

  • What technology to use?

  • When to buy and sell?

  • How to finance?


The six steps in decision making

Identifying

the Problem

Following Up

Determining Alternative

Courses of Action

Implementing

the Decision

Analyzing

the Alternatives

Selecting

the Best Alternatives

The Six Steps in Decision Making


Who makes the decisions

Who makes the decisions?

  • Farm Operator

  • Spouse

  • Landlords

  • Farm managers

  • Farm Advisors

  • Government

  • Financers


Major areas of business management

Major Areas of Business Management

  • Planning

  • Organizing

  • Directing (leading)

  • Staffing

  • Controlling


Decision making steps

Decision Making Steps

  • 1. Define the problem

  • 2. List Alternatives

  • 3. Analyze alternatives

  • 4. Select best alternatives

  • 5. Act on decision

  • 6. Evaluate


Good managers vs bad managers

Good Managers vs. Bad Managers

  • Takes Pride

  • Neat

  • Plans ahead

  • good record keeping

  • has the expertise

  • Easy going

  • Unorganized

  • shoots from the hip

  • no records

  • outdated methods


Four basic business structures

Four Basic Business Structures

  • Sole Proprietorship

  • Partnership

  • Corporation

  • Cooperative


Sole proprietorship perush perseo

Sole Proprietorship (Perush Perseo)

  • One owner makes all decisions

  • Owner responsible for all liabilities

  • Can have multiple employees


Partnership

Partnership

  • Owned by two or more people

  • Owners are responsible for their share of liabilities

  • Written agreements usually specify percent of ownership, responsibilities, and decision making process.


Corporation

Corporation

  • Owned by stockholders

  • Business is treated as a single entity

  • Stockholders not personally responsible for liabilities of the business

  • Returns profits in form of “dividends” to stockholders


Cooperative

Cooperative

  • Owned by the users of the business

  • Elected board of directors

  • Profits are returned in the form of “patronage refunds” to users of the coop


References

References :

Handoko, T.H., 2003, Manajemen, BPFE Yogyakarta.

Hasibuan, M.S.P., 2001, Manajemen: dasar, penhertian, dan masalah, PT Bumi Aksara, Jakarta.

Sule, E.T., & Saefullah, K., 2005, Pengantar manajemen, Prenada Media Group, Jakarta.


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