Protein synthesis
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PROTEIN SYNTHESIS. What’s the point of all this? “Gene Expression” The genetic code in DNA is converted to proteins, and these give us our traits (hair color, eye color, skin color, height, and so on). RNA (RIBONUCLEIC ACID) The nucleic acid involved in making proteins. RNA STRUCTURE

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PROTEIN SYNTHESIS

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PROTEIN SYNTHESIS

What’s the point of all this?

“Gene Expression”

The genetic code in DNA is converted to proteins, and these give us our traits (hair color, eye color, skin color, height, and so on) .


RNA (RIBONUCLEIC ACID)

The nucleic acid involved in making proteins.


RNA STRUCTURE

Composed of nucleotides, but differs from DNA in three ways.

  • Single strand of nucleotides instead of double stranded

  • Has uracil instead of thymine

  • Contains ribose instead of deoxyribose


RNA FUNCTION

3 forms of RNA involved in protein synthesis

1. mRNA (messenger): copies instructions in DNA and carries these to the ribosome.

2. tRNA (transfer): carries amino acids to the ribosome.

3. rRNA (ribosomal): helps make the ribosome.


PROTEIN SYNTHESIS

Cells build proteins following instructions coded in genes (DNA).

  • Consists of two steps,

    • transcription -write DNA code in the form of mRNA.

    • translation -convert language of mRNA (N-base codons) to language of protein (amino acids chain).


Translation - animation


Nuclear

membrane

DNA

Transcription

Pre-mRNA

RNA Processing

mRNA

Ribosome

Translation

Protein

Translation - making proteins

Eukaryotic Cell


Let’s make a PROTEIN!.


mRNA

A

U

G

C

U

A

C

U

U

C

G

Protein Synthesis: Translation

Large

subunit

P

Site

A

Site

Small subunit


aa2

aa1

2-tRNA

1-tRNA

G

A

U

U

A

C

anticodon

A

U

G

C

U

A

C

U

U

C

G

A

hydrogen

bonds

codon

mRNA


aa3

3-tRNA

G

A

A

peptide bond

aa1

aa2

1-tRNA

2-tRNA

anticodon

U

A

C

G

A

U

A

U

G

C

U

A

C

U

U

C

G

A

hydrogen

bonds

codon

mRNA


aa3

3-tRNA

G

A

A

aa1

peptide bond

aa2

1-tRNA

U

A

C

(leaves)

2-tRNA

G

A

U

A

U

G

C

U

A

C

U

U

C

G

A

mRNA

Ribosomes move over one codon


aa4

4-tRNA

G

C

U

peptide bonds

aa1

aa2

aa3

2-tRNA

3-tRNA

G

A

U

G

A

A

A

U

G

C

U

A

C

U

U

C

G

A

A

C

U

mRNA


aa4

4-tRNA

G

C

U

peptide bonds

aa1

aa2

aa3

2-tRNA

G

A

U

(leaves)

3-tRNA

G

A

A

A

U

G

C

U

A

C

U

U

C

G

A

A

C

U

mRNA

Ribosomes move over one codon


aa5

5-tRNA

U

G

A

peptide bonds

aa1

aa2

aa4

aa3

3-tRNA

4-tRNA

G

A

A

G

C

U

G

C

U

A

C

U

U

C

G

A

A

C

U

mRNA


aa5

5-tRNA

U

G

A

peptide bonds

aa1

aa2

aa3

aa4

3-tRNA

G

A

A

4-tRNA

G

C

U

G

C

U

A

C

U

U

C

G

A

A

C

U

mRNA

Ribosomes move over one codon


aa5

aa4

aa199

aa200

aa3

primary

structure

of a protein

aa2

aa1

terminator

or stop

codon

200-tRNA

A

C

U

C

A

U

G

U

U

U

A

G

mRNA


aa5

aa4

aa3

aa2

aa199

aa1

aa200

Protein Synthesis: Translation

  • The end products of protein synthesis is a primary structure of a protein.

  • A sequence of amino acid bonded together by peptide bonds.


PROTEIN SYNTHESIS

What’s the point of all this?

“Gene Expression”

The genetic code in DNA is converted to proteins, and these give us our traits (hair color, eye color, skin color, height, and so on) .


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