Cardiomyopathy by rohma asghar roll no 190
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Cardiomyopathy by rohma asghar roll no.190. Cardiomyopathy. The 3 main types of cardiomyopathy are: Dilated cardiomyopathy Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy Restrictive cardiomyopathy . Dilated Cardiomyopathy. heart muscle dilates

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Cardiomyopathy by rohma asghar roll no 190

Cardiomyopathybyrohma asgharroll no.190


Cardiomyopathy

Cardiomyopathy

The 3 main types of cardiomyopathy are:

Dilated cardiomyopathy

Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy

Restrictive cardiomyopathy


Dilated cardiomyopathy

Dilated Cardiomyopathy

heart muscle dilates

 Ventricular chamber size

the heart becomes weaker  heart failure

can also lead to heart valve problems (regurgitation),

arrhythmias, and blood clots in the heart (poor blood flow),

emboli formation

a common reason for needing a heart transplant.


Types and causes

Types and Causes:

Ischemic cardiomyopathy

Idiopathic cardiomyopathy

Hypertensive cardiomyopathy

Infectious cardiomyopathy

Alcoholic cardiomyopathy

Toxic cardiomyopathy

Peripartum cardiomyopathy

Radiotherapy(cobalt)

diabetes and thyroid disease


Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy

Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy

occurs when the heart muscle thickens abnormally (left ventricle)

1.) obstructive type

2.) non-obstructive type


Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy1

Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy

Pathophysiology:

Left ventricular hypertrophy

ventricular chamber size 

less blood 

 CO

 pressure in the ventricles and lungs

changes in the cardiac muscles  interfere with the heart's electrical signals  sudden cardiac arrest

Causes:

inherited

develop over time

often, the cause is unknown.


Restrictive cardiomyopathy

Restrictive Cardiomyopathy

the ventricles become stiff and rigid due to replacement of the

normal heart muscle with abnormal tissue.

. Causes:

radiation treatments,infections or scarring after surgery

Sarcoidosis

Hemochromatosis

Amyloidosis


Major risk factors

Major Risk Factors

Having a family history

Having a disease or condition that can lead to cardiomyopathy

Diseases that can damage the heart

Long-term alcoholism

Long-term high blood pressure

Diabetes and other metabolic diseases


Signs and symptoms

Signs and Symptoms

some have no symptoms in the early stages of the disease

as cardiomyopathy progresses and the heart weakens, signs and

symptoms of heart failure usually appear.

These signs and symptoms include:

Tiredness

Weakness

Shortness of breath after exercise or even at rest

Swelling of the abdomen, legs, ankles, and feet

Other signs and symptoms: dizziness, lightheadedness, fainting during exercise, abnormal heart rhythms, murmurs


Interventions

Interventions

The main goals of treating cardiomyopathy are to:

Manage conditions that cause to the cardiomyopathy

Control symptoms so that the person can live as normally as possible

Stop the disease from getting worse

Reduce complications and the chance of sudden cardiac death

Medications:

Diuretics

Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors

Beta-blockers

Calcium channel blockers

Digoxin

Anticoagulants

Antiarrythmics

Antibiotics


Surgery

Surgery

Septal myectomy

- also called septal myomectomy

- is open-heart surgery for hypertrophic obstructive

cardiomyopathy

Surgical implanted devices

- a left ventricular assist device (LVAD)

-an implantable cardiverter defibrillator (ICD)


Left ventricular assist device lvad

Left Ventricular Assist Device(LVAD)


Lifestyle changes

Lifestyle Changes

:

Quitting smoking

Losing excess weight

Eating a low-salt diet

Getting moderate exercise, such as walking, and avoiding strenuous exercise

Avoiding the use of alcohol and illegal drugs

Getting enough sleep and rest

Reducing stress

Treating underlying conditions, such as diabetes and high blood pressure


Heart transplant

Heart Transplant

90% of heart transplants are performed on patients with end-stage

heart failure

Survival rates:

88 % of patients survive the first year after transplant

72 % survive for 5 years

50 % survive for 10 yrs.

16 % survive 20 years.


Heart transplant cont

Heart Transplant (cont.)

CONTRAINDICATIONS

Advanced age

Poor blood circulation

Diseases of the kidney, lungs, or liver

History of cancer

Inability or unwillingness to follow lifelong medical instructions

after a transplant.

Pulmonary arterial hypertension

Active infection


Heart transplant cont1

Heart Transplant (cont.)

Organs are matched for blood type and size of donor and recipient.

The Donor Heart

Guidelines on how a donor heart is selected :

the donor meet the legal requirement for brain death

consent forms are signed

younger than 65 years of age

have little or no history of heart disease or trauma to the chest

not exposed to hepatitis or HIV

donor heart must be transplanted w/in 4 hrs. after removal from

the donor


Cardiomyopathy by rohma asghar roll no 190

Heart Transplant (cont.)


Heart transplant cont2

Heart Transplant (cont.)

Preventing Rejection

Immunosuppressants used: cyclosporine, tacrolimus, MMF (mycophenolate mofetil), and steroids such as prednisone.

Watching for Signs of Rejection

Shortness of breath

Fever

Fatigue

Weight gain

Reduced amounts of urine

Preventing Infection


What are the risks of a heart transplant

What Are the Risks of a Heart Transplant?

Failure of the donor heart

Primary Graft Dysfunction

Rejection of the Donor Heart

Cardiac Allograft Vasculopathy

Complications from medicines

Infection

Cancer – lymphoma and skin cancer (due to suppression of the

immune system)


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